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1 



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MARITIME GEOGRAPHY 



AND 



STATISTICS^ 



OE 



A DESCRIPTION 



OF THE 



©cean atrti tt0 Coa0te, 

MARITIME COMMERCE, NAVIGATION, 

#c. #c. #c. 



" Lc Trident de Neptune est le Sceptre du Monde." 



Bt JAMES HINGSTON TUCKEY, 

A Commander in the Royal Navy. 






IN FOUR VOLUMES. 

VOL. IV. 



ViVw^YOAV^'' 



LONDON 



?!U«TRD TOR BLACK, PARRY, AND CO. BOOKSSLLBRS TO TOT 
V.&9, BAST-INDIA COMPANY, LEA08NHALL STREET. 

1815. 



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Notedly Omat* Bm9\\%, ?•» Cre*f Qoe« Stwtt, 



• '•'./ • 



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f 



CONTENTS TO VOL. IV. 



Page 

Polynesia .-.--... 1 

Northern Polynesia, New Philippines 2 

Mulgrave's range * - - - - 6 

Ladronts -.------8 

Sandwich islands - - - - - - -17 

Southern Polynesia -------26 

Priendly islands ---.---27 
Navigators islands ------ 47 

Marquesas --------49 

Society islands --*---» 57 
British North America ------ 78 

Hudsons's Bay .-----*#. 

Labrador - - - - - - --85 

Canada 88 

Cape Breton -102 

Prince Edward's island - - - - - -105 

Anticosti island - * - - - - -107 

Newfoundland- -------108 

Nova Scotia --- 113 

United States op America - - - - -119 
Rise and progress of colonization .--•#. 
a 2 



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IV CONTENTS. 

Page 
Coasts -■ - - - - . . . 245 

Rivets and islands - - - - - . -145 
Inland navigation - - - - - . -147 

Topography ' 154 

Commerce - - • - - - . -176 

Nav y - 185 

Florida j Atlantic coast - - - - . -187 

Gulf of Mexico , extent, coasts, winds - - - 189 
Gulf stream - - - - . . . -190 

East Florida continued - . . . - - 191 
West Florida - - - - . . . -192 

Louisiana ------.. 194 

Wbst India Islands, divisions - - - - - 198 

Climate ---•--... jqo 

Aboriginal inhabitants - - - . . 200 

Indigenous animals ----... 202 

Colonization, Spanish islands - 203 
British islands - - - . „ . -217 

French islands - - - . . * m 228 

Dutch islands ----... 232 

Danish islands - - - . _ „ 233^ 

Swedish islands ----... 234 

Topography •( the islands 5 Bahamas - - - i&. 

Grand Antilles ----.„. 239 

Virgin islands -----.. 257 

Leeward Caribbees • ---.. 263 

Windward Caribbees ----„_ 273 

Leeward islands of the Spaniards - 283 

New Spain (Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic) - 289 

Honduras -------- 293 

Mosquito shore ----... 294 



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CONTENTS* V 

Page 

Costa Rica, Veragua 29$ 

Panama •---..-. 296 

TbrraFirma - 297 

Niw Kingdom gf Granada (Atlantic) ... 298 

Gutava ......... 309 

Spanish Guiana, Dutch Guiana - - - - - 310 

Preach Guiana - - - - - - -314 

Portuguese Guiana - - • - - • - ■ 316 

Brasil ......... 318 

BtrBNos Ayres ........ 334 

Patagonia --.--... 340 

Tbrrabbl Fubgo - 342 

Archipelago of Chiloe ...... 345 

Chili, extent - - - - - - - -361 

Conquest, rivers, fish, climate - 352 

Trade) topography ---.-.. 353 

Peru, conquest, limits ...... 355 

Soil, climate, topography ..... 355 

Commerce -,-..... 350 • 

New Granada (Pacific Ocean) - 362 

New Spain (Pacific Ocean) ...... 355 

Gulf of California ....... 353 

Peninsula of California ...... 359 

New California ...... 4 370 

North Wbst America ; discoveries, coasts ... 373 

Divisions} natives ....... 374 

Establishments of the Russians .... 333 

Topography' 387 

Aleutian Archipelago ------ 393 

Russian America ----... 403 

Islands off the west coast of America ... 404 

Islands in the Atlantic Ocean «--... 408 



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VA QONTBNTS. 

Page 

Fern* islands • - - - - - - - 408 

Scattered islands and rocks - - - - -414 

Azores --------- 416 

Madeiras - - - - s - - 421 

Canaries - - - - 427 

Cape Verde islands ------- 442 

Islands in ihe South Atlantic ----- 446 

IstANQS IN THE GREAT SOUTHERN OCEAN - - - 453 

Bbiti&h Islands - - - . - - - - 460 

: Great Britain, extent, coasts, English channel - - ib. 

Tides '-. t - - 461 

Currents *»-----■-- 464 

South coast of England - 465 

Bast coast of England - - - - - - 500 

East coast of Scotland ------ 535 

West coast of England - - - - --554 

South Wales 561 

North Wales - 570 

North-west coast of England - - - - r 579 

West coast of Scotland -.---- 586 

Canals 596 

Scilly islands - 605 

Isle of Man - 608 

Guernsey, Jersey, &c. - - - - - - 610 

The Hebrides 617 

Orkney islands -------- 625 

Zetland islands - 632 

Maritime commerce of Great Britain - 685 

Public trading companies ------ 653 

Home fisheries . - - - - - - 663 

Foreign fisheries ,- - - - - - - 674 

Navy - 678 



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CONTENTS. VU 

Page 

Ireland 5 Topography ...... 693 

Canals 717 

Commerce ----»--- 718 

Fisheries 720 

ArFEHDix, Commerce and Marine - 722 

Table of Geographical Positions .- • - - 732 

Index 737 



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MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 



POLYNESIA. 



The innumerable islands that stud the Grand 
Ocean as the stars do the heavens, many of which 
are entirely solitary, while others form closely 
connected groups or chains, render it extremely 
difficult to produce a classification free from ob- 
jection ; that which seems most natural is to carry 
on the description by groups, following either a 
meridian or parallel, as nature has placed them, 
and noticing separately the scattered islands as we 
go on. As the greater number of these latter 
are mere coral reefs, with a more or less luxu- 
riant Vegetation, admitting of no variety of de- 
scription, we shall confine ourselves to the use- 
ful, though barren, nomenclature and geographi- 
cal positions. 

The islands of the Grand Ocean seem naturally 
to be divided into those north of the equator, and 
those on the south of that line, and we shall, there- 
fore, fellow this division, commencing with 
the 

▼WU Vf. X NOftTHKRN 



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'* t NORTHERN POLYNESIA. ! ' U 

Th^ibUowihg islands are situated batwedn^ttoe 
Moluccas and Pelew Islands. * ^ i i 

Lord North's Island 3° 02'; 131 Q Off B. ' » 

Jdhnstone'B Island, discovered by Captain 
Meases in 1788, 3° 11' ; 131° \# E, is of coral, 
one league in circuit, covered with cocoa palms* 
and inhabited by the 'Polynesian race. 

Current Island, of Carteret, 4° 4tf j 131° 41< 
i& 4 large rock covered with trees, Sn Andrew, 
of Carteret, two small islands 5 P 30' ; 132° Iff 

Puk> Alma and Pulo Mariere 4° 30* ; 132* tf 



NEW PHILIPPINES. 

The Pelew islands, the Palaos of the Spaniard* 
who discovered them, were made known to the 
rest of the world by the shipwreck of the EaM- 
India Company's packet Anteldpe in 1788, the 
relation of which, composed by Mr. Keats, lias 
given to these islands an interest much beyotfi 
what they would have excited under any other 
circumstances, none of them being above a leagjua 
in circuit, and the whole surrounded byacOral 
reef, vhich extends from the islands six leagues to 
the west* They are moderately elevated; covered 
with trees, amongst which are the 4bttny, (the 
breadfruit, and cocoa palm. The sugar cane tf 

incUgtaou* 



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indigenous here, ^njpl the natives make a confec* ***&**. 
{ion of its juice, "jtne woods abound in fowls, 
whioho ww* )a]lcwed to ramm uoawteted qfrtil 
the English taught the natives thart they might b« 
taken Jfcr: food, e • !.'«•':■.! 

Th^> natives jure painted by Mr. Keate ifc^the 
most agi*eaMer colours, as a hospitable, gay, a*A 
intHweoi **oe* They are well mack, of * t d$ep 
copper colour, with long hair; theftbeit go talked* 
hut the wpmen wear two pieces of fringe mfcde 
of 4fte<iibros of the cdooa-Mtt husk} both iexe$ 
aretatooed, and stain their teeth black. Their 
hoHses. are elevated off die ground thxw feet ion 
stones, and are constructed of planks and bam- 
boos ; they have besides large halls for the holding 
public assemblies. Their utensils, instruments, and 
canoes, are similar to those of the Society Islands, 
and they make pots of clay. Fish is their prin- 
cfe&I food. The government is composed of a 
kftig; aild pupacks or nobles, -fthose insignia of 
c%tiity is a bracelet of bone on the wrist: to th* 
fcfeg ielangs the whole territorial property of th* 
hhLncfcV the subjects having no other riches than 
ihfct* 'dai*oe^ their arms, and utenrik Theif 
imkynd&* of religion consists in the belief of the 
itfljtetofriirfving the body. Their language is the 
Poijmesi^fa or dialect of the Malay.- The geogra- 
phkmbpoiitoon of these islandg is latitude 6° 10' N< 

*s***o $m° ft 

^ STbeil&fewiIslands may be considered as the 
Weatern luajfootfthe great chain ef Nsw Philh* 
wwBt^ciriiCAROLiNAs, which extend between the 

b 2 lati- 



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*g^ feUtocfes BS*n* JK? anduhe longi^ai'i3*Pland 
and 170°. This great chain is very little fenotfa, 
jfeuldjt sefimsltote farmed xrf a nyu^ of >gf Mips, 
whose particular directioa fe ndrth and sou|K f 
like, mo^of the chains of the Grand Ootean. 
{&&&*&&& wefce .first made known by ih6t ac- 
cidental arrival of a family of their natives at the 
Philippines in lGsG, and who were driven thither 
by the winds and currents, in trying to pass from 
bb# island to aaother. The Spaniardsfitst named 
Jtfemi -New Philippines and afterwards Cor-dimas, 
\im hmaur of Chitrks IL of Spain* They are 
abDut.eigbty in number, all fertile, and the 'cli- 
mate agreeable, but subject to terrible hurricanes. 

The inhabitants are very numerous, and similar 
to those of the Pelew Islands. According to the 
relations of the Jesuits, each island is goveitied 
N by fr chief, but the whole acknowledge one king, 
j&h& Resides, at the island Lamurca ; the; ndbies 
t 1yua«M£e over the people. They have neikh6r 
temples, rior idofe, nor any appearance of religi- 
ous worship, but believe that celestial spirits defc- 
cend and bathe in a lake in the island 'Fallklo : 
-those of Yap, are said to adore a species of crbco- 
dile (probably the guana) and have conjurers. 
Polygamy is penhitted. Their chief amwenient 
gsdahxring to vocal music, for they havts o6t in- 
^t&fineitts. Their arms are the bow andia/lante 
headed with bone. i 

The only islands of this chain wiwiergeogri^hi- 
tsl position have been ascertained with iariy <aicu<- 
facy* are the following. 

The 



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JS5 
!meH*£iMitd«ls»: a cluster of low coral spoto, '£° m j*«, 

,> <r -Spencer** <iKejrs^ fiVel similar dotaListetB joined 

..n.YAp, the second in size, 10° C ; 188*30. ' t 
» Fbilip Island of Hunter 1791, 8° ^ $ l^Stf ; 

tMroasletsicavecedwith shrubs,. fivemieB asunder. 

- Iael»wJslaods,twoinn«rabe? J >6?30*'$ *48 p tf.. 

m Tl»e> Thirteen Ides, of Wifaob occupy auspaoe 

iof oaly four miles; six of them arecdvered with 
mooifthe rest spots of coral. Thej are thickly 
inhabited, 150 canoes having been seen assonbktd 
with seven men one with another in each. ' The 
southern island is in 7? lC j 144? 8&'* •} . . n 
The Two Sisters, 7° l-* 7 J 1*4° «'• 
Hawei's Island, 7° 30" j 146° 28'. 
Lamurca, 8° 25' ; 149° 0\ ■•.'.. 

Twenty-nine Islands, discovered by the Span- 
iards in 1808, occupy a space ten leagues long, 
N.E. and S.W. ; they are all low, -well wooded; 

-barei plenty of fresh water, and are well inhabited. 

-8?Jfi#.;;486°21'. 

: ofSfaeiSavKQ Islands. 

ojStrong'fr) Island rises to a considerable mouo* 

.tamvijft:JL9t. i 162° 58'. .. . 

ju ,E»pei*ieet Island* 5° Stf j l£3? 12'.: 

-inHogolexM the largest island of the chain* being 

dtotyjeaguea long and fifteen broad, 9° 0' j lo7 a 
45'. ' . .« .i .: ■■■■ >•■' ■> 

-hl$afr&MbaA,.&*MU ■■■ '.,■"'" •'"•'•• - '* 

-uo§k>v^aattLrl4mki iseuesaJdObBsl islete and ; risef 

b 3 • < w ■ ; i ■..•;> enclosing 

anT 



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6 Mam^i^oMsmm. 

*!"/ enddsmg alflfroori&the L R^ k ai > 6W^ltthiMfcd, 
~ S *^} l69 b 56*. ' - ^- ^i r iiuj/i 
Brown's H*nge,ill? S& ; 1^ ^.i - ^ 
Paterson's Group, a duster of low HfctfNi* J 8° 
9ff?:MM*S9'. * ..-,., •.. |t .: 

Piscadores, of Wallis, 11° 15' ; >*#fP&QL » 
Musquito Group, 7° 9& i 168° tf, alarge cluster 
• of coral patched. 

Elmore's, two islands three miles asunder, 7° 



Lord Mulgrave's Islands form a long chain 
from N.N.W to S.S.E. and are composed of Seve- 
ral groups o£ low coral islands, thickly wooded, 
and producing the ctfcoa and areca palms, ofange^ 
fcc. They extend between' the latitudes 2° & 
and 12° N. and generally seem to be weUirihsu 
bited. The southernmost group is named KiHgs- 
mills. ' * ' • ' * 

Hopper's Island, on the equator, is ten lea^ftfei 
long N.E. and S.W. forming on the west Tsitfe a 
great lagoon, 0° 8' S. 17S a 4S' E. - < < 
""HfendeftiHe's Island, six miles S.W. • of Hop- 
per's; is six leagues long. ; l ' 

t)undas : Island, O ^ S. 173° 54/. ij ^ - 

Hall 1 * Island, long and low, 1* 0* M. : Y&? 8&. 

Cook's Island encloses a lagoon 1° 16' ^ l^fc° 

Pitt 

• This is almost a solitary instance of the concave side of a coral island 
facing the east. 



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liland. 



M AMmm JOIlTIIMTI ^ 

m<bte*A* #? «ftf j/17*° 30'. . ,. M> **** 

Mulgiave Island, 5° 54' j 172° 39* . 

ChathamJWaiid,^ ^? 171° 20C 7J n 
-Upftwds of thirty, other isUnd$ v^^wntedin 
this chain, to all of which the English aftvigatppi 
have gfcen names* , , M - 



A few solitary islands dot the sea eaqt $f t$xp 
Mulgrave chain, they are 

St Pierre, 11° 06 ; 178° 50/ W. 
,;JB*rbados, 9° tf; 178° 30 W. . r T , 

L Palmyra Island, only three . league* . in circuity 
epckwqs two hgoons on the west ; op the east it is 
a stercoral bank, and on the west is lined by a 
*eef of the same. On the N.W. is anchorage 
but it; appears to have no fresh water, and is 
wupfrttted, 5° 40 N. 162° 37* W. 

Christmas Island, of Cook, occupies with its 
f*ef fifteen leagues in circuit, and encloses ala- 
goo&on the west, into which there is a channel 
through the ree£ and anchorage outside of the 
b}tttj\ t Jt produced only a few shrubs and about 
thirty cocoa-nut trees, when Cook visited it, and 
was uninhabited ; here: the navigator procured 
mro^tnrtle^ and found it abound in fishj 3°Q':N. 
WpWiW* . , . 

B 4 LADRONJUU 



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•^The LiirabfrEs* -or ■MkftiAWimty' are * chaW af 
&tf^r*4sJa«ds, ^xtendn^g about i^orth % eastxmd 
&tkh ttjr west, froml^to^Of oflat **d/te> 
tW^h'144Pandl4#°E.ldng. - ^ iiJfH 

^SevH^al Of the southern islands of this ohafa 
were discovered by Magellan in 15S1> who pamed 
{H^m Ladronefe, foam the thievish dhpoiitkfti of 
tlife ttatitiesf* they were Afterwards called Let 
*l%!aa> (the sails) from the number of sailing c*. 
tides c^efved ^mdng them. In 1564 they were 
ttktn nwtttetti possession of by Spam, bat » 
'^abtfehhientwds formed on them till 166& whfep 
V settfeffciertt Was commenced at Gram; rAe 
i 6ototbernttaost island discovered by Magellan, 
^tifftHe name of Mariannes given themin hoinqr 
*fcf Mary- Anne of Austria, wife of Phiiip^Vv irf* 
The island of Tinian, the third of tho^etn**- 
^tfov&fed by 'Magtellan, is Aat of which tavlMve 
the most detailed account from the voyage* I -of 
'Anson, Byron, Wallis, &c Acconfing ><x* the 
writer 6f the firtt otf these voyages, this bfand as 
^ ^^erfect ptfradfee, while the Tttwigatota Who haye 
'^infce J visited it, have been surprized and Unar- 
med at finding their high raised . expectations 

* entirtSy dfca^pointteA : ; jiq 

* 'doubtless we should make considerable ;/inl- 
v *$dWa,Tlte for tfce sitaatfem of Anttn's. compa- 
J ^Ms, \¥hen they visited this island J Exhausted 

lyytVt fetigues of a long^ navigation iaowkidosing 

•' 'V ^i upwards 



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UnJli 



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upwards of twenty men a day by the scurvy, 

they here found ababdance bf fresh provisions 

Wtdrvegetables* \pbidv in a Week* a* if by Tnirppie, 

♦estored -lltelttMrt iat gwe to a state of papui 

Goft^aiaaosnfcd^ it was therefore natural r4^ 

their thankfulness for this aVaopt rewnre^p^ 

Anrfild gjy&a Colouring beyond atyrtpre/ ^q tbjeir 

desertion of thfc island. '/ ■■ / , m^ 

>o The English imrad it uninhabited, butr&A,?!* 

in realtor plantation of various fruit .tmWf afld 

-contenting oeitahi raondmeat*, or pillar ptatyl 

symmetrically, which demoted • its , baying } b$$# 

owcttpied at no reteote period by ainatiagwus, pe^ 

rpiri^cftflfaed to a certain degree, la factv vM* 

9te learned, that fifty yeats before^. this iaJai>4 

reckoned 30*000 inhabitants, but that* 4t tjaat 

"period, an epidemic disease haying awept ^ay 

three^burths of the population of the wh$e 

chaia^ the Spaniards established 04 G^oam 

'abtfged 4he surviving Tinians to remove to, t^t 

island* to coolpenjate the mortality^ 

According to Anson's relation, the. islw4/i s 

ifeahte miles bag and six broad ; the land ri?ps 

gradually from the sea to the centre of the isUqd, ^ 

and teragreeably diversified with wooded, ^f|Js, 

-ii Jill u -ami plains. The soil is every ^h^rejgood, 

producing a much finer, and jpqr^bixj^i^g^ 

'iharideiobmmon in the {torrid zo^^'^^coa* 

tquty >th& bi?e^-^it y ibaa»na»f fF^> a»d hi^Br 

h-fienge^ then gwava a»d the ,ij*fe f: yr^e fo^d 

^inohbtaadau*e*> *s ^eU-aai^fittgr,^^ ^4/^- 

?brwa} lantiscorbutic plants* The woods were free 

from 



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u*r£». from imderWood, and the treesso fir astfaderfjas 
to m appose f no inconvenience to Abe tratvett»y 
Thousands of milk white bnfialoe* \wth>biBowp 
eatt, wandered among .the rieh pastures, «»dl 
were easily ran down by die seamen j wfaile/eveign 
bush was occupied by fowb of the domestic kmd, 
which were taken with such ease, that the cdowi 
were partly fed on them; The island also poa- 
sensed vast numbers of wild hogs, which, however, 
ftom thek ferocity, could only be mastered bjr 
lite gum 

1 The island, though without running streams, is, 

aoocarding to the writer of this voyage, abundantly 

itafceted for domestic purposes by wells and 

springs* and in the middle of it are two lakes, 

whose banks ace so level and regular, that they 

seem to have been formed by art, and whi<?h afe 

covered with vast flocks of wild ducks* cuelew** 

whistling-plovers, &c. : but to compensate fori *U 

these good things, the island swarm* with mbfrr 

quitoes, and other species of insects, which tor* 

meat both man and beast. The climate is aere&fr 

and healthy, the heat being moderated byow» 

stant breezes and by moderate rains* Sn^h is die 

picture of Tinian, when visited by Amon im> 

October, 1742. How very different ff omi th«ei*fe 

succeeding navigators ! , n < 

Commodore Byron, in his, voyage rouodh titer 

world, arrived at this island the first) of iAuggfT 

1766, and did not quit it till the first of tjGWfchofcr 

Impatient to enjoy the expected npatadtie* tftfti 

commodore landed with several of hi^ 6%«^v 

' »r and 



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N€MT«atr younren a* 11 

ancb 'hastened to pass the first woods, with the m™** 
cex&tnty, t&at when tayondthem Tinum would 
ope» =upbn them \t-ith all its beauties j but they 
faand the tf ees' so close, .and so embarrassed by 
underwood, that it was with the greatest difficulty 
they penetrated through them, and Dot without 
lacerating their hands and feet* But when they 
had. at last succeeded, what was their surprise ? 
Instead of smiling meadows clothed with rich grass 
and clover, and enamelled with flowers, to find 
their view rest on arid plains, covered only with 
reeds and creeping plants, so interwoven, that it 
was next to impossible to make way through 
them, while clouds of flies obscured the air, and 
filled their mouths when they attempted to speak. 
The animals seemed to have undergone a change 
eqaaUy remarkable, for though the parties sent 
in ^search of cattle met with some, they were so 
T*Bd, that they could seldom get within gun-shot ; 
afid'wbtn they succeeded in killing one, it was 
usually 40 fat from the shore, that they were 
obliged to f kave three-fourths of it in the woods, 
bewgutiabte to convey it to the ship before it 
brffckttenpotricL Wild hogs they however pro- 
c*red **th less difficulty, as well as cocoa-nuta, 
g)ttavttfl4nd bitter oranges, bread-fruit and papafe' 
in abundance, but they sought in vain for th& 
Wtifertaetonrraird scorbutic plants of » Aasota. 
HK£i*fellfe at^ which the Centurion watered wiere 
nam* ftttrid to contain a tnauseous brackish water, 
ffltfl w&tomqrnfe Byam's shijKfwas fiUedrwithl 
c^ft^&de^trJgcorpiens, .and veneitoaus ants, aup. 
bnt posed 



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Tfxteed to be brought on board M 6i6 ^ffiteiWtftot: 
and thecKmatfe it the season o^ his vi^fte^cfaf- 
^hlered as extremely unhealthy, for thmi^K^ttfe 
people recovered rapidly of the scufvy; ' iriitfjr 
were carried off by fevers, produced Tijr thfe '4ttf- 
Wiod^mte heat and continual raitis. SevWaT p^- 
sons of both Anson's and ByronY criew^wete 
nearly poisoned by eating die fish taken in* ihfe 
bay*' 

Captain Wallis, who visited Tinian in Septenibet 
I767,! has not given us a much more flktteWrtg 
account of it than Byron. The cattle were no* 
tmly to be found on the north side of the island, 
and were approached with great difficulty, white 
the hogs were so wild, that they could seldom get 
'within shot of them. Fowls and some fruits, par- 
ticularly limes, were procured more eas3y, but tt6 
cocoa-nut trees were found within three miles df 
the shore. 

The next English navigator who touched, at 

Tiniaq was Captain Gilbert, in August I78S, >nd 

who, instead of the Land of Promise of Ari&m, 

found it still worse than Byron had described 4 it. 

He also indeed procured some wild hogs, £Mvls> 

atid fruit, and though he saw wild lattfo he iould 

to&ftr approach the full grown ones, taadiims 

therefore obliged to be content with sortie calvd** 

^Pilfer €enttirkm*s wells were now imtirafykbyi 

rfad none *>f those springs were met ^ith/which 

&dson crossed at every step. The flies had not 

fefttpanftrlftis >anumerable f bqb less twubtew^^ 

The last account wfc htove^ofl ^tfce -felaod-of 

Tinian 



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^^^ii»^ *n Eggfch. officer,* who viritecL it 
i^ Peqenptber 17$k . He.f«M«4 th £ ^country etjoally 
^p^»etwble f ^d the cattle equally, wild &,hfe 
^■pCfirsQi^ ( , Aasdn's wells . npw contained water, 
^^ict^ , t^ugK " not the best i* the world/' jfo 
.i^ther brackish nor full of worms as Byrou found 
#♦ /, With the greatest difficulty aoqie individuals 
penetrated into the interior of the island* found 
the monuments described by Anson, and whiqk 
btfL not been discovered . by the sup* eediflg w~ 
vig^o^ and wjjich there can he no doijbt were 
copstwicte4; by tbp aborigines pi the island* 
Zfcey had suffered Jfttle or no al*erj#iop since £h? 
jpsft, of Awon, and consist pf twp.WMP.pf <pp$- 
midical columns, each crowned with a demi,gjqbtv 
qf which the plane surface is upw^rd^. It is difli- 
cjflt tp ascertain whether they are of stone of 
^ compositioB, but probably the former. The di- 
mensions of one of them are, . 

I r Perpendicular height of the pyramid ... 1 4 

n( ^$adjJb at the base 5 4 

\ A ]^mpter of the demi globe 5 10 

, HowcTer changed may be the island of Tiniap 
Wither respects su>ce Anson's visit, all the< suq- 
ceedihg^ navigfltoiB agree with him in the badness 
a6 ifct tis&y road, which is on the south west side j 
ttabo&cria is coarse sand and coral, aflbrding qo 
koldv/tdibe anchors, and cutting the cab)#% fUJ> 
Jon l#x:n *" i - . ... .. te« 

•^fitkrtitoiZi, Ltateoatft bf l Marines, Obtemfciotti, to, aaSt dartefc 

iiiimiT 



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1* MABOffB* -*ESWUtmW 

lesa buojed>up. Ansdn parted *(**> tables, atuf 
was driven *b fceawith & thiH ffiChW htogiiig t^ 
his bows ; and a second time dragged bath 4fti 
chors after him, Byron was obliged to put to sea 
in Consequence of the heavy swell ; and the 
ships of Captains Gilbert and Seaver (who visited 
the island the same year) were obliged to cut and 
jmt to sea. ' 

According to Anson, the road is only datlger-i 
etts between the middle of June and middle of 
October, when the winds often blow all rotfnd the* 
compass, with great violence, and when from the 
west, throw in a heavy swell. According to 
By**), the month of October is the most dan* 
gerouB* 

Guam is the largest of the Mariannes, and the 
only one on which the Spaniards have any settle- 
ment. It is forty miles in circuit, And contains 
about 10,000 inhabitants, in seven or eight vik 
lages, besides the Spanish town, named Agaha, 
which is on the N.W. side of the island, four 
miles up a river, and the approach defended by 
a battery of eight guns. The road before the *k* 
ver is only safe in summer. 

The other islands of this chain are, with the 
exception of two or three, uninhabited. -Their 1 
names from south to north are Sftpah, Aguijhft; 
Saypan, Antajan, Sarignan, Guguan, Pagodi' 
Ghagan, Assumption, a vast cttti&l mass of k*% 
afcd Uraccas. -• - -^i 

The Ladronea have been celebrated by % hefe ' 
European visitors for, the perfection of thcfr*fe£l- 

ing 



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WKna*# vaunmau* I4T* 

^p^W ^rr€igi(tef, iw^idi hiive one sife plane 
x&dtfafiilm cmvm, «d *rfc/said tosatfutt the 






^Oftb of t^e Mariaones a volcanic archipelago 
extends almost to Japan, forming two distinct 
chaips from south to north. la the westernmost 
chain are the fallowing : Vela, or the Sail. Sul- 
phur Island* of Cook, named from the smdll of 
that mineral observed .near it, is five leagues long 
N#N.R and S.S.W. ; the south point rises in a high 
barren hiil, flat at top, which appears to be a vol- 
cano, and a low narrow isthmus connects this hill 
with the body of the island. It is extremely bar- 
ren, i producing only a few bushes, 24° 48 ; ;< 141° 
1# <£► Seven leagues north of Sulphur Island is 
a ceutcal island, and another the same distance 
soutii : they were called by Cook, North and South 
IslaftdsJ 

The Archbishop's Islands are the northern con- 
tinuation of this chain, and are little known. 

The eastern chain contains many volcanoes, 
ihifce of which follow each other on the south* 
hobfii Island is, in 24° 501 ; 146° 51', Grampus 
I^nds, of Captain Afeares, 1789, are, a group, 
09^ of wh;eh is five leagues long north and with, 
rising to a high mountain, witJa little wood, and 
beaten by a violent surf, which seems to render, 
Mfeg/ifnjttfftM* SS° ltf j 146° i > 

Ma^ietV Jste»J«7 3C j 145° 40. 
, , r . : -^ Malabrigo, 



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10 

de Piros, are Spanish discoveries, *fco«B^»tYi4in*B. 
are not oertainly known, i .vx>.;>iuVA 

East of the chains of Mariannes and 3*l(*nia. 
chains above noticed, are many scattered islands, 
whose general direction is N.W. and S.E.; they 
are 

The Gardens, two clusters of coral islets on 
reel 21° 35' ; 151° 30'. . . y 

.15° 10 

.15 12 

.17 48 

.19 



St. Bartholomew 
Gaspar Rico 
Wake's Rock 
Wake's Island 
Desert Islands 
Lamira. .... 

Camira 

Volcano ... 
Desert Islands, 
Anson's Island 



163°41'E. 

171 18 
173 45 
166 48 
168 , 
166 42 
163 
163 
163 30 
160 — 
156 30 



! ff 



'J 



..20 30 
. . 20 24 
..22 
..22 40 
..23 30 
..23 30 
Sebastian Lopez.... 25 24 w« w , r - iy 
Lot's Wife, of Meares 1789, is a singular rock*, 
rising perpendicularly to the height of. 350 fiee^j 
resembling a first rate ship of war under s^JJL, 
On the S.E. side is a cavern, into which the, sq* 
rashes with a frightful noise. 29° 5V ; 160° (^ 1;W 
Rica del Oro and Rica de Plata, or Gold n an4 
Silver Islands, placed in the charts in thejie^jqgR, 
gkws, if they exist, probably owe their namf^ffjt, 
the fables of the Japanese. • t v.>-M 

lisiansky Island, discovered in the Bii ii i aj^ 
shy Neva, is a spot of dry sand two mjfcsi|^p» 
out. on a coral reef » it is cowed with, gf^fffi 



> , 



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Krusenstero's Breakers, 4een<<in the same ship/ 

fbl\L '■': . ■..■;.':. ■: :•■.'( . . .■ .;..,' > 

,,, ^ , MNDWICH ISLANDS. , 

The ! Sandwich Islands, discovered by. Captani 1 
Cooklh 1778, are eleven in hiimber,' lying* be- 
tween the latitudes of 18° 53/' anil S2 9 Of N. j 
and between 156 Q and 160° W. longitude, they 
form the 'most isolated and the north-eastern group 
of Polynesia. There is reason to suppose, , that 
these islands are the isles of the Kings of Gaetan 
1542 ; and also the los Majos or Morijes of other 
Spaniards. 

Owhyee, the south-easternmost and largest, is 
nearly an equilateral triangle, the greatest length 
of which," north and south, is twenty-eight leagues 
m^f^^Mh^^ie greatest breadth, twenty-four 
liiflmex- Trie Wliole island is composed of moun- 
tains, of which two are particularly conspicuous. 
Mount Kaah, oh'the'N.E., rises to three peaks/ 
which can be s£fen forty leagues, and its summit 
is crowned with show throughout the year, Whence ? 
calculating By t!tfe : tropical line of snow, its ele- 
vation must hi 15,000 feet- Th6 eieVatfaa of 
)§<Y^J&oa, on tjie south coast, is not much 

W&m^M n ?Md 1 fy tow** without' 
WB£?&. c any 



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»toy Mrtfc6Wige; the Aofe fe composed of£te*fl*ft> 
dicular rocky cliffi, with itaterveihftfig fititU ;Waty 
bays, HSormg laWBfig «6 the torttfteS' tfwoes 
only. Many runs of fte&h water tumble dV*t tkfc 
r cliffs into the sea. , • 

The N.E. coast is barren and uncultivafte^as 
well as part of the south coast, which appear^ to 
. have undergone the most severe effects of volca- 
nic 6ft, tboA has no soundings* with 300 Jfatfioms 
of fine, close to the cliffiu The N. W. ceftst, fl* 
the contrary, is fertile and well 'cuiavate& 

Whis island has several bays, with good : #n- 

chbrage ; uf which th*t of Xiurakb&oa, on thfe w**t 

: thtagh not the best, is the mast frequented t*y 

Buro^feati shipfe* aftd is motarnfiiHy celebrated by 

the tri^icai etA -of Captain Cook. 

Mowee is eight leagues N.N.W. of Gw^ype, 
Bind is tbvidfed into two circular peninsulas, linked 
fcy a low isthmus. Both peninsulas are #}f#n* 
1*moufe. The length of the island is forty-6?ur 
mites, -and its 'gireate&t breadth twenty. Several 
fnrtst)f this island sefein also to have suffered frpm 
volcanic fire. ,. ,j 

The north shore has no soundings cloae to, the 
cKfls diat ; rite perpendicular from the sea*, ..,£* 
^Petxriwe describes the first aspect of ttmisl#ftd,a& 
-beautiful, streams of Water tumbling in c$*Q$de* 
from the tops of the mountains, and tfce^f^re 
covered with habitations, ao as to -form a^ea^mfcd 
village for three or four leagues ; the proportion 
fctf iabftablepgboundtfs, hofcrevfei, very sm$ll. ^ 

Nfearthe NwW.^Kmftof the i*4a»d V£ah*ina, 
'■' the 



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iSKIteat iaelwftgfc. Wofchoo Bay* ill *e. tnHUBe 
dPtbe 1 west side, arid Fairhaven on tlte satAe ride, 

Idfefc afflbfd gobdaitdiotage and freshwater. 
- Ttfhadf owa£ a stoaH barren island, without wo^d, 

ir 

ten miles Jong, four miles broad, and time miles 
Hknh fhe & W. point df Mowee. 
1 Morokinnee, a large batten tmmhaWted 'rock, 
terf*veeta flfowee and Tahoorowa, • 
: IHordtoi, two leagues and a lalf west eff X owee, 
« Urirty^three miles long, and 'fifteen miles brtmfl. 
It is, Kfee Mawee, divided krto two peninsttias $ 
<he »easterimio9t <tf whkfli is very Wgb; trfrd the 
^irtteteacnmost iwoderatfely so. It has no wood, and 
iitfle J ftesh water. There appears to be no good 
'anchorage round this island. Half a league *ftt>m 
its east point is a barren, todky, idlet, named 
Mbdbvenite. 

'Ranai, thiee leagues wtrth of the east end of 
Mw^toi, iflfteen miles kmg and sk mftei *>ro*d, 
fefeiren and thinly inhabited. 
T Ifoahoo, se^en leagues N.W. t>F Mo r ot oi, is 
V&Atty miles each way. "The norfli and west sides 
bave a much more fertile appearance iban any 
parts of the coasts of the other islands; bttt its 
With aide is extremely 'barren. On tbe easft ifc an 
4*teis?ve '^bay, bounded on the fcotitb by a long 
y&titxyf land, tfff which, at one mile tfetattt, is a 
irigK'^btfk. 

''Vy&Cb* starilh is 4 WWteet6 fiay,affdrdwg-ftiebert 
i&tttidrtige, and having good water, btrt as the 
reef ^rtifchlfaes theibwe renders ite landtag 
ii&ii; ; %re htf& method at - ra tter mg 1s to get $ie na- 
* c 2 tives 



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20 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

tives to bking it to the boats in calabashes* *htab 
the* will do for a trifle. 

west of Whiteet6 is Opouroah, a lagoon, entend 
by a break in the reef, which lines the shore. 
1ftic lagoon ends in two little coves, and would 
form an excellent harbour was it not for the nar- 
rowness of the entrance. 

On the N.W. side of the island is also a bay, 
with good anchorage, and a rivulet, in which the 
water is brackish for 100 yards from the beach, 
and is otherwise inconvenient to be got at. 

Atooi, or Otooway, N.W. twenty-five leagues 
from Woahoo, is thirty-three miles long and 
twenty-two broad. The west, north, and NJL 
tides are broken and uneven ; on the south, the 
hills rise with a gentler ascent from the sea, and 
the land is more even. 

Wymoa Bay, on the S.W., affords the best aa- 
chorage among the whole group, though it is Hea- 
ther exposed to the prevailing winds ; for the High 
land causes the trade wind to change its direction 
on this side of the island to S.E. and E.S.E. Tlie 
bottom is clean, aud wood and water easy to 1 be 
procured. 

The inhabitants of Atooi are the most advanced 
in the art of cultivation of any of those islanders, 
their plantations being fenced with neat hedges, 
and traversed by well kept pathways The cur- 
rent* bring to this island large pines, of whiefe thfc 
native* make canoes. q 

Oueeheaw, live leagues west of Atooi, & 
twtlv* mile* long and six broad* The east coast 

is 



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NOf^TilERN POLYNESIA. 21 

is high audi ftfrpepd^ula*,* the other W ? -except 
the S.E. point, which is high and bluff. Yam 
Bay* ontheN.W-, is the best anchorage. 

Oceehoua, o« Qrigea, a little rocky, barren, 
Wid uninhabited island, is separated from thenpjrth 
aid* of Oneebgaw by a channel one mile broa^ 
which does not appear to have water for ships. . 

iTahoofa, or T^goora, the westernmost isiand 
of the group known tp Captain Cook, is barren, 
high, and uninhabited, r 

Bird Inland, the Madoopapa of the < natives, 
sought for in vain by Captain Cook, was discover- 
edin 1789 by Captain Douglas ; it is only thre* 
miles in circuit, rising in two hills. The south side 
is covered with verdure, but all the rest is a. 
baked rock. 23° 8'-, l6l°45'. 

Necker Island, discovered by La Perouse, is a 
great rock 1,000 yards long and sixty high, whit- 
ened with birds' ordure. 23° 34' 164° 32'. 
,i Thje French Frigate Bank, a shoal, discovered 
ky,*he same navigator, in 23° 45! N. 165° 5tf W. 
I»j1fce western limit of the Sandwich Islands. 
„ i The climate of the Sandwich Islands differs little 
from that of the West Indies, lying in the same 
JUtitudf. and this difference seems to be in favour 
ef&e, former. The medium of the thermometer, 
Mjtaob, ftom January to March, was 83°, and 
tbe> litest rise 88° in Karakakap Bay. la . 
Wy wkm Boy the medium was 76°, a difference 
probably produced by the latter b$ing exposed ta 
ihe.seaifcreese. 
iasoj Jc ., \K\k .; . . «.& * The 



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.fitter Triads cbtemg ^eiiciotaiimoiftks, tfegcn»r 
rally between NJL Jmd E.8wE., accdrdipg.afc ft* 
trade is affected fay the pouttatt and ebvaJ&Mt 
ofidfae Ja«fe ; aad land aad aea bneezee wo jwelty ; 

i The omenta seen to be very notable^. **d 
not to be governed by general caoses* setting 
ajbea to wi*dwaxd v and as often tp leeward. The 
tish? efaba and flows regularly every six hews, *ba 
flood from the east, and the greatest rise is two- 
feet aeroen inches^ 

The quadrupeds ane confined to hoga,dogs,ead 
Mt»; the former are a large and heavy bieeck 
The dogs* similar to those of all the other islands 
in tile Itacifie* are the size of a common tormpit* 
with short crooked legs, long backs, and pricked: 
ens? they are kept by the natives entirety for 
foodb . 

Thfe.hkds are numerous and beautiful, though- 
aot Veritas, siftteea species only being enumerated 
in Cook's voyage, and of these, five only are cenasi 
mon in Europe, viz. raven, owl, plover, pigeon* 
and the co&unon water hen. The rest ate of the 
scalier species. The islands are said to hawei no 
venenous reptiles. 

The cultivated vegetable productions are eotive* 
ty similar to those of the other islands of the. Pa* 
eific ; and agriculture is carried be great perfection^ 
Aeiyaibsy sweet potatoes, tan, &c. being piantpd 
in Regular lines, and the plantations separated by 
walls of loose burnt stones, which, being concealed 



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from ffce *ya by wg^^nes ^pfc^y pl^ada^ 
each side* ipia&e'mapt elegant fe^ee* 

The natives of these islands are of the gmafc > 
Wp*&& *«#?. Bath sexes are $ufker ^an 
the Qt^heitfaw, wd the women le$% ^elif^dy 
f4r«fted, yiitethe ^pn $re inftriflff 19 ajctiv^ty an£ 
«fc«Wth t? tf*e *Vie»% isl^wNw i th^ &?*$* 
3h*> to fee wai# deformed persons tfwqgtt tbena, 
W»p hinnp-baqlfs, w$ i*my egfltat *y*4 pepffc 
he*qg seen. They wp subject to t>oils ***d uhtfiffij 
which C^pf. £iqg supposes tq WWW* #<W thfl 
gra^t qpaptity of s$lt they pat with tbejp ibad j 
$pdthe upper class W#e? dreadfully froqi (he effect* 
of tfe? foflra. • * 

The food of the lower claps consists of fcji tnfr 
vegetables, to which the higher ofdei? add hogpy 
clegs, pod fewls j they give the preference ty> we** 
3#(2 fish highly $alte4- The wom^n hefe, as at 
the Society Island?, pat apart froqi the mea,t aftd 
i» forbidden the use pf pprfc turtle, aqdsqine 
ksod^ pf fish smd plains. Centaury to the gen 
letfi custom ef the Pqlyne^ps, thpse islander* 
neither tatqe the skiri nor wear p^r-oriwnentif. 
'> 4 'Thnf efljjplqym^nt qf the vpipen consist^ jn qwk* 
Wg their cloji, *nd $e nwj of the flfst cl***, W 
\m$dipg theif £*Wft and jpafciog mat?. Th$ 
t&t<wk pr cfttnjMP people, jwe gsuajly pmjdoye4 
iq cpltiv^Uon pid fishing. Resides the yt af 
pgricu^ftfe ai$ mwrfaptw of clo$ ai$ fpa^ 
^ i.m > - c 4 thfy 

r. . /; ->.,, * . , • . , , . ' *, 

• This unsociable custom is said to be confined to the interior of the 

ttttB t trntd and md c *tag togttter <• t\$ fipfe as4intitf 



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$££ t|6jr make a gteat quantify of silt; by c6n88gflfi^ 
'"" ti»<*ea wfeter ifctop^ns,' krfd ktlotoftig th£ suta to 
iroporateit. "' * ' 

/for the lower dass of women diastity $4ems t<£ 
betas little esteemed as amongst ihe Otdheiteaiis,* 
bat in every other respect their moral character 
tears no comparison. There is here no, abomi'- 
wabie society of Arreoys. Infenticide is unknot, 
but on the contrary • the women are extremely at- 
tentive to their children. Human sacrifices were, 
however* on the discovery of the islands, as fre- 
quent, i£ not more so, than among the Society 
Islands, and the towtoxes of both sexes were liable 
to be knocked on the head by order of the chief. 
The only law is that of the strongest, and the 
king and chiefs have unlimited power over the 
Kves and 5 properties of the subject. They divide 
the year into twelve moons, and the moons ihtti 
thirty days, having a name for each. J K 

•v'Their religion extends to the belief in a fiitur£ 
state of regard, and they offer sacrifices to the dr- 
lenities of peace, war, joy, &c. On the death' #f 
the 'king twelve of his subjects, who have voluiU 
teertd to accompany him to the other world, art 
sacrificed, and on this event all the people ^ci 
naked fcr a month, and a promiscuous and'Ufrtlis- 
gutied intercourse of the sexes takes pl&ce du- 
ring that time. Their mourning (Jonsistsirt duttft^* 
the flesh, cutting off the hair, and pulling out a 
tooth. 

Since Capt. Cook discovered these islands, an 
astonishingly rapid civilization has taken place 
ttvv.TiK'* amongst 



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z\p)ppg%t fee, , nafriygfr, Vythw iatercostton witto 
Emjppjpaiw* 1$ ^ J$l, Capt Vanoww laid down 
the keel, and prepared the frame work of a vessel 
fqr tf^king of r Gwhyee> whose stee was thirty-six 
feet by nine and a quarter. Ten years after, thitf 
chief had increased his navy to twenty vessels of 
different sizes, from twenty-five to fifty tons, and 
some of them coppered, chiefly built by Aine* 
ricans. In 1805, his largest vessel was seventy? 
tons, and he was well supplied with naval stores. 
Many of his people, from making frequent voy* 
ages to the North West Coast of America, and i* 
the South Sea whalers, have become expert seat 
men, and they talk of opening a direct trade ill 
their own vessels with China; — the island p*<^ 
duping pearls, pearl-shell, and sandal -wood, all va- 
luable in the China market. The king has a for*, 
tification round his house, mounting ten guns, and 
a guard of two hundred native soldiers, well dia* 
ciplined, and perfect in the use of fire-arms, ifto 
do, regular duty night and day. He has besides 
twa thousand stand of arms, and upwards of 
twelve thousand Spanish dollars, together with 
Other valuable articles, which he lias collect^ 
t;d in- trade, and deposited in regular stone-bouses. 
&?me horned cattle left at Owhyee by Captain 
Vancouver have greatly multiplied, and nott form 
ipvtrftl wild herds. " 



- - >\oir- SOUTHEEN 



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SOUTHERN POLYNESIA. './' . l J 

We shall commence our account of tkefitottffcmi! 
Pofynesis with the notice of some scattered islands^ -* 
which cannot be brought within any groujp. • .• u » 
Matooty, 8° 3^ ; 168° 0'. ■ »> 

Jferwett, Mitre, Cherry, and Pandora, Islands »■ 
foi m * group at considerable distances tim* ' 
eaoh other, south east of the archipelago of Spot* 

Tasw<# and Sheraon islands, in5°5T, 19fl°» f i" 
aye two low islands covered with cocoa palms ; i* 
improbable they are the St Augustinand £1 Gyand 
Cqcal or Cocos of Mendaiuu * > 

Gilbert's Island, 11° 0' ; 177 p tf . 

Rotutqahoo is the Taumacot of Quires. The fee* > 
tflity and population of this little spot is extreme jift ■ 
the space of a mile in length Capt. Wilson counted' 
two hundred houses, and found bogs, fowls, and 
fruits in the greatest abundance. This island 13 
four leagues long east and west, and moderated 
bigb. W Q 30f- 3 m^E. 

Duke of York's Island of Byron is ten league* 
in circuit, enclosing a lagoon on the west, where 
boats can land ; but there seems to be no anchor^ 
age, and no inhabitants were seen by Byron* ^ 
39 '; 172° 2# W. 
. Duke of Clarence's Island. 9° 11'; 171° 80'* 

Ides of Danger, of Byron, are three small onea 
laying north-east andsouth-West nine miles ; therjtf 
have neither anchorage nor landing, being air- 

- rounded 



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rounded by a reef and coast ; mae league* fcom 
them, are breakers. 

The Fidjee o* Prince tfifliain'ft tslandsof Tasmaa 
ar* egtrtmefy wmeiou& fifteen to twenty being 
cqihtad by tbffc wsgionaiy ship Puff ^ they are<rf 
moderate height, covered with cocoa pata& «nd 
surrounded by extensive and danger oua reefs. The 
ij»*iraare,more industrious thau the friendly Jg- 
laodcis, but are thought to be cannibals* To them 
<m the east succeeds the group to which Cook g&Yft 
the name of Friendly Islands, consisting of sixty* 
ope, totmimy of them are merely spots of coial 
aid nod* cloathed with vegetation* 

Hie four principal ones examined by Cook, are* f***9 
TongsUaboot Annaraooka, Haapee, and Eooa. — 

TongatabcKV i e* Sacred Island, the Amster- 
dam of Taanian, is the largest of the group, beiag 
twyuty leagues in circumference E. S. & and 
W.N.W. The south, east, and west shores ate 
fiwmed of steep coral rocks ten to twelve feet high* 
with intervals of sandy beach, on which* at law 
wttet, a line of black rocks is observed- The 
north shore is level with the water* bordered by a , 
swidy beach, and lined witb shoals and islets. 

The whole isUuod is low and level* and its ap* 
pqarancfl conveys an idea of the moat exubemnt 
fertility the entire surface bei^g covered with 
verdure, and amongst the trees the cocoa palflfc 
raises its head pre-emiu*nt y unhappily, however* 
itei island is deficient in fresh water, and what 
theft is, in general, is very indifferent- 

Though tl» ooxai rock, wl¥chii)rm3 the base 
I *;,< :;.>•■; of 



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$8 jiawsijab GBoam?*pr. 

$j£ <rf the island; is in many places ■ riaked* the soil in 
" eth^r parts is of donfiiderabk depth, and is in the 
Cultivated grounds, a black vegetable mould over 
a sub-stratum of clay. In the lowest ground the 
§clil is a mere coral sand, but still covered with 
tcgetatioh. ■'*-•/ 

The only stones, except coral, observed on the 
island, are small blue pebbles, and a smooth bhok 
stone, lapis lydius, of which the natives mike their 
hatchets ; but it is not certain that both these ! are 
not brought from other islands. 

To give a general idea of the dwelling of the 
natives* we select the description of a village from 
Capt. Cook :* 

i " It is delightfully situated on the bank of the 
itlet, where all, or most of the principal persons 
of th£ island reside, each having his house in the 
midst of a small plantation, with lesser houses anf 
offices for servants. These plantations are neatly 
fenced round, and, for the most part, have only! 
one entrance. This is by a door fastened on the 
inside by a prop of wood, so that a person His ta 
knock before he can get admittance. Public roddq 
and narrow lanes lie between each plantation, bS 
tUat no one trespasseth upon another. Great pari 
of Borne of these inclosures is laid out in grass? 
plats, and planted with such things as seem moid 
for ornament than use ; but hardly any wer& 
without the kava-plant, from which they make 

tHeir 



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tfedir fimmiitcS liquor* : Every afticlfenf the* ve- *£$ 
getaMe ptroductt ?f this island abounded ia others "*~ 
ef thete plantations $ but these, I observed,, are 
not the residence of people of the first rank 
TInrreare soota large houses near the public roads* 
with spacious smooth grass-plats before them, a*>d 
anhrdosed. These, I was told, belonged to the 
king; and, probably, they are the places where 
their public assemblies are held." 

This island has the best harbour of the group; 
within several islands and reefs on the north side. 

Annasnooka, Rotterdam of Tasman, is mtare 
elevated than the small islands which surround kf 
but still can be considered only as a low islajnU 
In the centre is a salt lake one mile and a half 
broad, round which the land rises with a gradual 
ascent, and its surface is covered with wild ducks. 
jftbe north shore is composed of steep coral elifffc 
nine or tec feet high, with some intervals of sandy 
biaoh. There is no stone but coral on the island* 
except a single rock twenty to thirty feet high of 
*ye±l6w calcareous and very hard stone. The po* 
pfcktioaCapt. Cook estimated at two thousand* 
'Eieiwater oft the island is better than that a* 
Tkogataboo, but yet is indifferent : the best is pro- 
a»edby digging holes near the side of the lak& 
Fruit is more abundant on this island than on the 
former^ and the undulating surface gives it a' 
Briraspleeaipgly varied appearance. ' 

ifeapee, though considered by the natives as 
one island, is in reality composed of four very low 
islands* about half a milt distant ftom each other, 

laying 



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fgfc kyirtff Nifi. knri S,W. but at< joitiad W cml t**ft 

sprMch dry *6 tow 1 witter, fbe wbote becftpW' % 

space ef nineteen taflfes iailength, tytfd eatfh «&alMl 

a ahatrt six w senen mites long, »d two %6 fttar 

aiiles broad. . Leftxaga is weM odltivated *nd hi- 

fifebited. Hodlaiua, on the boattfciy, is entfaely 

dtesert a»d abandoned. On each df tbefefe $*- 

: fattdfo ig«n artifcial tuoant, said fey the nartivefe t# 

be erected in memory <rf some 0f tfo«£r thfefe* 

,1 (lW fcifly tfat&r either *rf these felaads p&sfcteses is 

: ftWrt ^^foa&cfeh write. 

- Bfetweeto Happee a*d Ammiftoofa, *he #?a is 
yp&Meti: witk isfet* aftdteefe, two tff <#hicfe «M<f 
^fifefr^e l&fctfcfe, Ifofefboa bud f£afc. If be forttidhfe 
: 'l( Voteano, which, fccfeonAmg to the tta*ntofes, sorrie- 
fJmfes throws orft -large stones, and whfle Cfcjjtt. 
©*Wk was 'heve, fcttidke and flames ifefted fiotti %• 
ttmfchstated. 

Kao is S.W. two «riteB and a half from TwfiKua, 
and fe & rait r&ek of a conical figure. ^The^ftbt 
Mamdfc i*i l?he vieimty fire mere cfcml reefe frtfm 
ttrtetfc lialf tt>irnle4n circumference, Iwrt^i covfcifeft 
with verdure, and particularly cocoa paJms. 

Eaoa, or Middlefburg of Tasman, maybrettofa- 
stdtered as «m elevated island, in compkiison Whh 
the generality of those of these seas, being vISWe 
twelve leagues. The highest part is on the fif.B. 
tend is aQmost flat, from whence it declines -v#y 
gently towards the sea, and presents att e*ten$ve 
^froSjiect, where groves of trees are only inters- 
persed at irregular distances, in beautiful disorder, 
widthe nest of the land covered with grass. Near 

the 



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:fa \?bpn, ifc is <pnte «h*fed with ir«s> a*to«g0t g^a* 

c *irich are the testations of tke native*, - — 

[■n-l^B^r ;v^W* *^ describes the interior of tfre 

TIj ^awJ.r— «« Ab°wt half way xjp the highest patt 

^ tjic island, we crossed a deep valley* the 

jfccfctom and stde^ of which, thomgh composed ;df 

Jwdty my thing {rat coral jsoek, were clothed w*A 

, *r*ea* We were -new aboot two or three hundiwl 

fert above the level of the sea* and y^t j ev«a h$fe* 

-Hie ooasd was .perforated into all the holes Mid «- 

equalities wkich usually diversify the *uri*oe*C 

. thfe snbstance within the reach of the tide- > Ifr. 

deed, we *wmd the same coral Ml we began *» 

approach the sumtnits of the highest twftts-; aw4» 

it was remarkable, that these were chiefly col*s 

jwsed of a yellowish soft sandy stoae. Ifthe soil 

-diere is iti general a reddish clay, whi<?h in many 

jribees seemed to he very deep. On *he most ete- 

M*ed part tb£ the whole island we fotmd it *0&a4 

ffetiforii*, ** tnount of <earth> sufipotted ty a w&fl 

<f£<aor?d stoats, to bring which to such a height 

4nat have cost much labour. Oui* grades Hold tft, 

fehdt this mount had been erected by order ttf the* 

4fcic£ and that thdy sometimes *iet t here ^ drink 

hliva; they caiied k etfkoe, by which uame an 

^0d^n, which we hod seen at Taftgattiboo, a& 

flbefcufy mentioned, ttas distinguished. Votnmuy 

$*£?& itoto it was a spring of excellent Writer ; 

, p$* at?QUt a mile lower down, a running stream, 

^ ; wliich, 

... , . • Tlird V*yagr, Vol. I. page 361* 



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Aft MflJTwwK rnftmntTi 

jjgtfK which, we were told, found its way to the set 
— when the rains were copious. We also met with 
water iu many little holes, and no doubt great 
plenty might be found by digging. 

From the elevation to which we had ascended* 
we had a full view of the whole island, except a 
part of the south point. The south east side, from 
which the highest hills we were now upon are 
not far distant, rises with very great inequalities 
immediately from the sea, so that the plains and 
meadows, of which there are here some of great 
extent, lie all on the north-west side, and as they 
are adorned with tufts of trees, intermixed with 
plantations, they form a very beautiful landscape 
in every point of view. While I w r as surveying 
this delightful prospect, I could not help flattering 
myself with the pleasing idea that some future na- 
vigator may, from the same station, behold these 
meadows stocked with cattle, brought to these 
islands by the ships of England, and that the com- 
pletion of this single benevolent purpose, inde- 
pendently of all other considerations, would suf- 
ticiently mark to posterity, that our voyages had 
not been useless to the general interests of huma- 
nity. Besides the plants common on the other 
nighbouring islands, we found on the height a 
species of aerosticum, melaertoma, and fern tree, 
with a few other ferns and plants not common 
lower down." 

This island had not yet got dogs on it when 
Capt. Cook visited it. On the north-west side is 
English road, where boats may land at all., times 



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in a amall Creek. Among the rocks tfhich line gfojgi 
die shore of this road, is a brackish spring, from 
which, probably, fresh water may be procured, 
before the tide mixes with it ; and on the sama 
side, a little way inland, in a deep chasm, Captain 
Cook found very good water, but which re- 
4»Md time and troable ta be conveyed to th<4 
totcfc *' 

^KoewUgp has a pretty large pond of tofersbte 
Hater, but no appearance of a running stream* 
to Kgotoo is two miles long, and nearly the sam^ 
tpeadtb. Its north-west end is low, t>ut it riseji 
suddenly towards the middle ; and on the souths 
Ht&i it terminates in reddish clayey clifB. ft ii 
£n*tivated and inhabited. Its only water is from 
ftifty aad brackish ponds. 
-* jfrom the situation of the Friendly Islands to* 

'the tropic, the climate is more variable than 
W. the equator. The winds are usually from 

point between south and east, and when 
moderate, the weather is fair, but when fresh, 
there is often ram. They sometimes veer to the 
i*rth> *ftd even N.W., with hot sultry weather 
art heaVy rain ; but these winds never last long, 
ttfllto* fresh. 

* AH the vegetable productions are evergreens i 
4t* Cultivated fruits, fhe principal are plantains, if 
Uttitfe Ihere are thirteen varieties ; the bread- 
iruit, the jambu and eUvee, the latter a kind of 

and tile haddock. Besides cocoa-nuts, 

ive Aree other kinds of palms. There is 
species of wild fig, which is sometimes 
*s&ou vr. p eaten. 



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^-triii^;biWbo^/g€ta^^ ttnwri*, yfcms of <tW* 
«»rtt, One Mack And tfetyfatge, tha Othfcrwhfea 
ffl&sftfiflL A fttrge root, dtfted *apj*# and tttd 
toot tiftfite dtfr ^hite potiatoef* die *»flk# aiicL &£ 

^ The only quadrupeds* besides h<Dgs, tfre r 4 
few tats, and some dogs, which are not originalfcf 
tffctiVes of this group, but were introduced bjr 
Captaht Cobk in his second voyage, and *0ttfe 
*Were also bought from the Fidjee Islands A 
large breed of fowls is found in a dortifcsti* 
*&te. * 

^ The birds are, parrots and parroqaets, o*4fc 
cuckoos, kingfishers, and a bird the size tif"& 
thrush, which is the only one that stags, but 
%hich coiriperfsates the want of others by the 
r strength and melody of its notes. The other land 
birds are rails of two kinds, one as large «r» ^pfc 
geon, the other not bigger than a lark ; debts, 
fly-catchers, a very small swallow, and three fcorti 
*bf pigeons, one of which is the bronze wiagtfjk 
The water fowl are, ducks, blue and white hen**, 
tropic birds* noddies, two ispecies of tttWp^i 
small curlew, and a large plover spotted; vHA 
^fellbw. There are also the large bat, of -flytbjg 
fox, and the common sort, n ofc 

The tndyiiofcious or disagreeaUe reptaes twd 
inSects tote, sea snakas, woqwna -and ceatiptjdes, 
guanas, and small lizards. Amongst *be untote 
af£ ftfeautififtitiol&s butterfhes, veiy large spid^s, 
%akihg*in«l^^<te*ko^ ivqcpc 

v^ o : tt The 



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The sea abounds with fish, though of iew*vp* » *«j{ 
fieties. The most common are, mullets, pa?£Qt "T"** 
iish, silver fish, old wives, soles, leather ja^kfct^ 
bonitas and albacores, eels, sharks, rays,. pjp£ 
fish, a fish resembling the pike, and devil fish, , nfl 

The reefs and shoals are covered with an emit, 
less variety of shell-fish ; among which are thei 
true hammer and pearl oyster, and several other 
fcfetilb 4*t; roprc o£ the common sort, panagi?^ 
9fiR&» Aft} ^.gigmtic cockles. There a^ tyke? 
Wise. wjiftfwl sort* of sea eggs, gar fish, cr*bs, an4 
«fc*yfok and a q«w#erabte variety of corals f 
amongst which are two red kinds, the one ele* 
gtody bnwhed, the other tubulousjf ipywaX 
sorts eCrspoqge* &c. 

* Gx#dkiwatqr is scarce in all these islands. It i* 
indeed; to* fee found in most of them, but either in 
t*tt£»aiia quantity, or in situations top incoji- 
ven*ent, to {serve the purpose of navigator?. 
^T-he native of the Friendly Islands seldom 
«Mee*i ;tfee middle size, but are strong and well 
ft»4ft*/ tfeek? features are very various, and among 
them, i fere tnaay true European countenances and 
Aowmmows^ Their eyes and teeth are gqpcl 
tout the latter are not very white or well $$%. 
3&etoy*nen ire not so much distinguished from 
the men by their features as by their stepe, which 
iw»ueh Apwe^dfclieate; and though th$rs,ar$ spme 
V*iy»tieauiifbl females tt be jaet with, they ,#$ 
iM<jCDnHnon. . 

a4Efep>§f»ersl oolenr k a ah$da deqw -.tfcw #$ 
copper brawntlw^ n^ 
wiT d£ olive 



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$$ MARITIME GBOCmUFWb 

'flfeffl 4ilil*e oompieaiaar and some o£>ith6x:iw>m«tt r are 
^ jW^Miiuidbvfaire^n tThekihair ,ii%i>iri gtflteftttj 
*&aigbV< thick, and *trdngj though «4b^ ' htftfc 
it bpushy or > fowled. > Then natural tcokrt^^ 
Wack, but most of the men and some kj£>khti A#fr> 
toeti have it stained of & browd or purple etioori 
and at ft w of an orange cast Tbeir Jdauitte««K«4 
express cheer&kiess, mildness, and grodinaliu^ 
though, sometimes in the presence >©f> theii* ifeiifeft 
they assume an air of gravity whjch, hcftMevflty 
is evidently foreign to their general character. ; i 1 1 
vTlifcfgraoeCul aitfaad firm step with which they 
walk, are obvious proofs of their personal ao 
eompliahments* and their moral qualities aue not 
h^g conspicuous. They are frank* good ih«w 
ftioured, industrious, ingenious, persevering, ra£ 
above all, hospitable to strangers, with whom they 
court an intercourse by barter, which they undeiM 
stand perfectly. » -t^iU 

Both sexes and all ages have, however, the 
strongest propensity to thieving from strangenp 
vghidh is perhaps more owing to the desire ;>otf 
satisfying their curiosity, than to any natumH 
principle of dishonesty, for thefta amohg thetao* 
selves. seem to be very uncommon. it ; ^ ivirfj 
- There are few natural defects or deformities fc 
he foUnd amongst them, not do they appear fiub$ 
jfict to -numerous or acute diseases., ^mqngsb 
these \riih which, they are occasionally* i*ffikt^ 
ace j a aoirfc of blindness, oauaed byi& dne*s&flfi 
the cornea, the ringworm, and an indoleafruawcl* 
lh^4)&the4eg8rjandbaBms»Mu(l '■} ^^murm-sftV , 
&• «w ,, They 

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i^fliey^ary their hak on tvar ious i maapecs, some :$£;£ 
48P$$IPg* U: ishort, ' others letting it grow, other* ~ 
#gftfo frfr iagpne side long, and .the*othec *idi& 
afeortul^ndUaKHi^times entirely shaved, except a 
«A}Qglfti took or one aide. The men cut their 
-h&n&& fhpart* and *botb sexes » abdicate the 'hair 
4&&tifciiftdeit the arms. The men are tattooed itotn 
t&&Wdd}&<)f the belly half way down the thighs, 
gtitfa a bluie colour. The women, have some spots 
^^Miyl^/inside of their hands only tattooed, and 
tiie> W#gs are exempted from this custom* 

The dress of both sexes is the same, and con- 
stats of « piece of cloth or matting wound once 
.and half sound the waist, where it is confined by a 
girdle oiv cord $ it is double before, and hangs 
vdownhke a petticoat, to the middle of the Jeg^j 
the upper part above the girdle, is formed into 
several /aids, so that there is sufficient cloth to 
draw up and wrap round the shoulders. Tlpe size 
- <tf; this » garment is in: proportion to the comse- 
qaeace df the wearer, the inferior claas being, con- 
. teitywkti very small o*es, and oftq'n wear nothing 
but 0ipieee of narrow cloth, or matting like a sash, 
aubdalled a rnaro, which they pasp between the. 
thighs, and wrap round the waist, but the Use 
of it is chiefly confined to the men. In their 
great entertainments they have dresses -made ft* 
. thgnparftose of the same form, but covered with: 
iAd>tftiithes>8- Both men and women shade their 
fetes^faiwh the sun with littte botiriets of various 

The ornaments of both sexes iane necklace? of 
/odT dS the 



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-■» % 






the fnjit <tf the pandamsi and wrious $we$* 

sbiefliog 6owePs,!of small shells, sharks' te$t£)£ 

and other tfu#g$» On die upper part of the ante 

they sometimes wear a polished mother off pearl 

ishfill ring, rings -of tortoiseshell on the fingers. 

sod a number of these joined together as brape- 

Jets. The lobes of the ears, though most freh 

tfftittrttly but one, are perforated with two holes, Jn 

^rhifcht they wear cylindrical bits of ivory or jfeedj, 

^threa inches long, thrust in at one hole and out at 

the other. The women rub themselves all ov^r 

^tfa the pdwder of turmeric 

L> Tbcy frequently bathe in the fresh water pond?, 

^though the water in most of them stinks intole- 

iwbly, and these they prefer to the sea-water which 

«£fctejr^ think hurts their skin. They rub their 

bodies all over, and particularly their. heads, witli 

iroeoa-nut oil, which preserves the skin smooth 

^andsoft h >\ 

Their mode of life is a medium between in- 

dolenbe and labour. The climate, and tb^ na- 

Jturaiiertility of the soil, renders the latter i#i- 

iroebeasary; and their active dispositions is 9, bar 

&t6 the former* ^ 

srf'IThe deployments of the women arog^aerally qqW 

^AAfcl to domestic concerns, and the maniifactuv&g 

rtthdircloth} afcd mats, which latter are of several 

-^kincjstiftr Arete, sleeping on, or mere ornament, 

iHRieseiafatiarefiXMid* from the tough membranroos 

rpart ofi.nhe itoek of the plantain tree,; ppd ib£*e 

^for 6baflungiojf otftfc gHmdarw* cultiv^te^ .^or. that 

^prtrpose, while the -slQef^ng mats are formed of a 

plant, 



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plant called evarra. The women are also eiSii 
ployed in making combs and small ba&efcty df fkfe 
same materials as the mats, or pf the fibrous bu* 
of the cocoa-nut, which they finisb in * molt Aeat 
and elegant manner. ! ; * ^ >* v >* foril 

X The occupations of the men are by fop tiu/k* 
laborious and extensive than those of the wopftqs 
agriculture, architecture, fishing, and boat buiUL 
ing, being their principal employ me»ti.^C|d|>' 
vated roots forming the chief part of $hein fofc<J; . 
they pursue this object with the greatest diligenofc 
and have brought it to considerable perfections u> 

Their plaintain walks and yam* field* arc rivcqr 
extensive, and are enclosed by neat fepcee of 
reeds. The planting these vegetables requires?*) 
other labour than that of digging holes for tbeir 
reception, which is done in regular lines, witjiift 
Jrind of wooden spade only three or four- inohts 
broad. The cocoa-nut and bread-fruit are> scat- 
tered without regularity, and require no trquWp 
after they are at a certain height. 

Architecture is the science in which they aj£ 
most imperfect, the habitations of the lower class 
being poor huts, scarce capable of sheltering.tfeen* 
from the weather, and those of the higher orders 
<are neither agreeable nor comfortable* Th? 
dimensions of one of a middling me ,are <abo|$ 
thirty feet long, twenty broad, and trwetye .high. 
They are little better than thatehad afaec&rJSiip* 
ported by posts and rafters, closed 4<n $fa $i*qailjej 
side, with strong mats, or branch** o£>$e COpffe 
imt tree interwoven. The flport i^ojad^ed np& 

1 K fir*-"-: v. .,uii// .Vi,.j*arth 
JiiiJq 



5H2 



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40 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

earth smoothed, and coverod with mats. Ano* 
ther mat, from one to three feet broad, bent in a 
fcemi-circular form, and set on its edge, with the 
-ends touching the sides of the house, and resem- 
bling a hearth fender, incloses a space for the 
mother and sucklings to sleep in ; the rest of th.' 
family sleep on any part of the floor, or if it is 
large, there are small huts adjoining for die ser- 
vants to pass the night in. The whole of their 
furniture consists of a bowl or two, in which they 
make their kava, gourds, cocoa-nut shells, small 
wooden stools, which serve for pillows, and a 
large stool for the head of the family to sit on. 
Their houses are, however, of little other use 
*hstifco^teep in, and shelter them from the wea- 
tkr#; for they usually take their meate in the oped 
«m b'f < ->' : i' '-j'l 

In the construction of thei* boats they shew 
Trtrach '' ingenuity and dexterity* though their 
%bbls are orily adzes of a smooth black stone; 
mgtes of sharks 9 teeth, and raspd of the rough 
skfri of k fish fixed on flat slips of woo&~*- 
3R» imptements which they use as knives, am of 
t&ifc. J .^ c 

Tlieir fishing lines are made from thfe fibres of 
*hfe ^cocoa-nut husk, plaited, and the large cop- 
3agetoy twisting several of these pfoits tbgethten 
^Fheir ''smaft fishing hooks are entirely #f peail 
«keHi Mbut di&farge ones are -only covered With "it 
Mrtfc#4)*ck, the point* of bifbs beit)g of torWtW^ 
vhctf^^fh^r kave also ftetv somfc of which ^«^ 
t#rf^^tfelic^tfe texture: these they iwe ^^tch 
•^tawn? «• - the 



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the fish which remain in the holes of the reefs, 
when the tide is oat. The other employments 
are making musical reeds, flutes, warlike wea* 
pons, and stools or pillows. The reeds have eight, 
able, or ten pieces placed parallel to each other, 
but not in any regular progression, so that none 
of them have more than six notes ; and the flutes 
are a joint of bamboo, close at both ends, with 
«ix holes, three of which only are used in playing; 
which is done by applying the thumb of the left 
hand to the left nostril, and blowing into one of 
the holes with the other ; and though the notes 
are but three, they produce a pleasing simple 
1BUS1C* • • ':...;••! i.ufi' 

\u Their weapons are clubs highly ca*rved> apearti 
darts, and bows and arrows, which latter, hoifr 
ever, seem to be used only to kill birds, and not 
if* war. : T 

-',1am** plantains, cocoa-nuts, and bread-itorifc 
form the greatest part of their vegetable diet* i Of 
4heir animal food, the chief articles are > fag* 
iottts* flsh, and all sorts of shell fish; ■ The lowir 
people ateo eat rats and dogs. Fowl . and * turfte 
seem to be only occasional dainties reserved &f 
&ei*r<jhief&< .:..-..'.! :« iV . 

t. Their f meat is in general drest by bakiag, andis 
«fel!wrthout my kind of sauce ; their berertge aft 
th&r meab<i* confined to water, or eocoa+nut «&&> 
Th^it foo4 as divided into portions, eitchi flt 
«lv^ a; certain number* and 4hese poriitmsitgf* 
^irt ^liiKlmckd, ^o that «eWoox alc^e tfcaalk^t 
dittim*. pCTs^we>rteepveiift^ 
**dt repasts* 



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4A MAMOOa XUHIfittfR& 

repasts. The women and men in general eat 

together, but there are certain ranks that can 

neither eat nor drink in company. They seem to 

have no set time for their meals, but they all 

take one during the night. They go to rest as soon 

as it is dark, and rise with the dawn. 
- 

They are fond of society, and form conversa- 
tion parties at one another's houses. Their other 
amusements are singing, dancing, and music per- 
formed by the women. 

Their public diversions are single combats and 
wrestling, in which women as well as men exhi- 
bit ; dances, in which upwards of 100 men some- 
tinges are engaged, to the music of hollow pieces 
ypf wood beat on with sticks, and accompanied by 
jflhtbonis of vocal music : the women also perform 
JRJthecr public dances. 

One of their chief pleasures is the drinking 

jfaz*z, a hevenge composed of the root of a spe- 

u9J£*.of pepper; the process of brewing which is 

not very delicate* A company being assembled, 

s^w root is produced, and being broken in small 

^pieces, and the dirt scraped off by servants, each 

t person receives a piece, which, after chewing, he 

spits into a plantain leaf. The person appointed 

4» ptepace the liquor, receives all the mouthfulls 

i*to a wooden bowl, and adds as much water as 

virilimake it of a proper strength ; it is then well 

4aai*ed w#i the hands, and some loose stuf£ pf 

&kkh the mats are made, is thrown on the suxv 

&ee, which .intercepts the fibres, and is wrung 

hard to get as much liquor out of it as possible 



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It is then served out to the company in cups of 
about a quarter of a pint each. This liquor has 
an intoxicating, or rather stupifyitig effect, on 
those not used to it; and it is so disiagreeable, that 
even the natives, though they drink it several 
times in the forenoon, cannot swallow it without 
making wry faces. 

The bulk of the people are satisfied with on* 
wife, hut the chiefs have commonly several ; and 
though female diastity in the unmarried of ihh 
lower order is in little estimation, those ttf life 
higher orders are discreet in this respect, and con* 
jugal infidelity is very rare. *• 

Their mourning is very severe, cutting «nd 
'Burning their flesh, beating their teeth with stones, 
fcnd inflicting on themselves every kind df to*, 
'went. The dead are buried, trapped up ift todfe 
or cloth. When they labour under any feeterfc 
•and dangerous malady, they ait off one, or both 
: of their little fingers, which they think the divinity 
will accept in lieu of their bodies. 

They have no priests, but are not, 1 therefore 
"Without religious ideas; and though they seem to 
lave no notion of future punishment, they belief 
ihat they are justly punished on earth. 

13ach district, and every family of the <highfcr 
f ^rflers, has Ife respective tutelary God, and &ttkk 
HmJfvidual his odood ttr attendant Spirit, Vho ptfr- 
tafees more of the tevil thato the gctod genifte, 
being supposed to inflict diseases, and •whofe, 
SQferfefotfe, propitiated by sacrifices, and even terae* 
•Jikli^kyhWKia^^^s. 

Tht 



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The greatest of their gods ia Higgo-hnfo, the 
Jord of die country of the dead,, which Ju* iar 
distant, and whither the souls of their chiefs, on 
their release, is immediately conveyed in a fast 
sailing canoe, there to riot for ever in the en r 
joyinent of all sensual pleasures. As to the souls 
7 the lower class, they are eaten by an imagi- 
nary bud, which walks on their graves. 

The elements have also their subordinate dei- 
ties, who are often at variance with each other. 
The goddess of the wind is named Cola Filaiong^ 
and is believed to cause the hurricanes, which 
sometimes visit the islands. 

Their islands they suppose to rest on the shoul- 
ders of the god Moxee, who being tired of his 
burden, often endeavours to shake it off, which 
produces the earthquakes, to which the islands are 
^iso subject. 

The same religious system is not, however, pr*>- 
•valent throughout all the islands, but the general 
are the same. Their twai*, or bur™, 
jpaaads, are also places of religious worship, r 

Their form of government somewhat r^sann i 

*bs the feudal system of our forefather ban* 

«*£**? of » king, several powerfdhe^dw' 

-chiefi, almost independent of the kin* anZnml 

«jerous lesser duels, dependent oulTefi^ 

-As to the lower class, they are almost the-d*™,, 

'■ '*H Peculiar honours paid to the Icing are 
that no one is allowed to walk, over bis bead, 

and 



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Itifl4tttai^^fce WaJfcs out^ everyone ^us^sty 
tf&wfl till h^is< ; past. The method, of saluting 
«fe «^ty fe^by fitting down before him,* bbw- 
4tg fte^heka^to'tfae able of his foot, and touch! 
ittg it witft the tippet and under sides of the fin- 
gt^ 6f btkh' hands. After thus saluting, the 
king 1 , ot any great chief, the hands must not 
touch foocfof any kind until they are washed; or 
TU^bed with die leaves of plants, as a substitute 
ftfiff^rfcter. If the king inters the house of a sub- 
ject, it can never" be inhabited again by its pwner j 
bewce the king has a house in every district. 
' The language of the Friendly Islanders, which 
isffotn the Malay root, is sufficiently copious for 
*& the ideas of the people ; harmonious in cori- 
vere&tion ; aind is adapted both to song and reci- 
tative* Its construction is simple, and in some of 
its rules it agrees with other languages ; as for 
iitttttmte, M fh the degrees of comparison, but the 
ifotttt Mr vefrbs seem to have no inflections. The 
tStetit^tf flieir Verted numeration is 100,0b0^ 

Tlie'Ujfoth df their garments is made of the^ 
tea* of ttie slender stalks of the paper mulberry , 
•cltfHttitei for the purpose, and is thus perform- 
ei!? f; 0fefe' outer rind of the bark being scrape4 v 
oflj^tri^ inner is rolled up to make it flat, and is 
-mifeeftftfcd in totter for a night ; it is then laid^ on, 
tHe*rbrA of a trfee, squared, and beat with a 
<tf$a^^trtment fbll of grooves on all side^ 
-until a piecfe of cloth is produced, and the longer 

it^blity Wfatfaiid closer is the cloth. '' When , 
5 bwd *>d v., ■ : i -^ - •'«■> o^J 

f>(t£ 



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46 MJJK3WS G9*fltt*f«^ 

thitOJiwatioaw fini$hr 1, the pieces, which 
usually fh>m jfowto sis teet.ia 4eagtW atirf a 
4tt hroad, are spread oat ta dryy ami are aftn* 
wards joined together by aa&earitig the edge* 
-with the viscous juice pf a harry* Having bee* 
thus lengthened, they are laid over a large piece 
of wood with a kind of stamp between naade of 
& fibrous substance closely interwoven* They 
'then take a bit of cloth, and dipping k in a 
•Q&tBin juice expressed from the bark of a tree* 
.rub it briskly over the cloth, which gives it a dull 
brown colour and a dry gloss, 
; The other islands of this group discovered since 
the voyage of Captain Cook, are Lata, Hamom 
Vavao, on the north, all fertile and populous* 
South of the Friendly Islands are Tasman, or Fyi- 
start Island, the Isle Vasquez, or Maurelle, and 
the group of Kermandec, midway between the 
Friendly Islands and New Zealand, The principal 
of this group are, Sunday Island, or Raoul, in 
«9° 12' ; 178° 2(y W. Macauley's Iskwd* two 
miles and a half long N.W. and JS.E. mod§ra|el$ 
elevated on the east ; its only vegetation i^ cQflfflf 
grass and the mangrove ; the surface is cov£{$$ 
with burnt rock and pumice stone, evinsipg £fr$ 
existence of volcanic fires. It has no i^jftnjqg 
^at^r, but from the deep gullies observed, i$ fa 
probably subject to heavy rains. Bats ai|cL JWfifl[ 
.were observed on it. Five leagues south pf.t^a 
i^u^d are the two barren and rocky -Curtff jfite&f 
JUchercheLlslajid, in this group, is of » tj^g#J§£ 

- stem 



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ib^eiaolirof^HtDd^nrte h^%ht ; there fewwlfomgia 
itoi It rta*o£iwtfr water *>iir the ^wesfc The Bop* 
rodfc is half a mile m circuit, aqd eighty yardi 

pjQkuihe north side of the Friendly group are 
nny scattered islands, of which the following 
$ce the feest known. Traitor's island of Le Maire 
£K*fpel idbmd of WaUb), three miles and a half 
}§ogk has fresji water and anchorage, and is an* 
feinted ; Coco* of Le Maire (Boscawen of Wallis), 
k tlwee Ipagnes in circuit rising in a high peak j 
Horn Island of Le Maire seems to be V Enfant 
Perdu of Bougainville. Wallis Island, fbrther 
901th, is smile long, of middling height and co- 
hered with trees ; on the west it is lined by a reef 
in which is an opening capable of receiving ships. 



NAVIGATORS ISLANDS. 

■ ■ . / '< 

• The' group discovered and named Navigator'* 
"RtAtfDs, by Bougainville, was also visited by La 
?fetfdiis& The known number is seven, but the 
■antes 'given them by the French navigators; 
*nd those in Arrowsmith's Chart of the Grand 
4Ke*ft'*re very different; they are from W.N: WJ 
ife&kas foliowt Otawhy (Pola fr.),' Gai 
m&e frl, Oatooah (Oyolava fir.), Tootobillai 
fltkd&ii n fi.y, Tanfooe fr., Leone fr., Tooma- 
tfttifft (©poun ft.) The natives reckon three 'other 
fiiinad io the S. W. This chain wceived tjie name 
ffll&vigator's Islands from the number of canoes 

of 



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WmkmtmH 



of the natives, and their dexterity in ths manage- 
ment of them, circumstances which are, 4i6^- 
ever, common to all Polynesia. 

These islands are elevated with borders of lo* 
land towards the sea, and generally surrounded 
by reefs. Tootooillah or Maouna, is extremely 
fertile, abounding in cocoa nuts, bread fruit, and 
oranges \ hogs are so plentiful that in twenty hours 
La Perouse procured five hundred, besides fowls 
and pigeons. The island has several cascades, and 
on the coral beaches were picked up basaltic 
pebbles. Oatooah or Oyolava, according to La 
Perouse, equals Otaheite in beauty and size, as 
well as in fertility and population ; and this navi- 
gator estimates the whole population of the chain 
at .four hundred thousand, which, however, ap- 
pears to be far beyond the truth. 

At Maouna, Captain de Langle, the compa- 
nion of La Perouse, the naturalist of the expedi- 
tion, and nine men, were treacherously murdered 
by the natives, in whose friendly appearance they ' 
placed an imprudent confidence. The natives of 
these islands equal or excel the Otaheitians in the 
various kinds of manufactures, and particularly in 
that of a kind of linen with some plant resembling 
flax. The same disgusting licentiousness in the 
intercourse of the sexes was observed here ao£ 
] the Society Islands. 

Penrhyn Island is solitary, small, low, and co- 
vered with trees, discovered in 1789, latitude £° 
10', longitude 157° 45'. M 

^auSifl}. Caroline 



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W^^.^ i ^ weffdi fry Bsftgfrqv^ 

febnue-rn MARQUESAS. 

The isles Marquesas lay in a chain N.W. 
and S. E., being composed of two groups ; the 
.south-easternmost, discovered by Mendana, in 
1795, and named after Don Garcias de Mendoza, 
Marquis of Canete, and then Viceroy of Peru. 
To the four seen by Mendana, Capt Cook added 
a fifth in 1774, and in April 1791 the American 
Captain Ingraham discovered the north-western 
group. In June of the same year this group was 
visited by Marchand, a French navigator, who, 
not knowing of the prior discovery, named them 
lsk§ de la Revolution. In March 1792, Lieut. 
Hergest, the unfortunate companion of Vancou- 
ver, touched at the same group, and after him, 
Captain Vancouver named them Hergeses Islands. 
In December 1792, Roberts, another American 
Captain, visited them, and it would appear gave 
them the general name of Washington, though 
Ingrahani also gave this name to one of them. 
The fact of prior discovery by the Americans be- 
ing undoubted, justice demands that the name of 
Washington should be continued to them. The 
synonimous names of the different islands are as 



>Sta. Madelena. Mendana. 



Emt>pean fame*. ftarlgitfoti. 

(Wilson). 
vol. iv. s Onataya 



-.-; 



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*«W**. :- Native Namej. #<:•'* Sttope«L!Ca*f. "'N«*%wbrs. 

— Onataya (Wilson) , v ^ f , . . . w s 

Motane. }St,Tfedrt> . . . I .'Mendstoai 

Ohitahoo (Wilson) ^m ™ . . ^. 

Tmvata, f ****• Chnstina.. . Ditto. 

Ohevahova (Wilson) ^ _ . . ^. 

Hoivahova. jDommica Ditto, 

Tcebooa (WilsonJ ^ 1 Hood Cook. 

Fetugu Kruscnstern. J Adams Ingraham. 

Rooapooah (Wilson) > Marchand .... Marchand. 

I Trevenen .... Hergest. 
stern). ; Jefferson ..... Roberts 
Rooahoogah (Wilson) j Riou _ H est 

Uahuga (Kmsen- j > M assachu3«ts.. Roberts* . 
stern). J 

( Federal Ingraham. 

T^ooaKeevah (Wilson) ] Baux Marchand. 

"Nukahiva (TCtusen). \ Sir H. Martin . Hergest. c 

f Adams Roberts. 

Uuknown, one mile r Lincoln Ingraham. 

' and a half S.E of) Revolution . . . Roberts. 

Uapoah, two miles 1 Platte Mafcfrand. 

4 in circuit. (. Level Wilson. 

r Frarlklin Ingfahatti.' 

Mottuaity, (two is-j Two Brothers . Marchandi 
lands. j Hergest rocks . Hergest. i 

(Blake RdbeftS!^ 

~ r r Knox Ingrahafcf. 1 

f? 1 Hiaii; J Masse Marchind. 

»-!• ^Freemantle . ./Robe^Wi '-> 

£ I r Hancock . ... Ingr&ham. 

| I Fattuhu. J Chanal March&tid. 

sj ^ LLangdon • . . . ♦ Roberts. 

The 



JB 



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, TJ§&, Marquesas are elevated, yo^jairic, an4 »^i. 
*f$fefl* ,fyat the y^m^prQ^well watered by rivulets, 
and afford the same vegetable productions as the 
Society; t Islaijd9* The bog and rat are the onjy 
quadrupeds ; the first of a yejry small size, seldpip 
weighing} twelve pounds* These islands have also 
the common fowls, . but not abundant. . 

The inhabitants are painted as the handsomest 
of the Polynesian race, and in their manners diffep 
little from the Otaheitians, the same licentious in- 
tercourse of the sexes characterizing both, as well 
as the same prostitution of their wqmen to stranr 
gers, a custom which produced an adventure t? 
one of the good missionaries, the relation of which 
would malfte a stoic smile :* and little less shock- 
ing than ,the offered caresses of tihe Marquesas 
princess, ; was the indecent appearance of the fe- 
males, who. visited the ship ; for their clothes not 
be*tf*i#g the wet, in these visits they were left on 
shore, and their sole dress was such as recalled 
tfce^dea of our mother Eve. The green leaves, 
howey^pv attracting the appetite of the goats on 
bc$x4 the » ship, when the women turned to 
d^e^d -'tfefpe before, the hungry animals attacked 
the«L>fihii|d, M> Ahat they were soon reduced to a 
perfeict^fcrte of nudity, to the great scandal of the 
brg&f go. t 

* Qhftofet he south-easternmost of the Marques* 
group, (i^, [five leagues in circuit. , Mendana an- 
chored ^ip* good bay on the south side. 

. i Qnatayia is three leagues in circuit, and. appa- 
rently Uitle fertile. 

,. i e 2 Otihatoo 

• Missionary Voyage, page 141, 4* Edit. ^ 



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Otiha*oe * thia*' tew* l0k^t)feictf%9li»d?en. 

tkely of hills with fertile vtfiefc °ffte Rfcytf 
Madre de JHo$ Of Ma&dto* wr Revotetioa of 
Cook, aear the middled the weft Akv is a goo* 
anchorage with abundance of Aesh ¥tetarw !^ 

«. Ohevahoa is ait leagues k>og> aod composed ^f 
steep hills well wooded. Inthe dentre^Jf tl»t*ittaoI 
'rocky ptocipices start up in the shape of dbditk^ 
pfinacles, fcc/in siicfc codfoawb as to leare f*> 
doubt of thek beiftg produced by a con vtikiooti oif 
<ft*tuife. ■ < - .. : :* - - • r : - - -,v - 

Betugaisismail, trot elchrateffo wflih «any <*fedkfc 
round it. : . ( r : _ 

f Uapoah is six miles long, composed df Ihrtae 0* 
font hills with rocky sutttrftih j at the &W.*ta&ts 
& gtod bay> arid others oh the south side- < I 

Uahuga is she leagues ihWfctttffc Tte *«**ide 
isrodky and linfcd by a rt6f: eft *he S.W.* a 
•good bay* It rides in a lofty DSouoWin ^ieWmiH^ 
able height. ! :;$! 

Nuk^iiva is the largest of this chdta, beih£ 
sixteen leagues long S.E. and S.Wt. ^ its^ytfi 
toast is composed of lofty and tugged MclsSl 
^fojfcn which tnrtible many beautiful 'caacafies* ott* 
froto a height of two thousand feet. On tbifi nidfc 
jtfe three good bays, fttaSed Compftollerts Bftfr 
(Hagest) Port Anna Maria, and TchitecWgctff 
^Kaiisetestern). ■ .. (7/ 

! ^iRaa aiid Eattubu are two im inbabitfecttiatiai, 
bat visited by the people of (he olh6r> istendfrfto 
Tfcfccostoiuts. •• -t\i -*w[ 

-' Between the Friendly and Society gr#tf|fej###£ 

fol- 



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^bUi?#i^^«Wr^i9bod^ Sfcv^e Island of Cbofc 
I9W; *69° 30 Iff* : 
to *&»4^nV Istatf <rf Cook 177*, ia famed 

by nine or ten spots of earth joined by ooral reefs; 
the largest spot is not above ogle tnfl$ TO circum- 
ference, and not more than three feet above the 
level the of sea ; they form a semieircle egdosMig a 
bay or lagoon on the west. There ig no anchor- 
age round them, but safe landing for boats. Th^ 
soil, which consists of a vety thin la^er of ve- 
getable mould over a coral base* is^ covered with 
bushes, and a good many cocoa-nut trees. They 
are uninhabited, have no fresh water, but are fret 
quented by great numbers of ipen of war and 
tropic birds, and boobies ; some owfe, curlews, 
and sand pipers were also seen on tbera, as well a? 
small brown rats. Fish is abundaat. 

* At one part of" the reef, which bounds the 
lake within," says Captain Cook/ u there was a 
large bed of coral almost even with the surface, 
which afforded perhaps one of the moat enchant- 
ing prospects that nature has any where produced. 
Its base was fixed to the shore, but reached so far 
in that it could not be seen, so that it seemed to 
be suspended in the water, which deepened so 
suddenly, that, at the distance of a few yards, 
there might be seven or eight fathoms. The sea 
was at this time quite unruffled, and the sun 
shining bright exposed the various sorts of coral 
in the most beautiful order ; some parts branching 
into the water with great luxuriance, others laying 
ceUtetite&fo round balk, and in various other fi- 

eS gures j 

• Cook's third royagt, Vol. I. p. 216. 



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54 v MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

gures ; all which were greatly heightened W 
spangles of the richest coIoufs, that glowed from 
a number of large clams, which were evety where 
interspersed. But the appearance of these was 
still inferior to that of the multitude of fishes, 
that glided gently along, seemingly with the most 
perfect security. The colours of the different 
sorts were the most beautiful that can be ima- 
gined; the yellow, blue, recj, black, &c. far 
exceeding any thing that art can produce. Their 
various forms, also, contributed to increase the 
richness of this submarine grotto, which could 
not be surveyed without a pleasing transport, 
mixed, however, with regret, that a work, so 
stupendously elegant should be concealed, in a 
place where mankind .could seldom have an op- 
portunity of rendering the praises justly due to 
so enchanting a scene."— 18 c 0' ; 163 * 12 W. 

Hervey Island, of Cook, 1774, named Terrouge 
Atooa by the natives, is similar to Palmerston's 
Island, being composed of three or four spots of 
dry ground, covered with bushes, joined by reefs, 
and is six leagues in circumference. There is no 
anchorage round it. The natives seem to differ 
materially from those of the Society Islands of 
Cpok, though their language is the same. They 
are of a darker colour, and have much more la- 
vage features, resembling the natives qf &e\tf 
Zealand ; neither are they so friendly as the for- 
ipeir. Their hair is strong and. black, sometimes 
worn loo&e,, at others tied in a bunch on the crown 
qf the head, .while some have it cut short. Their 

onlv 



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SOUTHERN POLTBTCSLU 50 

o^y covering }s a narrow strip of mat round the 
lojn^, . nor (do they appear tb practice tattooing. 

i^lSy 158°64>W. 
Otakootaia, or Venooa-ette, is about thre0 
leagues in circumference, not more than six feet 
above the level of the sea, and has no anchorage 
or fresh water. Besides bushes, it has cocoa- 
nuts— is uninhabited — but sometimes visited b# 
tti£ natives of the neighbouring island of Wateeoo. 
Boat# can land bn the west side. 19° 51' ;> 
0° 81' W. 

, /Wateeo is four leagues S.E.. of Otakootaia, and 
about sjxt leagues in circumference. Its surfkcer 
i diversified with small hills, entirely cbver^d 
with verdure, and it produces the cocoa palm, 
pknt&k*, bread-fruit, the tow plant, ,and other 
tegetables of these seas; and is well supplied 
with; frogs. The natives are similar to those o§ 
the Society Islands, and received Captain Cook 
wkh^ cheerfulness and hospitality. 

^gt this island, that navigator met three natives 
of Otaheite, who had been driven by the wind^ 
and currents thus far to leeward, in attempting to! 
para jn a canoe to Uliatea. Captain Cook after 
relatipg ( their story observes, " The application, 
of t^ above narrative is obvious ; it will serve to' 
explain better than a thousand conjectures o£ 
speculative reasoners, how the detached parts of. 
the earth, and in particular, bow the islands of 
the Sputjh Sea may have been first peopled, es-* 
peciahy those that He remote from any inhabited! 
continent, or from each other." But this fact, 
, . H as 



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&&• well as others of the same nature, proves di- 
rectly the contrary of the inference deduced from 
it by Captain Cook \ namely the peopling of 
Polynesia from the west, for in all these instances 
the natives have been driven from east to west by 
the trade wind and equatorial currents, and hence 
the real consequence would seem to be the de- 
rivation of the Polynesian race from America, a 
consequence, however, which every physical and 
moral feature of these people forbid us to adopt. 

Mangeea Island, south of Wateeoo, is five 
leagues in circuit, rising in. the middle to hills, 
visible ten leagues. The S.W. shore is composed 1 
of cliffs of sand stone ten feet high, with many 
caverns worn by the sea-, The north shore is 
composed of broken land* with ravines and in- 
tervals of sandy beach. Captain Cook fttod 
. neither anchorage nor landing place* The natevts 
Assemble those of Wateeoo. • . . i .., i z . * : 

Several degrees farther east are mei otter 

awttated islands* in the following succession 

Oheteroa, a high island, four leagues in etuctift : 

; lb abounds in the easuarina, and is inhabited* O 

J Toobooai, five leagues long, rises in hitt*j>f 

considerable elevation, with a narrow bottles ix>f 

few land, edged by a sandy beach* and wavered 

<r jrith lofty trees* The hills are clothed mth.gms* 

W>d f Weep in tufts, except some patches *>f j rook. 

<]0n. : the' N.W. side is anchorage and landing: £>r 

boat* ''tiwough a break in the reef. The* ;in- 

i b^ifemts appear unfriendly. 28* 96' yl^iQhW. 



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).< Agw|i;rpfpcfddingp to the north wea ttoefc twit 
inptgjriifamU i&jbnfa fomuag tbe waBtam tauti 6f 
tkjs; Society efaaim Tbs)r aw name* G&nuroife 
tte SciUj of W*lli% art ptoteUp tie, 44 Ftlft* 
gfen*of Quiro^ a> gttup of law patches*. «».!» 
•eef i#* 30 * 150° 10^ W. Thft aeooMftitti* 
MnlaSiCaitctMB of iafeta, auaae&lfaaajfe barrtlaB 
Socaatp jakuxtafe'. anal Load Hawaii iabad bjr 
WaDi* p«*aa% tic BigitarattfiQiiiKM* IfiSMfi' ; 
,*«P tf W*lbat*httea*ialaaMh aie unmbabftaak )[ 

,t: -r • : . 'T .'•■-, v.;. -V 



(j*,. i: o.'i/ , ' , : - • • -r \ . v. i..o o 

- ! .™' k '' ' ' SOCIETY ISLANDS! ' ' ' V,V ~° 
-m ban >, * . ! > .. /.'.: : n 

bwiflWgeetip to which- Captain Cook gaVetbe 

^D8M ofiSocfaly Islands^ eouwste of si* ottfy, 

m*. Martin* Bdlabola> Ibbi* Otftha, tTlietea, and 
^iitabdm^ but to these we may *di OtgAeite, 
•rfiiMMaV Si*€tHuk* Sfc&iiders's, Tothnro^Md 

ttttteni > 

Otfalwite bettfg ©early in the centtfe of tko 
i gtt&p, *ih* the most eonsktarabte and celebrated* 
lo do g irwb to b* first noticed. ' > 

i -nslt^t ciW M certaia that this island is the &gfc 
■tfrngdmi Me t wftm a» so- long' looked for in ^ 
-iootilift *afc discovered by Walti* in I7fl0,fi«|io 
ioiflpnfcirit King, George the Tiurd's Island. Tr> 
-i riwsabie ytesr it was* visited by Bongaiwvilks wfto^ 
Viu£tttfitftit*d with. the English iia^gator*g prior 

discovery, named it New Cythera. Finally, Cap. 

tain 



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J235. *** €bok* neariy: cawpfeted *he rk^wle^g? ? p£$ 
""" in lus three voyages; and w^ fl ^e?Jpft M ju^4oflR 
bas been amply accomplished by t^e , frequent 
visits paid to it since, and above all, hyufaeiifflfo 
ratives of the missionaries, who resided in th^ 
island for considerable periods. -.;.., - 

- Otaheitens composed of two circular, peninsula^ 
joined by an isthmus, three miles broad*. Thg 
Borth west peninsula is much the largest,, and 
both together are about 100 Voiles in circum* 
ference* Both rise in lofty hills, leaving only a 
border ' of low land, of three males in breadth 
towards the sea. The whole island is surrounded 
by reefs, in which, however, are several openipg^ 
forming good anchorage. 

" Perhaps there is scarcely a spot in the ,uni«. 
vase/' says Captain Cook,* " that affords a ipprei 
luxuriant prospect than the south-east part.flf 
Otaheite. The hills are high and steep, and ia 
many places craggy. But they are covered; to 
the very summit with trees and shrubs, in fijch, ^ 
manner, that the spectator can scarcely frelp 
thinking, that the very rocks possess the property 
erf producing and supporting their verdant $Qfifa 
tag, The flat land which bounds those Jftty§ 
toward the sea, and the interjacent valley?, >ds(> 
teem with various productions, that, gro^r w^i 
the most exuberant vigour, and at once fill, .fbp, 
mind of the beholder with the idea, th^t/po pJ#pft- 
upon earth ; can ; outdo this, in the strength ^4 i 
= , ^atfty; 

. * Vol. ii. f. !44k r " '-.'- ! K • <• 



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<*e*ttty^f A^^fetatioti. 'Natare h^s beeh na lest £££ 
Mfeirtil^in+ai^tributiiig rivulets, which are found in """ 
Hfry Vdlley i artd J a* they approach the sea, often 
dWftte Wo two or three branches, fertilizing the 
felt tends through which they run. The ha- 
bitations of ' the natives are scattered without 
cft*ttef;' J tip<nr the flats; and many of them ap- 
pearing toward the shore, presented a delightful 
tetne, viewed from our ships ; especially as the 
scfa; within the reef, which bounds the coast, is 
perfectly stffl, and affords a safe navigation M, all 
times for the inhabitants, who are often seen 
paddling in their canoes indolently along, in 
passing from place to place, or in going to fish." 

In ascending the hills, the vegetable earth of 
the low ground changes to clay and marl of dif- 
ferent colours, covering a tender grey rock. 
Basaltes seems to predominate in the upper 
itegron. ' 

Tile trade wind between E.S.E. Mid E.NiE* 
prevails generally throughout the year, and when 
moderate, is accompanied with fine clear weather \ 
but when it blows fresh, it is usually cloudy, with 
showers of rain. In December and January, ft 
sometimes blows for four or five days between 
W.N.W. and N. W. with dark cloudy weather and 
rtriir, and of these variations the natives of the 
isfahds to leeward take advantage to visit Ota* 
hdt£.> Winds from S.W. to W.S.W. are more 
£fct(ii4nt, and sometimes blow in brisk squalls, 
wHh dark cloudy weathear, a sultry atmosphere, 
#n<l thunder $nd lightning: when they veer to 

the 



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- as tp blov down, bouaas and cfco^ruut- trw^ A ,-b«i: 
these tornadoes are ueveq of torjgdufatwfc n ,iT 

The Qtahekans have names, -or .pcusoQJi^tiffW 
for these different winds :-»the taade wiffd £h«r 
caUHaaraoe; between the S.E. and S&E> MftPftti 
between, the W.N.W. and N.W. Tocrn** before** 
N.W. and North, Erapotaia, who* according to 
their mythology, is the wife of Toero*} between 
S.W. and W.&W. Efcoa; and between S.^f. and 
South, Farooa. 

The vegetable production* of the island aft* 

yams, taroroot, sugarcane, thekava, amiottag 

used as food, plantain, bread fruit, cecqa *pt 8 

the sandal wood is also found in the mftiintajntj 

and a great number of other beautiful woods* ',. 

The natural fertility of the soil, and tha fiae* 

seas of the climate, reduce the laboms of caJ& 

vation to almost nothing; and the yams, «tak 

plant, of which the seeds are brought from the 

mountains, the kava, and the plantain, are the 

only vegetables that requite the slightest attenti**? 

The yam they plant in the same manner as aft lb* 

JFriendly Islands. The kava and dotht plant tab 

quj^e no other care than to cover then* fan tta 

sufl, when young, with the leave* of the breads 

fcuittree. The plantain demands m» inoie.^hajll 

cutting off the old stems when the fruit ip gajhjMta 

Hj, a nd new ones have , shot up. Tba,'*acfia-nufc 

^Utyk^fa*™ two abovagroan^is Oeffe to 

W «! M\ =% #W*Mtuifc treQ. rsfwodi*** jtfctf 

WJteHW^yb» shoots, from, the *W*>i*hatk 

•>'"' instead 



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3kfu rtftktf 'Mtt^ESiA. s61 

instead of cultivating, it is sometimes necessary ^2 
to remove it, to make way for other vegetables. 

The only animal found on the island by the first 
discoverers was the hog, the breed of which has 
been since much improved by some left behind 
by two Spanish ships in 1774; who also left some 
goats and dogs, both of which have multiplied. 

The natural curiosities of the island aTe, as far 
as we know, confined to two, of which the prin- 
cipal is a lake of fresh water, on the top of one 
of the highest mountains ; to go to which, from 
Matavai bay, and retitrn, requires three or four 
days. It is said to be fathomless, and to abound 
in enormous eels, which are sometimes caught by 
the natives, who venture on the lake on rails 
made of wild plantain trees. The second curiositj 
is a pond, the water of which, though limpid, de- 
posits a yellow sediment, and if drank is found a 
mortal poison, as well as causing those who bathe 
in it to break out in blotches. 

The natives of Otaheite differ materially from 
A«6^Ttbe Friendly Islands, in their physical fcs 
ititfl as mora! character. They are infinitely tnbr£ 
delicately formed, and of a much fairer complet- 
ion, which is probably owing to their mote indo- 
lent mode of life, arising from the superidt 'ferti- 
lity of the country. But this superior beaitty is 
also accompanied with a degree of langotir and 
want of animation, most partfculaify Yemfcrkdble 
ft dteir '-ttbkftie amusements, such as wtestliti£ 
ife^txttfag, iritfth art mere dhildren's play to the 
dtofeiois<*tf<*h* rome *ind in the Vrtet&ly 1£ 
basJen/ lands. 



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jgf««J 



*£*$ fands. The women of Otaheite, according"*** 
Captain Cook, aire more beautifhl than those *dF 
the Friendly Islands, possessing all those physical 
characteristics that distinguish the female sex $A 
the m6st polished countries. ' * * f 

The Otaheitans are subject to several mortal 
and * loathsome diseases, amongst which are *the 
acrophula, a disease called hottati, which produces 
* crooked back, indolent swellings of the extre- 
mities* dropsy, intermitting fevers, dysentery, &b. 
and a disease produced by the immoderate use of 
the kava, wbich causes them to break out id 
blotches, and to waste away to skeletons. .Thtfc 
beverage is here chiefly confined to the better 
sort, and is prepared in a less disgusting maimer 
than at the Friendly Islands ; the stalks and leaves 
as well as the roots being bruised, and water 
poured over them, without the process of chew*, 
irtg, neither do large companies assemble to drmk 
it, as at the former islands. ; > 

Their general . food consists of at least nine- 
tenths vegetables ; and though of these they ha*t> ! 
•usually the greatest abundance, from the neglect 
of cultivation, or unfavourable seasons, scarcftSeb, * 
a*4 even famines, sometimes occur, in whfclr 1 
gfiaat numbers perish. When the bread fruit a^fi' 1 
yams are consumed, they have recourse to varfdfiS f 
roots which grow wild in the mountains; - * * * 
.tQf animal food a very small portion falls ataityi 
tiine*o,the share of the lower class, and thenViP 
cofisietff of fish, sea eggs, end. other maxirid ptto- 
dpcttioQ*. The great ehiefe are alone able to &f r 

pork 



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pDik 3Very 4ay, 0»d tfte inferior ones, according ig£ 
Tfc> tteir r^oks, ©aoe a week, fortaigtat, or raoatk ~~* 
(When the island is impaverished by war, or other 
Wiees, the king prohibits bis -subjects of every 
rank from killing hogs, and a similar prohibition 
ipaiso occasionally extended to fowls. 
Jf :Themeate are very numerous, their first recast 
beiogat two o'clock id the morning, after which 
they again go to sleep, and their last at eight 
o'clock in the evening, The women have not 
only the mortification of not being allowed to eat 
with, the men, but are prohibited all the better 
sorts of food, such as turtle, some kipds of fish, 
and several kinds of plantains, and it is very sel- 
dom that even those of the first rank ard aHowed 
to eat pork. The women are also obliged to serve 
up their own victuals, for they might certainly 
starve; before any grown man, even of the lowest 
class, would do diem such an office. The chil- 
dren of each sex also eat apart 

", When Otaheite was rediscovered by our Eng- 
lish navigators, it became the envy and admira- 
tion of Europe. Those who placed happiness in 
the indulgence of sensual appetite, and freedom 
iu /tbe absence of legal and moral restraints, were 
tyifl in their praises of the New Cythena; and alt 
regarded these islanders as siagularly favoured by 
Providence, because their food was produced 
spontaneously, and because they had no other btt- 
siijes* in Kfe than to enjoy existence. But now 
th^thgyare better kuown, it rappeara indubitably 
th^t, their jaioral iniquities exceed those of any 

other 



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vii jBHinw vBMiraf • 

jftA other pe&pk, ancient or modern, savage *>r bivi- 
^ sr Jized. Independent of the >lice»tioas intefremirete 
of the sexes, the horrid practice ctf infanticide, 
human sacrifices, &t. crimes against hature «rc 
habitually committed without shame, and a& if to 
shew to what loathsomeness of pollution a de- 
praved imagination will have recourse, when*sttted 
with all ordinary abominations, the missionaries, 
assure us that a society was formed at Otaheilje, 
who in their meetings were to eat human ordure 
as the seal and sacrament ot their association." 

The abominable society of Arreoys, is composed 
of those of both sexes of superior rank who, posses- 
sing the means and the inclination to procure a Suc- 
cession of fresh connections, are constantly roam- 
iHgidnimitj *fcd spend 'their youths in the tawtdi- 
^aratifius eoortsities. When an Arreoy wottito <fe 
4elit«*di of a child, a piece of ckrth 4ipp*M» 
cwater i* allied to the noee and mouth* *bMk 
jsufibcatee it j but tf natural .affection leads ibfcp*. 
jMElsitOjpfcMfve their offspring, tbty ate obliged 
>Oi retire Aom this society, and Eye tftewartfe^ifc 
*nan and wife, j •i.ith 

*, The only -cq* esneny in the coming iwgStbtfr'tf 
ihe seaes **, that the man m obliged *t> aMbte'4 
#vsfnt to the father of the giri, and ^tltW*^ 
sent is not esteemed Jasge enough^ HBe ifatWfr 
jnakeatt* sirrupleof ob%iiig)hcr1»'qulft*€iP^wiet 
;»d liye with anbthef* who nm£be^r**b&^ a 
i^dfteside* these eases where the hwtW ^tfcfctfi^tfr 
;*tiu*kade previa, them a*"<4M«'; MMi$JU*4 
ywiurf eJHwt^w: of a4$KHio**fcu*fe>& tikn&lffe 
#. . * v * -^frith 



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destroyed ; and among the lower class, it is com- ^ 
mon for women to destroy their three first chil- 
dren, particularly females, for girls are much more 
generally destroyed than boys, and hence women 
.are become so scarce, that few can afford to pur- 
chase wives, and the women being sought for in 
proportion to their scarcity are continually chang- 
ing, and by the reaction of evil, destroying their 
offspring to be without incumbrance. 

Among this depraved race old age is treated 
with disrespect, and * old man ' is a term of the 
highest qontempt. The sick are generally totally 
neglected, and often put to death by their rela- 
tions. 

t Such is the character given of the Otaheitans 
by some of their European visitors, while accord- 
ing to others this picture is overcharged and ca- 
Jumn/ous. Captain Wilson assures us, that it is 
as difficult in this country as any other to have a 
crinjipal intercourse with married women, or even 
;with .single ones, except those of the lowest class, 
and even among them many are chaste. It is true 
]there exists here a class of prostitutes, more nu- 
merous, perhaps, than in other places, and such 
ar? the women that frequent the ships of Europeans 
and their camps on shore. 

- The missionaries also assure us that they have 
never seen any indecency committed in public, 
and that their licentious dances are only performed 
by young rakes, and never but in the theatre; 
they also tell us, that aa mothers and wives 

vol. iv. p the 



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66 X&lXTOfK CEOGSATBT. 

1)te Otaheitans do not dishonour human -nature, 
being attentive to the interests of their husbjuids, 
and careful of their offspring* Amongst them- 
selves property is sacred, and the last wiHL of the 
deceased scrupulously executed, and injurious 
words* violence, and theft are severely punished* 
The religious system of the Otaheitans is very 
«3tten*ive and complicated. It appears that they 
believe in a kind of trinity, existing in a father* 
a son, and a bird or spirit- This supreme divinity 
resides in a palace in the heavens, with mapy 
other deities ef inferior order, named E&uas, 
and ^collectively Ekanaw pa, or children of 
-the night The genealogy of their gods k 
like all other theogenies, a system of allegorical 
cosmography. The isles of the ocean are the frag- 
ments of a great continent, which the gods in an- 
ger broke to pieces. The tri-une divinities have 
a temple in the district of Oparree, but are only 
invoked in great public calamities, the daily prayers 
being addressed to the Eatuas. Each family has 
Also its thi y or protecting genius, who is the au- 
thor of its good and evil fortune. The souls of 
the dead they believe to be eaten by the body bird 
or deity, and after being purified by a transmuta- 
tion into his substance, take flight and become 
divinities who watch over the late of mortals. 
They strongly believe in the immortality of the 
aoui, and in the doctrine of future rewards. ' The 
tafioeras or priests are very numerous and power* 
ful, and the chiefe on solemn occasions officiate in 
the sacrifices. 

-i " v- AH 



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SOOTHERN POLYNESIA, 67 

AD the ambition of an Otaheitan is to have a £^2 
grand morai, or family mausoleum, which is al- 
leys placed m the most romantic situations, un- 
der the shade of *fimereal trees, where the as- 
pect 6f rocks and the murmur of waters inspire a 
pleasing melancholy. The corpses are placed on 
elevated stages, named tapapoo> where they re- 
man* until the flesh is consumed, when the bones 
'are collected and deposited in the morai. Mourn- 
ing consists in cutting the flesh with the tooth of 
die shark, so that the blood and tears form a hor- 
rible mixture. 

Human sacrifices are offered on various occa- 
sions, such as previous to going to war, on the 
sickness of any of the royal family, on the inves- 
titure of the king, &c: in the last case, every 
chief offers from one to three victims, in propor- 
tion to the size of his district. They are always 
of the lowest class, generally criminals, and are 
knocked on the head by surprize, or while asleep, 
so that tiiey have no warning of their fate ; the 
ceremony consists in the priests plucking out the 
bowels and one eye, which latter be presents to 
the king on a plantain leaf. Prisoners taken in 
war aire also often sacrificed. They practice cir- 
cuifleision, not from any religious motive, but 
froth an idea of cleanliness, and both sexes are 
tatooed m various parts of the body. 

The government is a mixture of despotism and 
aristocracy. The honours paid to the king are of 
the* Hiost extravagant nature. Whatever place be 
enters is jnsu&e sacred by his presence, and no per- 

f2 so n 



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Inland*. 



son biit * Ms domestic!^ ' majr > <&£& ^ ^ftttffdBp 
lie is therefore cafrfed ofr ta&i^ *biila^ 'tffieit 
out of his own immediate doma&, fi& WH6ffev#<i 
royal foot touches is sanctffifed fetdflftiii ^5te 
king's dignity does not permit hitti to feed him- 
self, and all persons in passing Mm, or any of the 
royal family, or even his hottee, must strip the 
breast and shoulders. Every word in which the 
name of the king enters as a part is fbtbiAdtti'tto 
be spoken. . ...;>, ,Imw 

The son of the king htamediately onhii biftfi 
succeeds to the title and honours of bis father, 
and the latter descends to the rank of regent ; iMt 
if the king has no son, his brother succeeds him 
at his death. • • i- -><'>* 

* To the royal family succeed the ertis tor 'gbkft 
chiefs, who possess and govern large distrfettf,' find 
are almost independent ; the towhas are genenrflt 
relations of the erees, who goverti stibdivfeio&s 'of 
their districts; the rattiras are the posses&rs r l8f 
freehold lands ; the manahovnies the ctfltiWMtaV& 
Without property but free in their person^ 1 *and 
finally the towtows, who are servants, dr'¥MH*fc 
staves. The individuals of the inferior 1 dassfe§ Wk 
precluded from rising beyond the rank of W«$tfP 
' Since the discovery of the island by thS'EflgH*, 
it bas been almost continually at WaV ^rifiP'ffe 
neighbours. Their battles are aH 'bf ''tRetiirifl 
kind. Their Avar canoes are numerous ito&5rfi£fi£#i 
ihey fight hand to hand on stage*, the t^quftHtift 
usually jumping overboaiti,' knd eridfeivtitiHa^ 4 % 
*ave themseives^yswimmkig; fdt tftey*fcl^r$^ 
t s quarter, 



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^«ftf^infftcq?t^^serye tlje, prisoner fpr a more 
homA dgftfc tbp ne^dafo A single battle, there* 
&^^W% dflpWsf the war, and often cauaes 
f&ple iflftnd* to f change their sovereigns. 
.rn^Jhfk, language of the Otaheitans is radically 
4ta Same as jjiat spoken in all the islands of this 
#a?aib but itris less gutteral than that of the 
Jftjepdjy islands > it aboimds in figurative expres- 
9PR% ftftd admits of that inverted arrangement of 
words, which distinguishes the Greek and Latin 
fam most modern languages. 

The flnst present made the Otaheitans by their 
European visitors, was a disease a thousandfold 
wore destructive than any of their own, and 
which m their dissolute state of manners, and 
ft&ied to their general practice of infanticide, 
titeeataua a speedy extermination to the whole 
IW$« The havoc that this disease has made is in* 
deed almost incredible. In 1796, the missionaries 
retimated the population of Otaheite at 16,000, 
and in 1$Q4 it was reduced to half that number. 
iV, The residence of the missionaries among them 
ji#8k jpoduced little effect in correcting their man- 
Mffy.jmd few, if any, have been converted to 
Chfifl&Wty. There are, however, some slight 
fg^^rtqms' of improvement in their adoption of 
4#mft Eurppeau fashions, particularly coats and 
^rtSr.whiph are worn by many of the chiefs, and 
iffiffifaPfWP? of any consequence carries a musr 
flM&nu^he M^e of European tools is also become 
^n^^f^ai^ thp King has learned to write his 



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70 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 4 

g£3L The various attempts made to introduce do- 
~ mestic animals and the vegetables of Europfe intty 
these islands, have had Very little success. Be- 
sides the melioration of the breed of hogs, and 
the introduction of goats and dogs by the Spa- 
niards in 1774, Captain Cook in his* last voyagfe 
left on them an horse and mare, three cows and a 
bull, an English ram and ewe, and threfc Cape 
ewes ; some geese, ducks, turkeys, and pea-fowl. 
The horse died, the bull was destroyed, and the 
sheep perished, nor had the poultry any better suc- 
cess. The goats, however, have multiplied, atid 
the missionaries have endeavoured again to in- 
troduce sheep, &c. 

The principal road of Otaheite is MataVai Bay, 
or Port Royal, on the north ; it is within s^verkl 
r^efs and opposite a sandy beach with a fresh wateir 
rivulet. 

Mama, the westernmost of the Society Islands, 
of Cook, is small, but in the middle rises to a 
round hill that may be seen twelve leagues : it is 
surrounded by a reef, and has no good anchorage. 
Bblabola, or Borabora, is eight leagues in cir- 
cumference, and rises in a high double peaked 
mountain in the middle of the island. On the 
southwest side is the harbour of Otravanooah, 
the only place of anchorage round the island, the 
test being surrounded by a reef; the channel is be- 
tween two islets, and is one-third of a mile broad, 
tjie depth within is twenty-five to twenty-sevteti 
fathoms. The inhabitants of this island are amongst 
the most warlike of the Polynfesiaiis, having con- 
quered 



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W&ed spmd of the oeigbbouring iaknd* fyit SEX 
tbstr pp^er hag Utterly again decline^. 
. Xubai, a small low island, five leagues N. by W- 
©£ JJolabola, 

Qtaha, S.E. by E. four leagues from Bolabola, 
has twagood roads, viz, Ohamena on the east, the 
channel into which is between two small islets, 
one mile off shore ; the depth is twenty-five to six- 
tcgB fathoms. Oherrunia, on the S. W. is within 
reefs and has twenty to twenty-five fathoms. 

Uliatea, or Orayetea, t\yo miles from Otaha, 
there being no passage between them for ships. 
On the west side are the harbours or roads of 
Ohamenneno, Teteroa, and Maarahai ; Oachate, 
near the smith point. Ohetura, on the S.E., 
Onimahou on the N.E., and Oopoa near the east 
point j all of which afford good anchorage within 
reefs. The natives of this island are darker than 
their neighbours, and also more savage and less 
hospitable. 

Huaheine, eight leagues N.E. of Uliatea. On 
the N, W. side is Owarree harbour within reefs ; 
here the fruits ripen some weeks sooner than at 
pt^heite. 

$iir Charles Saunders, so named by Wallis, is 
sjx miles long, and rises to a hill in the middle. 

Eimap, or Duke of York's Island, of Wallis, 
ha$ several good harbours, particularly Taboo on 
tjie ( north, which has the advantage possessed by 
pone of the others among those islands, that a 
ship, pan sail in and out with the trade wind. 
Vfood an£ water are also procured here with great 

f 4 facility' 



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frcirtw 



3$ maWW^¥*W**< 

%$tir>t T^ / o^r roads **re P^wr^, ^f^ 
tfog nprth apdjegme op the souths X^^l^ 
WW wped Heeri by Bougainville, t , ,* > ,-; f 
-Tpthuroa, eight leagues north ^f M?^v|u, ^ 
Otaheite, consists of six or seven spots of gr#uT$ 
o^a reef, just above the level of the wate^ f . , 
; Jifaitea, or Osnaburg Island of Wallis, is fi^Mf 
mifcs in circumference, has no anchorage, apd 
yerj bad landing. This island is probably the 
Dezana of Quiros, and is evidently the Boudoir of 
3«pgainviUe 

feist of the Society Islands is a large extent of 
se^ .thickly sprinkled with little low coral ami 
sarjdy islands, to various portions of which nav*. 
gatora have given the names of the Dangerotis 
Archipelago, the Labyrinth, Pernicious Islands*, 
&c. Many of these islands are collections of drjr 
spoti on a reef enclosing a lagoon on the ¥test ; 
^hey all abound in cocoa-palms, and possess hogfc 
and dogs ; the natives resemble the Society i& 
Tankers, but are darker. This labyrinth seems to 
be divided into two portions ; the first confined 
between the latitudes 14 n and 20° and the second 
between 20° and 35°. The principal islands ttf 
ike first portion are Oanna, two islands; one Sf 
which appears to be the Recreation Island if 
Iftoggeweiri ; it is twelve leagues in circuit, eld 
vated and well wooded, by which characters^' it 
fattier Attaches to the Society Archipelago; its 
latitude is ) 15 6 58' and longitude 148° 48 W. l * 

T^ince of Wales Island, of Byron, is twenty 

leagues 



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fttetffe .^''ftft'and' West; ftot'ver^ n*rh>^ 
TO1^ffsid(Hsf lined by reefith^ lekgiies dflf? 
Byron found no anchbrage hefe, nor&krWftfa 
B6a& / 6ftd( : "'ft fe well inhabited. 14 Q 5# ; 147° 

^W^ *■".-- i. > • .; c> 

OpSif/; of Rflliser's Islands, of Coofc, rf§ 
WJderrtly the Pernicious Islands df RoggeW&n ; 
feSfy ^re four in number, the largest of Whifcli ft 
g^ht leagues long, N.N. W. and S.S;& 13* Ǥ*$ 

King George's Islands, of Byron, are tvw>, lay- 
ing S.W. by W. and N.E. by*E. two leagues from 
T^ch other* The N.E., called by the pat^ves 
Tiookooa, is a semicircular coral reef, enclosing, a 
lagoon pn the N.E., into which is a channel be- 
tween tl^e reefs, only the breadth of a ship, but 
with thirteen fathoms ; before this channel is $& 
Islet; U° 27 } 144 c 56' W. J 

Qura, the S.W. island, is four leagues long, and 
.similarly formed. Neither of these islands have 
anchorage, but both have fresh water, though 
apparently in small quantity, and are thinly inhar 

, Rujia r xoa, or Disappointment Islands,of Byron, 
ftre^yf^ ea^t and west of each other six leagijei 
$Fh$y u ax & mere coral reeft, with spots of eart^ 
tjhgy^h^ve no anchorage, nor could Byron find a 
J^diog. place, whence their name. The natives 
Sppe^iffi^ndly. \4>° T ; U\° IQl V{ . ;/ 
gn Qkeev^poa, or Chain Island, of Cook* , a ftjpfuf* 
of lgpr pj>ot* pf earth joined by reefs enclosing ^ 



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74 MAKTTWE CHSOOUnRW 

lagoon on the west, and with only a few mall 
trees- 17° *Bl ; 145° Stf W. 

Adventure Island, of Cook, 17° 0& j 14*° 
30 W. 

Furneaux Island, of Cook, a bank of coral 
twenty leagues in extent, with spots of land en- 
closing a lagoon. 17° 05' ; 143° Iff W. 

Bird Island, of Cook, similarly formed to IW- 
neaux. 17° 49* ; 14«° 4* W. 

Two Groups, of Cook, a number of spots of 
land and reefs, occupying a space of nine leagues : 
*om£ of them are ten miles long, but not above 
one quarter of a mile broad ; they are inhabited. 

Resolution Island, of Cook, two leagues long 
N.W. and S.E. 17° 24/ ; 141° 39* W. 

Bow Island, of Cook, Harp Island, of Bou- 
gainville, three or four leagues long, but not above 
200 yards wide, encloses a lagoon, and is inhabit-* 
ed and well wooded. 18° 17' ; 140° 49 W. 

Prince Henry's Island, 19° €f ; 141° 9® W. 

Cumberland Island, of Wailis, 19° 18' > 140° 
51' W. 

Gloster Island, of Wailis, 19° 11' ; 140° ao' 

m 

Thrumb Cap, of Cook, Landers, of Bougain- 
ville, a low circular island, one mile in circum- 
ference, 18° 35'; 139° 48' W. 

Lagoon Island, of Cook, Faoardins, of Bou- 
gainville, composed of some woody spots, en- 
closed by reefs, 18° 48 ; ; 138° 33' W. 

Bgnwmt Island, of Wailis, three leagues in, 

circuit. 



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amJTHBBK FOLTKEfflAi 7F 

circuit, k inhabited, but has neither anchorage 
nor landing, 19° 28' i 188° 20. 

Whitsunday Island, of WaHis, has fresh water 
but no anchorage, 19° 2ff ; 138° 12' W. 

Queen Charlotte's Island, of Wallis, 19° 18' j 
138° 30'. 

Serle's Wand, eight miles long N.W. and S.E* 
encloses a lagoon on the west and rises to two 
hummocks on the S.E. 18° 08' ; 187? C W. 
(Wilson). 

In the second or southern portion of the Dan* 
gerous Archipelago, we find the following islands. 

Duke of Gloucester, of Carteret, two low 
sandy and woody islands, six leagues asunder, 
and each situated on a crescent-shaped reef, form- 
ing a lagoon: they have neither fruit, fresh water, 
nor inhabitants, and are without anchorage, but 
boats may land. 20° 8V S. ; 145° 34/ W. 

Osnaburg Island, small, low, and covered with 
wood. 20° 8/ S. ; 140° S3' W. 

Might Lagoon Island, 21° 43' S. ; 140° 80" W. 

Carysfort Island, 21° 0' S. \ 138° 26' W. 

Lord Hood's Island, 21° 42' ; 135° 82' W. 
(Edwards) six leagues long and three wide, en- 
closing a lagoon. 

- Gatnbier's Islands, 23° 12 7 S $ 135° Of W. se- 
veral high islands occupying a space six league* 
long, surrounded by a coral reef, appear to be 
well inhabited. (Wilson). 

Crescent Island, of Wilton, 23° 22' j 134° 2^ 
b*£ it* name from enclosing a lagoon on the west ; 
though it affords no fruit trees, it is inhabited. 

St. 



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*f6 MARrrlMfi GtfOfc&APH*. 

.trfit JAanBaptiita, «5 Q 57^ 1»7 «^jW. uU 
:• Pitcakrn's Island, a little solitary ppot five tmle* 
i« circumference and elevated* so a* to. he sew* 
fifteen leagues, was discovered by, Caitenit ia 
17664 It has lately become interesting* fay the 
discovery of the descendants of some of the mtil 
tioe^rs of his Majesty's ship Bounty* seven to£ 
whom, with each a wife and servant from Cttahdi** 
sought a retreat in this island j but six of the En- 
glish being murdered by their servants, and these 
latter in their turn destroyed by the women* but 
one man and the seven females remained ; whose 
progeny, when the island was visited by an Ame- 
rican ship in 1810, amounted to twenty-five indivi- 
duals living in a state of patriarchal innocence. 
25° 13'; 133° 25'. 

Far distant from all other lands are the follow- 
ing islands. Oparo, discovered by Vancouver in 
1791, is two leagues long north and south, very 
mountainous and craggy, with perpendicular clifls 
towards the sea. It has good anchorage and land- 
ing near the N.W. point and is inhabited. 27° 
9&; U4>°9f. 
Ducie's Island. 24° 40* ; 124° 37' W. 
Easter Island, discovered by Roggewein in 1686, 
and since visited by Cook and La Perouse, is 
twelve leagues in circuit, and of an elevation to 
be seen fifteen leagues : on the west side is an- 
chorage. This island is inhabited by the Polynesian 
race, but is scantily supplied with provisions, and 
the only water is that left in the crevices of the 
rocks by rains. 

On 



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On JHist&'I3dnd is se& a kind of pkfcfortn, 
onlnrbicht arei placed rude col utais ten to fifteen 
feefchigh, surmoBnUeti by a bust whose face istive? 
feetlkragv >Thfe substances a red lava very Bgbtt 
add parous; the busts have a resemblance to theT 
Polynesian race, tad hdnce afford no foundation* 
far nber conjecture of the Peruvians haringrproi.) 
pkdihtt isiaiids of this sea. 27° 6'; 109 p 47' Wi! '/ 



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( 78 ) 



BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. 



" The discoveries of Baffin to the North of Hud- 
son's Bay being extremely problematical, cmr 
readers will doubtless excuse our passing over 
the uninteresting nomenclature of the supposed 
sounds, capes, and islands, to which he gave the 
names of his patrons or friends, Sir James Lan- 
caster, Alderman Jones, Dudley Digges, and 
many others. In expectation of a change of cli- 
mate by which future navigators may be enabled 
to verify these discoveries, we shall commence 
our notice of this continent with Hudson's Bat. 

This mediterranean is entered, according to the 
most recent charts, by two straits, separated by a 
group of islands, the northernmost named Cum- 
berland, and the southernmost Hudson's Strait* 
In general the shores are composed of naked 
rocky precipices, rising from the water to the 
clouds, furrowed by profound ravines, or separat- 
ed by narrow vallies, never cheered by the stin's 
rays, and filled with snow and ice for sfeven-eights 
of the year, and where this appearance is varied, 
it is only by low, marshy and sterile spots. The 
mouths of the rivers, which are numerous* .are 
choaked with shoals, and their navigation impeded 
by rapids and cataracts ; most of them have tbeir 
origin in lakes. 

The 



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SUTIftH NOBTH AMERICA* 75 

The greatest depth in the middle of the bay is ****** 
140 fathoms, decreasing regularly towards the 
shores, where the bottom is mud and sand : groups 
of rocky islands are scattered over it, particularly 
4m die east shore. 

Fish is not abundant either as to species or 
imdradqats. Those of the fresh waters mentioned 
as most common are small sturgeon, the common 
salmon fsahao salarj, the char (sahno alpinusj^ 
which* as well as the lavaret, is very common 3 se- 
veral species of trout, the pike (tsox beilanaj, the 
*ucker carp, lophius piscatorius, gastorosteus ac- 
cu&tatus ; (he barbote (gadus hta) y the common 
perch: shellfish are also scarce, the edible muscle 
being the only one found in any quantity ; and 
dead cockle shells are thrown up on the shores. 

The beluga is met in abundance near the mouth 
of the rivers, and the black whale enters the sea 
in great numbers ; but the attempts to establish a 
whale fishery have been unsuccessful, from the 
constant floating ices and the shortness of the 
summer. 

The animals met near the coasts are the rein- 
deer and white bears, and the former are said to 
pass in great herds in the month of October to- 
wards the north.* All vegetation, except mosses, 
ceases in latitude 67°. 

The 

♦ ft has been noticed that the reindeer quit Spitsbergen in the winter, 
aadtnwerse the ice to NorftZembfe and Liberia, ai it may be nuppased 
st.*eek m warmer clhnatc; but the writer* who describe Hudson's Bay, 
aotioe the emigration of these animal*, aa flecking the region of the 
greatest cold. 



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****** TOeamrifcfni ahoreajiotf HudsrtsoBj^W*!^ 
almost a terra \imagniUi f affording -to* yegripfawft 

a scope for conjecture, whether they are formed 
of islands communicating with Baffin's Bay, or 
one connected land deeply indented by gulfs. 
Such appears to be the Welcome Sea terminating 
in Repulse Bay, names given by the navigators in 
search of the N. W. passage ; the first from their 
hoping to find the passage here, and the second 
from disappointment at finding themselves repulsed 
by the land at its head. 

Chesterfield's river, on the west shore of the 
eittranqe of the Welcome Sea, from its size ldng 
aiorded the hope of being the desired passage* 
hut on being explored was found to terminate in, a) 
lirge &esb i^ater lake. . < > ^ao 

: Towards the southern shores of the bay.aaamcdi 
New South Wales, tbfe sea is free from ice ejrijr! 
ftom the beginning of July to the end of SepteirtK 
her ; and even in this warmer season, gneaft islands! 
of ice are drifted into the bays of th? south fr«£i 
the eternally frozen regions of the nosrtljii /jOkt^ 
extremes of heat and cold are so gtf eat j aft 140 • dei 
gr&es* the thermometer in July<rising toi)ft Jiihite 
in January it falls to 50 below O. The^ most ;im4 
tense cold is observed to be at suiwise, and i dun 
ring tlie severity of the frost the, atmogpbeard is 
pure and serene, the winds being almost constaaty 
ly from the N. W. During the winter the Auriwt 
Borealis is visible almost every night* and, pan-i 
helias t>r mock suns are frequent* aod are tfari 
signs of extreme cold; paraselenes or t modb 

4 - moons 



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moons are also common when the vapours arising w** H& f$ 
from the sea are condensed by the frost. 
; Though the summer's heat never thaws the 
ground deeper than four feet, this is sufficient to 
produce an instantaneous vegetation, the trees in 
a few days putting forth their leaves ; and the 
Europeans of the factories gather in July the: 
produce of their little gardens sown only in June, 
and which is confined to some of the most hardy 
kitchen vegetables. This frozen climate is how- 
ever healthful to Europeans, 'who <are here-sttoje^i 
teife*n disease*, j 

^ The most northern establishment of the Hwfr 
gogte Bqy Company is Fort Prince of Wales, oft 
Churchill river, in latitude 59 ^ Thi& river* is die 
only one of the bay whose mouth is not choaked 
bynAoais; en the contrary, it can receive the 
l^tgest ship* for a distance of ten miles- to where 
it>rs> apxsed by rocks. The soil is here rocky <and' 
Uurrety there being no trees within seven mile? of 
tfe factory; 'and inland are only, found small 
jttAlperst Tnnes, poplars, and willows. Proceeding 
toitliei naarth the dreary barrenness increases ancL 
tHeii*h*bitant% become fewer, until at length aei*, 
timr^Miiigsk of vegetation, nor the trace of hu» 
mfnibeing&aFe found in the frigid waste; , % 

jFort([¥erk; on Nelson river, in 57° is litde^Mr 
p^kttito^ClKirchill in climate, but both it and the 
soiiiglfeatly improve at Moose and Albany: forts^ 
tatl) dnaavara pthich empty themselves into Jamais 
h^ attbehiKith extremity of this sea;> Hereto*' 
tfeocs, ttwnij^ahd&hnost aft kind* of kitchbn vege- 

Kroom rv. c tables 



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& MAftfTIMta GE0GRlPttT. 

^1** tables are redrtd with facffity, and it fe etett 
thought that corn might be cultivated with success* 
1yith proper pains. The trees gtcfw here to a fcn*ge 
size, and under them the ground is covered witih 
tooss and berry-bearing bushes, as gooseberries, 
titrrants, raspberries, cranberries, besides straw- 
berries ami others. 

T?*e east Coast of the bay is named East Mam? 
it is, if possible, still more barren and less susceptible 
of improvement than the west coast. It is lineal 
wkh faaumeraWe rocky islands. 

The indigenous population of the coasts of 
Hudson's Bay is extremely trifling, being greatly 
reduced by maladies resulting from the excessive 
iise of spirituous liquors since the communication 
trifl* Europeans, as well as from the frequent 
fturders committed on each other when in a fitato 
Hf intoxication* 

In their persons the Indians are of the middle size, 
of a copper colour, with regular and agreeable feat 
tares, and in their manners naturally mild* affih 
ble, and charitable; but, on the other bfmd» 
cunning, overreaching, and thieves. The rela- 
tions of parents and children are those in which 
tbey appear most amiable* like most untutored 
savages they are improvident, never laying hj 
provisions for times of scarcity > and hence* \yhen 
their hunting is unsuccessful, they often fell [vic- 
tims to faming, or are reduced to the horrible ^ne- 
cessity of preserving their existence by devouring 
their own offspring* 

These savages ate superstitious ia the extreme, 

and 



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and attfibaW every event of their lives to the su- **•«***. 
perrtatural agency of some particular spirit, who, 
in- the shape of a star, • a wolf, bear, tree, or other 
object animate or inanimate, watches over their 
destiny: They believe in a supreme dispenser of 
good, Kitck~e-man-e-to 9 or the great chief; and 
also in a maleficent being, Whit-ti-co, to whom 
they ascribe their great afflictions, and whom they 
propitiate by chaunting songs in his praise. Their 
form of government is perfectly patriarchal, the 
advice and opinions of the father of a family being 
respected by its junior members from habitual re- 
verence t and in their war or trading excursions a 
dlief is chosen, whose personal merit or qualifica- 
tions alone are considered in the election, and 
irhose authority ceases with the cause that confer- 
red it. 

The Indian division of time is into nights in* 
Btead of cftiys ; and the year consists of twelve 
Wtooris, each designated by a name signifying some 
remarkable event or appearance that occurs during 
its revolution $ as, 

January, by a word signifying intense cold. 

Fdwiiary, the old or past moon. 

March, die eagle moon, from those birds then 
appearing. 

April, the goose moon. 

Mity^ the frog moori. 

June, by a word signifying the laying of eggs, 
t&ofcite^in this month the birds lay. - 

July, the goose-moulting moon. 

T Aiigust, the young bird flying moon. 

# 2 • September, 



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8* . ftU*n*MS GdE^RAPHYr 

jhUM'jjviiy. September, the deer shedding horns moon, 
October, the deer rutting moon. 
November, the freezing of the rivers moon. 
December is designated by a word signifying 
the brush falling from the pine trees by the seve- 
nty of the cold. 

, , 

Though the country surrounding Hudson's Bay 
had been discovered by English subjects at the be- 
ginning of the seventeenth century, its dreary and 
unpromising appearance caused it to be neglected 
for half a century after, when a trading post was 
established on Nelson's River ; but which was 
taken in 165 J by some French adventurers over- 
land from Canada. In 1&70 a company, at the 
head of which was Prince Rupert, was chartered, 
to carry on the exclusive trade to Hudson's Bay, 
and to seek for a passage to the N. W. This com- 
pany formed several establishments, which at diffe- 
rent times were destroyed by the French from 
Canada, who also claimed the sovereignty of these 
coasts, but finally relinquished this claim by the 
treaty of Utrecht ; and from this period to the 
present time the company have enjoyed their so- 
vereignty and monopoly undisturbed, except iu 
1782, when the forts of York and Prince of 
Wales were taken by the French commander La 
Perouse without resistance^ iwt were restored at 
the peace. 

ItfTOO the. company^ establishments tteteV r 



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BRfftttl tfOftTH AMfc*t#„. 85 

V ~"i_t Lon. A *"? r,< »' *w*fr* ^tooA^wr'No. **_2L a * 

**"• ofSkiitt. Europe. Countr*. of ~t 

CSmiwuIl Fort, or ? 

Prin^oYWifc*** 9 * * ^W^ *M°<* lofW **>*'0 25 

^^ - } 5 6 1ft 88 57/ • * 25000 I '^ ' °'" l " 

Albany Fort - 52 18 85 18 - - 5,600 *) ~ W 

Moo«eFort- . 5128 83 15 ) _ m \ l * ** l °< 70 ^ 

East Main - - 53 24 78 50) ' ' •* 1 of 70 25 

/^' 47,*00 5-780 4*11/0 240 

* ■ t 

, Of these forts Churchill alone is built of stone/ 
all the rest being of squared logs of pine. 
Churchill mounts forty to fifty cannon, twenty- 
four to twelve pounders ; and Fort York about 
fifteen cannon, twelve and nine pounders. The 
articles exported from England for the Indian 
trade are glass beads, kettles, rings and collars of 
bra^s V knives, hatchets, and other iron instru- 
in^pt? ;, fire arms, powder, shot, and flints ; brandy, 
tobacco, and coarse woollen cloths and blankets. 
Tfiffr skins procured in exchange are moose, bear, 
fp?, wolf, cat, otter, martin, buck, doe, and mus- 
qu^sh; besides goose feathers and quills and casto- 
revpp*JjThe amount of the trade is estimated at 
t_£, ^xport of .£16,000 from England, 9nd the 

k> uo:n i ; . . ______ . . * < 

it LaiuJ.-i v.. LABRADOR, ■ /< 

^^j^^ 8 ^^ ^ Labradpb by the Portugu^e 
tfSR&SF/tSh an( ^ to which, by a bad compliment to 
their country, the English have sought to attach 

o 3 that 



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•6 MARITIME GEpGRiXHV. 

I*****, that of New Britain,* extends from the entrance of 
Hudson's Bay to the mouth of the river St. Lau- 
rence. The east coast presents a ridge of rocky 
fountains, rising abruptly from the sea, and pro- 
ducing only stunted trees. The lakes and rivers 
are numerous and abound with fish, and the whole 
coast is lined by islands, the resort of innumerable 
sea birds, amongst which is the eider-duck. The 
alimentary vegetables found here are wild celery, 
scurvy grass, and other antiscorbutic plants. The 
animals are the same as those of the Hudson's Bay 
region, and many of them turn white in winter. 
The Labrador iridescent spar was originally dis- 
covered here by the missionaries. 

The natives appear to be of two races. The 
mountaineers, or Indians, who it would seem have 
a mixture of French Canadian blood, are Chris- 
tians, and live in wigwams, or hats of birch rhind 
and deers* skins. Their sole employment is hunt- 
ing, and the skins of the animals they take they 
dispose of to the Canadians, 

The Esquimaux are a totally different race, be- 
ing of very short stature, with smaU limbs, of a 
copper colour, flat visaged, with short noses, black 
and very coarse hair. Their dress is entirely of 
skins, and their food qhiefly seals, deer, and birds* 
flesh and fish. Their winter dwellings are sunk in 
the ground ; and in summer they construct huts 

with 

•™ 8 r Ba,n j ab0 to wmc ma I* ****** the whole regioirof Aaerk* 
north of Canada, 



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BRITISH KQBBTH AMERICA. 67 

with poles, covered with skins. Unlike the Indians 
they have no relish for spirits. They are not 
known to have any religion, nor any object of 
worship, and are without government or laws. 
TheAen take a pkirsiity of wives, who are consi- 
dered £s the property of the husband, and are 
transferred, bartered, or lent from one to another* 
Oq them falls all the labour except procuring food, 
whkfc is the sole occupation of the men. They 
eaiiMt reckon numerically beyond six, and their 
compound arithmetic goes no farther than twenty- 
one. Their canoes are of ribs of wood, covered 
with seal skins ; they are twenty feet long, and 
but two broad, holding but one man. Their 
arms are the dart and bow and arrow. They keep 
great numbers of dogs, as well for food as for 
their skins, and to draw their sledges in winter. 
Their number is very trifling, those occupying the 
coasts being estimated only at between 1,500 and 
2,000; and as the mountaineer Indians wage a 
most inveterate and exterminating war against 
them, they seldom venture from their shores. 

The chief establishment of the Moravians is at 
Nain, on the east coast, in latitude 57°. The 
ErigKsh visit this country for furs, whalebone, and 
oil and cod fish. 



4 CANADA 



Labrvhr. 



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s;i; i: u ... C4&AD-M . i-lffi j 

The province of Lower Canada lies cm both 
tfflfes bfthe River St Laurence, as fe* as Lake St. 
Flitted. The St. Laurence, considered the tfei 
&>frd river of America, issues immediately from 
Lake Ontario, and by it the long chain of lake* 
that separate Canada from the United States empty 
ihfetfiselves into the ocean, through thd Gtdph of 
St Laurence, The river is closed by ice from the 
beginning of December to the end of April. The 
following is a short account of the navigation' of 
ibis river. i 

<_. At its mouth (Cape Rosieres) the breadth is $0 
« f At Cape Cat, 140 miles from its mouth . - jp, , T 
v At the river Saguenay, 260 miles ...... ^ ^ 

f :.iAt the lower end of the island OrieausjO 

o * 570 miles .....-...*..♦. 4fi r i 

; This island leaves a passage of two mile* op. 
**ch side* and the basin between it aad Quebfp 
is five miles broad. The river is navigable, t ffpf 
Uai&of battle ships to Quebec, a distant af< jtOO 
miles. t . a& 

•i/o.i "\ From 

"■''^O.i !■_; . - ,, f | jiTf ^ 

f oft3fWl 1 ^ ino of Canada has been a stumbling-block to etymologist*; some 
supposing it to be from aqui-nada, " here is nothing ;'* an exclamation of 
W^toAsW discoverers on thehrflnding none of the previous Mtsis bffr; 
and which being repeated Iry the Indians to the French on* their fi&trfjgf- 



▼al, they supposed to be the nameo{ the country. Others tell us 
< tfm3mdv an Indian name for a cdflectton of houses. The first is, *ow* 
*Z*r,,iity tat-ftCttel; end ai to the eecond, it is pot s^obahlf^foifoy 
$ftV}d ha?e a word to express what they had never seen. 



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From Quebec to the Lake of St. Pierre the dis- 
tance is ninety niifefcj 'arid* the breadth of the 

river two to five miles. , - *.. -p - 

Lake St, Pierre is ten leagues long, and ftyn 
leagues and a half broad ; its northern extremity 
is 120 miles above Quebec j and here the riy$r 
narrows to one mile, as far as La Voltisne, tej 
miles above the head of the lake. , u 

From La Voltiere to Montreal, thirty nulety 
the breadth is from two to four miles. ...... ,»j 

The navigation from Quebec to Montreal, $6Q 
miles from the river's mouth, is fitibr vessels of 
fourteen feet ; the tide runs up . about eighty 
miles above Quebec. 

After passing Montreal, the breadth of /the 
river to Lake St. Louis, a distance of six miles, 
is three quarters of a mile. • •-..; .\ 

Of Lake St. Louis, which is twelve miles long, 
the breadth is four miles, and from this lake to 
Lake St. Francis, distance twenty4hre *n2Ies» 
the breadth is from two miles and a half ia tw* 
miles. t x t 

Of Lake St. Francis the length is thirty milt* 
and breadth twenty. . i :i 

mo ftom Lake St. Francis to the Lake of the Thou* 
sand Isles the river is six miles; and from hence 
^:|?S^t6A, at the entmnce of Lake OntWio, 
f the breadth is half a mile to six miles } total di^- 
$$& fpto the river's mouth 745 miles. 
.vod^oiRi Montreal to Lake Ontario the river i? 

W AgH & k <fo* boats <rftwo tons, excepts then* 

....... .,.-.. pi<fc 



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3D HAntnti* *mGii*Htr« 

pids above Montreal, that >tf TWrot, aad if {he 
faige cafta&act* at which points ttoe. baata ait 
obliged to be partly unloaded* • ■ * 

From Lake ft. E&neis to ike JLake *f jthe 
STAaNfttarf Mes the fereadtii of the river * ** 
niies. The Lake qf the Thousand Isles is 4*rea>- 
ty-five miles long and six broad, a*d is mmed 
from the great number of islaads, or rajtf*er rockf 
covered with wood, in it ; from this lake to Kings- 
ton, at the entrance of Lake Ontario, thebrqadtft 
of the riwer varies from six mites to half a mile. 
Bateaux* carrying two tons, navigate hetseew 
Montreal and Kingston, though these are mmy 
difficult rapids* and falls, sooaeof f*hioh the b*t<* 
tetiux pass, while otbecs we avoided by lock 
catods. Tbe ascending aaurigajfan mualjy takes 
seven days, and the passage <fow& two or ftfcfte 
days. 

Lab* Ontario is £20 miles long and sweaty 
wife; in some places it is so deep ibat the bottom 
hasnottbeen sounded. la ge»etial it jsititile sub- 
ject to storms, and its waters are tranquil ; hut ir- 
regular efevaticras, like those et the Lake of 
Geneva and others, are observed in it. The jpftftr 
ripdl haibouts of the lake aae KiRgrtpti, the^bay 
#f Great Sodt» xm the south, and Toroate *4f 
YwAl on the north, but the entrances to both the 
latter are obstructed by sands. In peace, beetditt 

9fm99 
* fcaftfilk, whica<**y gmtO)?* cnmA ****** ° 



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SMTJSH NOETH AHVUCA. » 

three or four king's armed ves^efa of $0Q tone, 

fcfeere *re several H^rchflBi sloops a#d schooner of 

fiem fifty to 200 tons employed on the lake. . 

tuLaJce Qptario <wpmi*nicate8 with JL^ks JErit by 

$fre river Niagara, celebrated for its sfttpopdovs 

jptfapagtt whose breadth is mere than a mils, aad 

Jtfeft^jeipeijdicujar fall 160 feet} an island 330 

yaudsJbroad divides the cataract into two iilla, and 

rather adds to than diminishes its grandeur. The 

JPortqge* or land camqge of merchandize, to 

9J?oid the fails, is two miles* and above them the 

mwgpUon is qgain free to Lake Erie* This 

lake is 300 miles, long and ninety wide; tke 

&{>th is not abow twenty fathoms, and in iair 

wither vessels may anchor all over it. The ftoptfe- 

fin shores are rocky* as are the numerous Jslftftds 

near the west extremity of the lake; but the 

south shore is in general a fine sandy beach, and 

v the Jand is so low, that in storms from rthe north, 

r which are frequent, the waters of the lake inup- 

date a considerable extent of country. Lake 

. Erie has no good port on the north shore, and 

that *xf P?e$)tte I$le on the south k of difficult 

access a^d only fit for vessels of eight feet. > 

Jt#fee &¥* cDpmunicates with Lake Haron ,by 
the /»wr ©6tEoit, or St Clave, whioh nearly in 
,tfre middle «eKpaadskrto a considerable fyke* the 
j«W«*t M 4iii fwqr » d** Lafce H^r^p is &££ 
,iftjlfP lopg and 1*000 in circuit ; it communicates 
with lake Michjgae by the abort strait of MichiJi- 
maoinefr j|awgtf>le iW ships *$ biuden ; Lake 

Michigan 



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92 MARITIME OLOGRAPH HY. 

c Z^ a ' Michigan is 260 miles laag j^d, seventy b«ad* 
The strait or river St. Mary ^i|^ Lake Huron 
with Lake Superior, 400, miles lon^artd, firoptftefii 
to 100 broad ; its shores are in general rocky y a»di 
its surface is also studded with rocks ; besides it is 
subject to storms, and the waves rise like those xif 
the ocean. The lake is subject to irregulab 
elevations, of which the maximum is five or six! 

All the lakes of Canada, and their confluent 
rivers, abound in salmon, sturgeon, and other &h, 
of which however no other advantage is aiade 
t^an for domestic consumption. 

Returning from this long navigation through the 
lakes to the mouth of the St. Laurence, and as- 
cending along its left, or northern bank, we meet 
in succession the bay of the Seven Islands, form* 
ing a good port, where the North- West Fur Cora- , 
pany of Montreal have an establishment for tracts 
ing with the Labrador Indians, the monopoly ct < 
which they purchase from government for JElJfOO 
a year. 

The Great Saguenay river has its source in 
Lake St. John, and a course of 150 miles; ifc> 
sweeps along a prodigious volume of water, which 
is precipitated over a rocky ledge sixty miles frd*i 
thp. lake, forming a fell fifty feet high. It tab] r 
besides several lesser falls. Its mouth is about one u 
mile) { broad, but it widens in the ascent to thtfcfrj- 
miles. . Jn many places its hanks are composed of -it 
perpendicular rocky clifls of 600 to l»fl00i'ftqfc"J 

elevation v 



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tfewtfoni The tetoftfehing rapidity with which 
ito jeih^tieR itself <&» *h e St Lfciitence, rendeA 
it impo^sibl^ W sound the depth at its mouth; 
krt oTie mil© aWd a half within the narrows it! 
» tissi firthem*? and sixty miles farther tip; 
tfixty^fethams. The course of the river is reft- 
detaed very Winding by rocky points whfch ihteiK* 
liKsk each other, and render the navigation tedi- 1 
ous. Vessels of light draft can ascend it with iftifc* 
tide^twentyifive leagues. 

. *Ota the north side of the rivers nwiith is the 1 
harbour of Tadoussac, capable of receiving a' Mxri* s 
ber of large vessels. It is a round basin, ferifcif clfca* 
by rocky shores. ; 

- After pasting Malbay, the north shore of the* 
river presents bold and interesting features, behig 
lined by huge masses of rock, interspersed with 
shrubd, or by the hills, called les 6bouhmem f 
wttch riste perpendicularly from the river to agitit ; 
eloration. 

*' ! The Me Coudres, or Hazel Island, a league 
•from the north bank, rises gradually from thfe 
water, and is seven miles long and three broad. 
ItJ founsa parish, and contains thirty families, who ' 
support themselves by agriculture. 

f from lim island, both banks of the riVer arte 
thfeklj* inhabited, and very fertile. The fece of 
thatnoottnttfy <*n the north is elevated afid bold, pr*- ' 
seotirig ^ ^accession of hills, ri^ttg abruptly < 
frikrf)the<iwater, and terminating on' the west at 
C^petTdWment, whose perpendicular altitude *J T 
2,QtMbieek 

The 



Con ait. 



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94 toAnrrmti €&bGRAi»HY. 

<w* The centte of the river is diversified by dif- 
fers of small islands, some rff which are settled, 
and partly cleared of tfood, supplying good pa*- 
ftor6 artd great quantities of hay. 

On approaching the island of Orleans, a rich' 
afld interesting view opens. * The lower end of 
this island is four miles above Cape * Tourment, 
mA its upper end six miles below Quebec. It is 
twenty-five miles long by six broad, leaving a 
channel of two miles on each side ; the southern 
one is used by large vessels, the northern one 
having depth only for sloops at high water, and 
is daily decreasing in depth. The island rises 
amphitheatrically from steep shores towards the 
centre, and is extremely fertile, producing consi- 
derable quantities of grain. On the south side 
is a good port, and a careening place for merchant 
Vessels. 

The River Montmorenci, which empties itself 
into the St. Laurence, eight miles below Quebec, 
is celebrated for its fall, which is 24-6 feet perpen- 
dicular, and 100 feet broad. 

Quebec, the capital of Canada and of British 
America, is situated at the junction of Charles's 
River with the St. Laurence, and is divided into 
the old and new, or upper and lower towns. The 
former is on a rocky promontory, named dxjpe 
Diamond, the summit of which is 350 feet above 
the level 6f tlie river. On the highest part of tftte 
promontory k the dtadel, composed of a whole 
bastion, a curtain, and half bastion, with a ditch, 

counter- 



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dywtqgna E d, cohered way, and gktife W the 
southwest, with many other works, so that the 
fortifications may , be considered as impregnable, 
both bf nature and art, and require S,QQO men t* 
defend them pneptr ly* 

. The pabiicbuikli^arerewarkabte^Both^ 
but their great sriidity. They cambist of a Cathofca 
church j the ancient Jesittt's college, now octu* 
pied as a barrack for the troop* $ a seminary for 
the education of Catholic ciergyj a Protestant 
cbarch ; a court-house $ th» Htttel-Dieu, or civil 
hospital j a poor Jiquse j a eotweiit of Ursatines* 
which has still «hh*y*sii sistetij a general hos* 
pttal, &c. 

Ute tower town is the principal plade of com- 
merce, and occupies the ground at the foot of th* 
promontory, which had been gradually gabled, 
either by raining, or running out wharf* : it is con- 
sidered unhealthy. The street* of both towns are 
irregular, uneven, generally narrow, and few of 
them paved* The houses ill built of stone, of un- 
equal heights, and covered with boards, though 
the. frequent fires have caused some to use tin or 
paiirted sheet iron. The apartments are without 
taste or elegance* The population of the city is 
12/XX), of which two-thirds are French. 

On the south shore of the river, opposite Cape 
Diamond, is Point Levi, which With the former 
cape parrows the river to three quarters of a mil$i 
^ J^tween these points and Orleans Island is a. 
baajn fire or six miles wide; capable of holding; 
, , - . t lOOsail 



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100 sail of the line. The rise of tide at the equi- 
noxes is twenty-five feet. ' ' i 

Charles's River, which empties itself at the town» 
issues from a lake of the same name, twelve miles 
from. Quebec, and is only navigable for boats. 

At Quebec, the river begins to freeze in Decem- 
ber, and some years the ice becomes solid and 
stationary, and carriages and horses cross from 
side to side* The ice usually begins to break up 
in April, when a sudden thaw comes on, and ge- 
nerally clears the river in a few days. Thetirst 
peaking up is accompanied by a noise like that 
of a heavy cannonade, for the current being then 
increased by the melting of the ice and snow, the 
masses of the former are driven against each other 
with great fury and noise. 

Nothing can be more beautiful than the summer 
views between Quebec and Montreal, both banks 
of the river being thickly dotted with village arid 
fipftt^Qfe^i tHe. latter extremely neat* aricT in 
^i^f t^ foiwier, feowetersmaU, is a.cbjtfchiijo2 
i^^Rwer Chairs fa& ista the* Ste&fl** 
«fflft$e* sfagfct miles above Quebec. lte,;*a&ki 
l^artt^e^mo^th are cowed with woodland itihkf 
water for ships of considerable sk&s iJBt litam 
from Lake Meganf# f and: bM. a. jQMH^eoofi 1H# 
miles, lour milc^/pQjp iU.motithj^afail'JdaJdttB 
perpendicular, an&g&Qifcet brm&o 'ulojbiO Jbo* 

Trois Rivieres, gi^t^ t; p^>lw6fclQuaha4A^ 
tuated at the junction of the River St. MwruM^aMk 
the St. Laurence. InAhe mouth of tbe jfiwner 
are two islands, forming three channels, whence 

the 



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49 

receive vessels bnjer than stoop* 'ifcidwA*%fWP& "* 
0nr*Jinrfigsnle<frs bulls- The town extends three 
ipfanter woga miss -on the bank of the river, and 
contain* abos**SO nouses, chiefly of wood ; a 
€»fcelic':«nd ftTJtestam church; a convent of 
tfetahaes ; hospital, &c. The population is about 

(juLdre.Sfa Brter is formed by an e*psntibabof 
the waters of the Sfc Laurence, to the* breach Wf 
fiwafifteen to twenty miles, and ite length is 
Jss&ntyusne miles j in many parts it has butfte* 
Mad eleven feet depth* At the upper en* of the 
kte are a number of small islands, someofwhiea 
an* cleared of wood, and afford pasture fbr cattle i 
they are the first islands met with in ascending 
tiseuSti Laurence from Orleans, a distance of 117 
asifes. . from hence to Lake Ontario are various 
Uus tees of islands. ., 

u, TJhe town of William Henry, or Sorel, en the 
south; bank of the St Laurence, 1 6a miles aboVe 
ifeebec, is situated at the confluence of the Sorel 1 

ofefihamWy River (which issues from Lake ChanY- 
fiairi> -with the St. Laurence. The Serel <Haa 
sswtar fl>r vessels of fourteen feet at its mouth, 
Itat is omy. navigable by boats a little distance. 
IHfc-tofctn contain* 100 houses, and a Protestant 
and Catholic church. Vessels of 150 tons are 
fadt Aerie. Lake Champlain is ISO miles ldn& 
Iflii Barrow/ 
"onm. to. n Montreal, 



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9t jumtMBioimiMifiTf t 

Montreal 178 miles above Quebec, is oa tht 
south Mid* of an island of the same iMattc, vt«hich 
is ten tagties long* and two to, four broadk iTbe 
tftwn is situated at the foot of a hill, and e**aiata 
of 600 hauses of stone, and about an dquafoum* 
bar of wood, divided into the uppeirand jfcrtrcfr 
towns, though the difference of level daett not 
exceed twelve feet* The principal street* are 
wide and regular, and are intersected at rigfet an- 
gles by lesser ones* The houses are well built, 
and Many of them covered with sheet iron dr tin, 
to guard against fires. The public building! art 
the market and HAtebOieu ; the cathedral and 
three Catholie parish churches) two Protestant 
Churches) a cdnvf at of teoollets, and one oftha 
sisters of our lady) a seminary for the education 
of Catholic clergy ; the government-house ; and 
courts of justice. At Montreal is held an annual 
fair, to which the Indians bring their peltry. 

The chief maritime places in Upper Cahfeida 
are Kingston, at the entrance of lake Ontario,"' 
and York, the capital of the province, an &ki 
north shore of this Lake $ both are yet inconrfderV 
able, but rising fast into notice. : ' :/: 

The trade of Canada is of nuyor conaeqaefces 
to England, the imports from the colony tbtitiB 
derably exceeding half a million a year, and BS 1 
1808 arose to near 4900,000. The fbHofcingatrf 
the principal otgects: : - r - s 



A<*- 



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BRITISH NORTH *UWtL*J& W 

Pot and pewL ashes ........ •$B^QQQ 

' Purs * ♦ * ./. i #..... ••..*#•,.. . 1(}$,QO0 

Slopr^ .100,000 

Wtaat ...,♦. 31*000 

Peas ,., 14*000 ; 

Stores * 6l,00Q , 

Ch* timber , 37.000 

ftfcwt* ■♦...■.... .s&gqq ,, 

fagnber. *.*....., 2&0QO 

New ships.. .*.........,,..., 37,000. :: 

Butter > 5,000 

Salmon, cod, apd other fish • . £,000 
Sundries, chiefly biscuit, provi- 
sions, candles, soap, fish oil, 

flax seed, and ginseng ...... 91,0Q0 

900,000 



Besides the above amount pf the trade of Que- 
bec w^th England, the district of Gasp6, forming^ 
$e sputh shore of the mouth of the St Laurence, 
exports annually to the West Indies and Mediter- 
ranean for .£50,000 of cod fi$h. 

/ '^e first idqa of forming colonies jn the new 
^^from France arose in the rei^n of Francis I., 
tyf yfhpm the Florentine Vprrazani was sept out ii> 
\5#3, to gamine the north-east coast of America 



'»• 



$nd who visited Newfoundland and the neighbour- 
incontinent; and, in 1534, Jaques Cartier, of 
-St Malo, visited the sanje coast, and entered thg 

h 2 Gulf 



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}p9 . HAtanm oBO^af^t f 5 

Qulf pf &L Laur^njce^ Afjiere Jie t e^l^j^spfljf 
Eurppeah goods withthe Indians for furs. ; f , JTO b 
Ifeht years after a settlement was Bwiefbjr $ 
company chartered by the crown; and at t tiff} 
same time Francis de la Roque received the ppn*i 
pous title of Viceroy of New France, comprising 
Canada, Labrador, Nova Scotia, Acadia, New- 
foundland, &c. This adventurer built a fort 01* 
the river St. Laurence ; but. in making a second 
voyage to the infant colony, in X549, he was lost* 
and the settlement was abandoned till 1598, when 
the Marquis de la Roche received the more mo- 
dest &tle of lieutenant of Canada, and 'went out 
With forty convicts only, whom he landed on the 
Isle 1 , pf Sable, where they all perished of famine; 
^dcold. 

In '16Q$ .Samuel Champlain ascended the St, 
Laurence, and laid the foundation pf Quebec, in- 
tended to, be the capital of New France. Tfa$ } 
progress of colonization was, however, very stow^ 
pj in I627 three miserable settlements only haf^ 
^en rojmed, the largest of which . contained but 



ty* persons. 

The exclusive trade of the colony in furs was 
now granted to a company in perpetuity, and that 
of all other commerce (the cod and whale fishery 
excepted, which were left open to all subjects of 
France;} to the same company for fifteen years. 
In this company was also lodged the right to form 
establishments and give them laws, and their im- 
ports and exports were freed from all duties. In 

qn avigoi taKibnl axft soldi oi b V 



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BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. 101 

» t\ % ••• »% 

' consideration of these privileges the company un- g~* 
dertook to introduce 1 6,000 persons into the colo- 
ftep, between 1628 and 1643, and to afford them 
the necessary assistance till able to provide ibr 
themselves. 

Fortune did not, however, second the encou- 
ragement of government. The first ships sent out 
by the company were captured by the English; 
and in 1629 the colony itself fell into their hands, 
but was restored by the peace of 1631. 

The management of the company was not, how- 
ever, calculated to raise it from the state of larv 
guor this revolution occasioned, and a sanguinary 
war with the Indians still more retarded its pro- 
gress. At length government determining to af- / 
ford it effectual support, sent out, in 1602, 400 
chosen troops, who being reinforced two years 
after, gained a decided superiority over the In- 
dians ; and before 1670 the Seven Nations were 
forced to enter into an accommodation with the 
colonists, and a profound peace succeeded, At 
the same time the trade of the colony was jrauje 
free, except that of furs, which was continued to 
ijfe'c^mpaiiy. 

**^$ 'enjoyment of internal peace, by which the 
Q&mif vfas enabled to cany on a lucrative trade 
wfrK the Indians, rapidly increased its prosperity, 
tiSMf^he English, firmjy settled in New York," 
<ft&fted a new and more profitable market to the 
IM'i^h fta&ons for their furs, 
n Th£ Canadians determined td put an end to this 
ifeii^uite nee, and to force the Indians to give up 

B 3 their 



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c*m». their connections with the En&fiski toffi^^tiA 
purpose both open force, treachery, ' itid Itiiiigfl ft 
Werfe made use of, but without siiccess,* ™ft Yfl§ 
war that was the consequence tfttised IrreparkHA 
injury to the colony. 1 niv/ 

; In 1690 an English fleet besieged Quebec, Wit 
Was obliged to retire, in consequence of the t&ft& 
tion of the Indian allies; and another arraatmcnt 
intended for the same purpose, in 1709, Hvas df#> 
persed by storms in the Gulf of St. Laurence. ■ "■ 

At length the peace of RysWick, which put ah 
end to the war between the rival nations in fit* 
rope, also restored peace to America, but left Ca- 
nada in a state of wretched impoverishment, thte 
exports, in 1714, not exceeding «£10,<XXX ? 

The enjoyment 6f peace and the attention iff 
government, however, dreto it from this state of 
poverty, and its increase was so rapid, that in 1788 
it contained 91,000 persons. ! 

The war which began in 1756 transferred thfe, 
together with the other FVench colonies in N6rth 
America, to Great Britain, by conquest, and they 
were confirmed to her by the peace of 1768. 

o r 

GAPS BRBTON ISLAND. '\ 

Cape Breton Island* (Isle Royak of the&snqlO 
is separated from the east end of Nova Scotia 

: V 



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BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. 108 

by the gut of Canso, or strait of Fronsac, only cq* ant*. 
one mile wide. The island is 100 miles long, 
and about sixty broad. It is nearly divided by a 
very deep gulph, called Lake Labrador, into 
which are two entrances from the north-east, 
formed by the island Verdonne, seven or eight 
leagues long. The soil is in general barren, and 
except in the elevations, full of swamps and 
lakes, which render the climate cold and foggy 9 
although it is not deemed unhealthy. No kind of 
grain arrives at maturity, and most kitchen ve- 
getables degenerate. 

The island contains a bed of coal, in a hori- 
zontal stratum, six feet below the surface. The 
population is about 1000 persons, whose entire 
subsistence is by fishing. 

,> The north coast is elevated and almost inac- 
cessible, but on the east side are several good 
\>orts f and on the west and south, several roads 
and coves for small vessels. 

Off the north point of the island eight leagues, 
is St. Paul's Island, which, with Cape Ray on 
Newfoundland, from which it is fifteen leagues 
distant, forms the entrance of the gulf of St. 
Lattrehce. 

Though this island had been from an early 
period frequented by iisheraen, it was not until 
France had lost Ndya Scotia, that she thought 
^P^dlbhMAg it, under the nefc rame qf Isle 

v : j The first establishment was at Ptfrt Dauphin* 

trafc which was abandoned in consequence of the 

# «4 difficult 



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**&>& difficult access to its harbour, and the capital re* 
moved to Louisbourg, which was fortified" At- an 
immense expense ; the stone and other materials 
being conveyed from France. The colonization, 
however, was very tardy, and chiefly confined to 
A few French fishermen from Newfoundland, 
In 1745, the New Englanders attacked and got 
possession of it, but it was restored by the peace 
of 1748. In 1758 it was again subjugated by 
the English arms, and confirmed to Great Bri- 
tain 1763. 

The capital of the island is Sydney, on the east 
****.- '* 

>> Louisbourg, on the S.E., is the second pl*6»? 
it has ah Excellent harbour, four leagues detp, 
iand fit for the largest fleets, but it is closed by 
ioefrom November to May. l'he entmnceisbdt 
40tX yards wide, between two islands, oilo <«f 
which is fortified, and its fires cross with thbwof 
batteries on the main. - ) . . n lis 

/ 'The town is built on a projecting tongufentf 
land; the houses chiefly of wood* tht *80H*te 
JStrait abd wide. J >y8« al 

^ The other places of any conse^etiteoju^qfo 

Jfttf tfaftt coast, Port Dauphin, Sptotods^^tt^, 

Mimy Bay y all capable of rec^ivM^ fe^Ul|ipf . 

*<»ttety Island, or Little Cape Btetofr, Heecfctfefe 

Monaddte Btfy, -which it shette^ ^ o€a|«<«w4ab 

^fttti WitWifr Scatter^, gitefc ittftHWfl* tdTthe 

idand. Sottth 1 <rf LouMxMi^g ^#jRi^dU<Hlk 

i\Httib ifid 1 >»&rtll»oiott»f ^ \Utefa'ml?4*fr- 

oj fv/oi'/iisdJ mu) oJ (bn-jrl arto bawad <£#*M|tl 



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BBfSOi*«mmMnaniBA. MM 

«rfe4i%m olkktoXjAndbBi by <**&&■*!» *tt* **»' 

JDU4f <ndtoici <r*r iioii" v .';;.no*ieu:c I ot l/y/oia 
akWteif&m d p co to UBfd; at Cape,B«twi arer(i«roju 
pdtmbte V bnfrlf bas.arichicod fcaery>m *be<3alf 
«f S^iJUurertoe. Tbt i^Uiidiir instated -m "fbs 

gWt*tiNMnt tf Lower Carta**. : > < 

^ L .J:&uM&d*«*> before the east entrance oftfcfc 
•fifo&jOf.Caoao, is inconsiderable* :■' <> i - >?oq 

V'f '. .-.< . - .,:■ .: ■ • ■ ;.. '. ''. .-'K'- 1o 

.-.:i • ■ . . , ." i .:•• ; ... < .-'■■!.. .'I &Jt 



PRINCE EDWARD'S ISLAND. 



i ins! 



■)0:li' 



Prince Edward's Island, formerly St. John's v inthe 
.aow&part of the Gulf .of Su LaureB^MwueJinies 
palled tfeeGudf ofNova Scotia, isstfaartediromftte 
<nt>rfch coast of Nova Scotia by Northumberland 
j&trak. £m leagues wide. It is; forty titles tloog 
a&d_,tbirty broad, and has much the advantage *f 
WeF&u»dJaod and Cape Breton, in temperature of 
climate and fertility of soil, being weM wfetejed, 
^djB^uctog plentiful crops of com>, andTex- 
s««jte«t pfetunea, . . ii.uil 

In 1803 Lord Selkirk sent out 800 :High&*4 
rflcqtaio *hi* island, who seem to fosm arv.ifldus- 
,ff*K«eJw4 Jtbiiving colouy. In 180? *bj» tafel 
.pfV»l«IS«Hwaa7^00. The island is inHthe i: §*- 
<xeru«ient3 of Jfova Scotia, The chief plgfiMs 
r£fc**>1*f> Town (Port ; Jqu6 of :the^ae)r)<;.. :t ,j,f 
arljTbf fuperior #ftility of J?r»c^,Edwfirdf< 
-lltodjdfco,, *y *f thft. neigilb«urU)«o«oast%ri£fer* 
^etk^rotboitti 8aJi|b^«}fci?teW|te : «db§ic9U§at 
caused the French to turn their views to- 
wards 



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"*- and in 1619, a company waa Jbi?jn$d to, colonic 
it, ©ad to establish a $od fishery ^ ( ^e ISalf otfSt* 
laureocew Tins scheme, howevw, v?P iW^f 
executed, and the island remained neglected Wtf# 
I749, when some \ emigrants from Nova $&#tip 
tettledonuit, and occupied themselves in ag^ai^ 
tare and rearing cattle, the foherie* being prp* 
bibited to them. Thug confined to one branch qf 
industry, cultivation was carried to an , extent 
that gained the island the name of the Granary of 
Canada. 

On the subjugation of Cape Breton to the 
British arms in 1758, this island followed its fate* 
•id also bee*m6 a British colon) . The first mea* 
ttffg flf ite new masters was more politic ti&a 
}Mi «hfe removal of all the French settlers «i& 
Amounted to 3,000. The island being thus left 
Without inhabitants, the Earl of Egrnont prA- 
p^feed to government to colonize it, andtokegf* 
tip a force of 1,900 men for its defence, on eota* 
<4ftion of receiving the feudal rights ; hut bucfo* 
cession being declared contrary to a l&r&iatfted 
dt the restoration, which prohibited the gfaftti% 
of crown lands under military tenures* the 'offfet 
was refilled, and government, after thtf peacfe'fcf 
^76fl, distributed the land in grants td<4)ft"dte» 
banded officers and soldiers. .-.tUvtiimi 

- Until 177^ the island was incl«dod irt J the 
government of 'Nova ikxrtiaj but in that $***!& 
<*^ ifrifeh Cape Breton and the Magdalen Isbftds, 

formed 



fottw'l tyf> yd 



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BBttftta »OMBf AMfeHieA. Wf 

fortWtfditd a separate gfcVteftnneift, With a gtoM* **»=«^ 
iw#; cofarfdl,' and houSe Of assembly. 
'^The Ttfkgdalen Islands are a cluster of seven 
Wlhe Gulf of St. Latiteftce, seventeen league* 
W**t of the riorth and of Cape ©rfetoii IftWwt 
Tfcfey art &U focky, and the largest only fiirfe 
i&ig*s iii circuit fliey Are the property <rf 
Adfairal Sir Isaac Coffin Greenly, and inhabited by 
k feW descendants of the French, vho quitted 
Nova Scotia on its cession to England* and wh* 
subsist by fohing and hunting seals* 



A SnCOStl ISLAND. 

. l!he Island of Anticosti,* in the mouth of th* 
river St Laurence, is twelve leagues distant fir?* 
the main land on the north, and sixteen from the 
coast of New Brunswick on the south, It is 
}2Q'long. N.E. and S.W. and SO'tw^djis «*• 
^mely rocky, but well woodedt and a consider 
^tble md fishery is carried on from it. The » island 
is^jOif Jittte value, the soil being barren, /and n*t 
(ppftsesaiqg a single safe harbour. It is generally 
JBUtt towards the shores, but rises a little towards 
the centre. Its only inhabitants are an occasion*! 
party of savages, who winter on it for the purpose 
fit bunting. It is the property of some private 
individuals of Quebec. 

The Mkjgan islands are dose to the main within 

Aflticosti:: they have a good harbour aad a cob* 

- , L.' i - aidferabte 

• An ^iigliah icbrrtiption of the lift ttfe teflne Katitcotte ; By thtfrenek 
It ** formerly called Assumption. 



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siderable cod fishery. The rise of tide is ten to 

twelve reet. 

u ebnuoq ba£Wjori) 

NEWFOUNDLAND. IfMUftfr 

The island of Newfoundland is separated from 
Labrador on the north by the Strait of Belle Isle, 
six leagues wide, and named from an island in its 
entrance. uyu flup 

Newfoundland is eighty leagues long, and up- 
wards of sixty broad ; it is hilly, but not moun- 
tainous, and has some considerable rivers. The 
island throughout is rocky and barren, naturally 
producing only small firs, birch, and other plants, 
that thrive in cold and barren countries. Jhe 
winters are besides so long, not breaking up till 
May, that oats is the only corn that ripens. The 
climate is also extremely disagreeable, from con- 
stant fogs and storms of sleet and snow. The in- 
terior of the island has never been explored, but 
from the accounts of the natives it is mountainous 
and covered with wood. The coasts are indented 
by a vast number of excellent bays and harbours, 
a very few of which are ever visited even by the 
fishermen. The sole utility of this island to Great 
Britain is its serving as a rendezvous for the vessels 
employed in the fishery on the neighbouring 
banks. > oaa/l^ 

The whole number of stationary European in- 
habitants of the island does not exceed 1,000 fa- 
milies. A few families of miserable Esquimaux 
visit the island from the neighbouring coast of La* 
brador, and remain on it for a part of the year, 

Tht 



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Tiie value of exports from Great Britain to £*•«»* 
Newfoundland is between three and four hundred ""*"* 
thousand pounds a year, entirely in provisions, 
cloathing, fishing tackle, and salt, 

In the spring a small squadron, composed of a 
fifty gun ship, a frigate, and one or two sloops, ar$ 
sent from England to protect the fishery ; and ttie 
admiral commanding the squadron is governor. of 
the island for the time being. The Lieutenant- 
Governor's office is permanent. : , , 
St. John's, the chief place of the island, is on 
the east side, and on the shore of a fine basin, 
whose entrance is only 500 yards wide, between, 
high rocky shores, and strongly fortified. . Th* t 
town is a poor place, the houses being mean ancl 
the. streets narrow and filthy. Fort Townsend^ 
on an elevation, contains the government houses 
magazines, and barracks. / <..'*• 

The other places of the island worthy of ftqtjjQQt 
are, on the east coast, from north to south* tjjefj 
Bay of Exploits, or New Perlican, n i ipaciqus 
harbour. Ragged Harbour, in Catalonia IWy* 
named from the craggy islands in it. r$ia&y : 
Bay, a gulf, with many harbours and covea,&fiprt 
the largest fleets. South of St. John's is thef 
Bay of Bulls. : ., 

Renows Bay, much frequented by the fishing • 
vessels ; its depth is only eleven feet. Capp Rqce 
is the S.E. point of the island. *.-. . » ; 

On the south coast are Trepassy Bay, a deep - :l 
and- secure harbour. St. Mary's Bay haa„ppjpfl- 
goocl fishing banks within it. Placentia Bay, ..* 



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lift JVAMSHm OMMMAHT* * 

tMr#»tyiteftg»#» 4f ep wd »*ty#n wid* it *?ffef* ; 
gulf, with ^vej*l harbours. That erf Placenta*^: 
oQi $J*e «&st shotf, ib oae />£ t<he chiefi diyiag. ftbf&s 
of the fishermen* and has a fixed efitebUshmeafe , 
d^feqd^d by 3 fort. Between Placeqti^ and Cape: 
%ye» the S.W. point of the ijdand, are the Bay* 
o( Fortune snd Despair, little frequented- < 

Tfre.bwk* of Newfoundland* wiuch may witfc 
pr^iety be called the Peru of Great Britain, frtno . 
thp riches they bring into the kingdom, cousin*/ - 
f^a gr^t and some lesaer ones, extending from the , 
latitude 40° to 45°, 

The depth is very irregular, fjrtun fifteen to 
sixty fathoms. The bank is entirely of sand* j^» : 
edges perpendicular, and on the east itagreqt 
gulf, or cQiicavity, called the Ditch. The wjjjkJh 
are generally moderate, and the .woter smooth W ; 
the bank, however hard it may blow beyond jfo { 
limit j* but the atmosphere is obscyred bysaa a]» 
most perpetual fog, both of which arciftn&t&^ote > 
seem to arise from the same cause, the atcosg $pw* 
pq^ation over the bank, which while it product a 
fiqg, o\ao cools the atmosphere beyond that over « 

• Mr. Pennant, in his Arctic Zoology, says, there is alwqy*; a great wt| 
on the banks. The fact is, however, that qn the edges of the bank there is 
Usually aaoHaw sea, caused by the polar current on the north and the gulf 
Stream on the south, striking with velocity against foe tyrpendieiilar Hflff 
of the bonk.- At a small distance within these edges, on the contrary, tiw 
watet iastattMttth, that it is usual for vessels on the bank feeing to inquira* 
Qf^tfadsefiwm sea, whs* kind of weather it is abroad that is, befdwj ineir * 
arrival on the bank, ~o ' 



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/imtittif *wb» MmnwAv nil ' 

]$&&<*# fust attractiii tmt^dS^efoitnwA t : — 

UMibaitks of Newftfundfctad aire the graftal ten* 
debttfetf of the great cod (#<w^ ?m>rAfca} which 
aflfcfe in the months of July in vast shoals. In 
August they become scarce, in consequence of 
the departing of the herrings and capelings, on 
wWcfi they feed j and also from the arrival of the 
sharks, which drive sR other fish away. In Sep- 
tembe* the cod re-appear, and continue tffr tb* 
nfiddle Of October, when the fishing afcasoil ten* 
annates. 
1 Thfc foh are either caried wet or green, or dfy. 
Ift the first case ttey are salted <>n board the ves- 
sdlr as they ar* taken, and brought to Europe 
wiffeout touching at Newfoundland. The vessel 
intended to bring hdme dried fish go into sotne* 
pott of the island, where stages are erectetTbh'tfie 
shbre, on Whkh *h£ feh are placed to dry, after 
catting <j# the head, emptying them, talcing but 
tbebaj*feofte, 4rtd strongly salting them. ; 
i*1fae »ver& bfthe cod afford a large quantity 6^ 
train oil, w&foh is procured by simply exposing 
tbeto to corrupt by the sun's heat, by which the 
greatest part of their substance runs into oil. 

She 



* The quantum of evaporation being in proportion t* tke extent o£ aa>- i 
JntJang depth of tbeevaporatiug mass, it follow* that Um quantum will te * 
greaie^r over banks than over the deep sea, and the atmosphere couMfwenti/ 
colder; and tills last consequence is pror«?il by the repeat^ ojfclfcswaitfeiv* 
{bat the coming from the deep sea Into souu4i*gs> or on abajtjk* if 4eo<Xc4 
a$ a sadden fall of the thermometer of from three to five degrees. 



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Its jummia oOMMMrir. 

'The capeling, which is the only bait tmei ftct 
take the cod, is of the g^us fpAmo, and die coo* 
sumption is so great, that they are often entirely 
bcbftiiftted near the coasts, anditisrfoamfr* adBarjT 
tocg6 twenty leagues to sea for them. 4 TfcyotMr 
taken in nets.* q «**#-_ 

\. Off .the sooth coast of Newfoundland <•& life 
iites Miquelons and St. Pierre, by treaty betorffr 
iBg ta Fiance, The Miquelons are twtr^Ulfcfc 
•Mted Great Miquelon and Langley. The AtflftiA 
is a mere rock, only two miles long. StJKe&eife 
e£ tmore consequence, being twenty-fire leagues 
cnLfCorouk, with a good harbour on the soutfe <* 
fifty, small .vessels. The Virgin Bocks, KM Xt ) 
hagjuea S.E* of Cape Race, are * reef abev* «8t 
mdtr water. .'JUjo 

Lr Though Newfoundland was formally takelrpo*- 
sewon of for England, by Sir Henry Gilbert ilk 
159$ and though before that it was toroadeowto 
nf fishing vessels of all nations of Europe, 4t^w«k 
not until 1615 that any settlement was forme&wfc 
it, in which year the English established: mot 
{teosaaent posts on the east coast, and particulnri^ 
*t St John's. Subsequent to 1695 the JFrttoill 
foemed an establishment at Hacentia, and.aooofe 
nued to send governors thither till the' peace^rf 
Utrecht, when they relinquished all daitotj* t&t 
glincLt u .jov 

kova 

* *^t«ritotar details see Brfttb Tbfaeries. ~ lL ° R,il 

kf'jiltfr chlM *» taunted <Ml the jpretetded occupmtio* of a parte 



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BRITISH NORTH AMERICA* ,J13 

M bear tied j}aio srn *i fi ^ .^-nr; ?. 
**>*!) hff* ^^^ sd6 ^1--' >- O >-■':! 

\o^^ i<(Ji«bfy tained Nova Scotia Is divided 
*pfc>/*h*<r prwkices.of New Brunswick and Nov* 
Scotia proper.* The former is Separated fr^ai 
&e Canadian district: of Gasp6 by tlie Bay 1 of 
£blri«t*r** On the. east it has Mhun Gulf 6f *1te 
*JWl*9n€ftr:aii<fc on the south the Say of Fondy^ 
hmg: Jdptratsdr from the Unibed States ^riyrrooe 
$f, dHafcie, by the riVeanSt.Cr<«w v : . - 

^nl^.flteate trf jHwd jSto^^isiieerere* >^tfte 
^*tW-.b^g>cintowitiy dald^ 1 , andthe c ^utraDecs 
frggf* t &«p> wd jrfnheafthy . > ' The I bait > is 1ft 
jgfftQ&l fttii&gi ani; fitter for ip^fetareTUiatt ;afrii 
culture. The greater part of the coofttry iaicot 
vered- with wood, afibrdkig the^t&iber xsflled 
lumber ; which, together 'with: its ikhfc^ceaa 
stitutes its only ri cites. . The*o©aste>ar4 hack/ £&A 
broken by innumerable: fcays, ibiJmmg tfadefleht 
harbours. The inost^rthy of noticfet airef iOwr- 
leurs Bay, which is nia^ileagGefrdcef); and which 
being well situatedb fdr the : fishery in Uhi^tflkoif 
of St. Laurence, httf rtuany^fehirrg statuini dti ita 
4toWkbrfITi0;/iBb^ ^P^tW 

'haj^iaif haBitddfcytatfeW persons, \vht>^irft«E°oa 
i&«rmljaife> /fatierite 4fre rigHtta ibd aeightootai 
vol. iv. i Lhriig 

a yo* 

kind at the beginning of the sixteenth century ; but there is no proof of 
due oecnpancy, though it seeins prJ*Mi^Chf* tjt^irfutycc($ n^e4,#n^he 

e,sii^reJnecy of England, by submi&ng, in 1634, to J 



► pay ere per <jent. on 
iprodnce of their fishery. 

• • This diTiiion took place in 1734. 



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114 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

MrZZck. * n £ Ashing grounds. The pierced rock, south of 
*~~ this island, at a distance resembles a ruined aque- 
duct. It is 400 yards long, 200 feet high, and is 
perforated in three places in the form of arches ; 
through the central and longest of which a boat 
can pass under sail. 

Green Bay, in Northumberland Strait, forms 
the narrowest part of the isthmus of Nova Scotia, 
being but four miles from the head of the river 
Missaquash, which falls into the Bay of Fuftdy. 

The Bay of Fundy {Bate Franfoise of tho 
French) is fifty leagues long. It is chiefly re- 
markable for the strength and height of the tides, 
which are said to run up the creeks with immense 
velocity, in a kind of bore, whose elevation is 
from fifty to seventy feet. 

The river St John, or Clyde, the principal 
me of the province, falls into the Bay of Fundy, 
and is navigable for vessels of sixty tons, fifty 
miles, and for boats 200 j the tide flowing up it 
eighty miles. It abounds in. small sturgeon, 
salmon, and bass y and its banks are level and 
fertile. Frederick Town, the capital of the pro- 
vince, is on this river, ninety miles from its 
xnouth. 

Passamaquody Bay* the western limit of the 
province, receives the river St. Croix. Befbte it 
are the Manan islands, asserted by the Americatta 
to be within their limits, but oecupied'-'by'tfie 
English, 

Nm*jcotuu The peninsula of Nova Scotia is joined ttt New 
Brunswick by an isthmas, as we have alffeady de- 
served, 



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BftlTIftH NOftTH AM£ftK!A. 115 

served, four miles bro^d. On the north it has the - 
Gulf of Su Laurence, the Atlantic on the south, 
and the Bay of Fundy on the N.W. It has a great 
number of bays and harbours, the principal of 
which are ChedUbucto Bay, at the east extremity, 
Cape Canso being its south point, off which ace a 
group of islands, partly formed of gypsum. On 
the bay is the town of Guy's Borough, of about 
200 houses. 

Halifax, on Chebucto Bay, on the south coast 
of the peninsula, is the chief place of the pro- 
vince, containing 15,000 inhabitants. It is si- 
tuated on the west shore of the bay, and is for- 
tified by batteries of timber, and em intrenchmenL 
It is the station of a small squadron of ships of 
war to protect the fishery* On Cape Sombro, at 
the entrance of the bay, is a light-house. 

Sbdburne, on Port Roseway, is a town of 
500 bouses. Annapolis Royal, the second town 
of the province, on the north coast, in the Bay of 
Fundy, has one of the finest harbours in the 
world, but is a poor place. The river of Anna- 
polis is navigable for vessels of 100 tons fifteen 
miles. 

Chignecto Bay is a deep inlet, at the head of the 
Bay of Fundy, into which fells the river Missiquash. 

Two tribes of Indians are met in Nova Scotia, 
4he Miamacs in the peninsula, who do not exceed 
£00 warriors, and the Marechties in New Bruns- 
wick, whose number -is only 180. 

The trade between Great Britain and 4hese 
provinces consists in the export of linen, wool- 

1 2 lens, 



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.*•*£/& l$ps,,and fishing g?*r d&fy&iJBSWtofy* year* 
?tpd the impact of lumber *nda&te fi* * £44tf)Q&> 
\ Isle of SaWe, tw^ntyrftve teftgp*** diafa»6 iqaih 
Cape Canso, the north-east point of Nova StotiaJ 
k composed entirely -of saiKUhiils, in the shapfc of 
sugar^loaves, HO feet high, and white ai milk 
with.white transparent stones: it i* of*anaemii 
circular sh^pe,. being ten leagues Jp, circuit, JhiC 
very narrow. 

On (he ; north, or CQncave side, is a shallowr 
lake,, five leagues in circumference, and com- 
municating with the sea. Ijt has no port* but 
has some ponds of fresh water, and produces 
jumper, blue-berry bushes, grass, and t£tches»l 
Many vessels have been wrecked on this island, 
and tl)e people have perished of hunger. In. 
order to render it less dangerous, the government 
of Halifax, in 1809, sent a party of people to" 
settle on it, in order to shew fires daring >bad| 
nights, and to afford assistance to those who may 
be shipwreqked on it. i : 

The peninsula of Nova Scotia was first settled 
by the French in 16Q4, who gave it the name Urf 
Acedia. Their original establishment was : at Port J 
fran^ois, on the west coast, and the firsts colo^i 
njst,s occupied themselves solely in trading .within 
the Indians for furs, or procuring them ,hyi the -> 
cfyace themselves. The vicinity of the Britiehl^ 
colpnies of New. England, however, prdduooi^ 
here, 1 a? well as at Canada, a destructive couooiwv 
ren& in { -the ► Iftftan trade a ^kd t . on the i parte dfn 
%^a^s> f^ity** atfcfppl* .to toafctej th^ip^* 

dians 



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BRitmr KOWfla ^AMERifci. ii£ 

j&wsagilfirt '^ wJffl£ tte 'latter rel ^J»* 

IWteAio^tfe F^ch fieftlemetits, whenever the 
disputes between the twd nations in Europe permit- 
ted tiem to^commewcfe open hostilities. 
i>A#**r being taken by the English, and restored 
stivers! 'times, Acadia was finally ceded to (jireat 
Britain 'by the peace of Utrecht. Very few iJng- 
Uflb, .however, settled on it, and with the except 
tion of change of name to Nova Scotia, no alter- 
artion was made in the government; the French 
colonists being maintained in possession of their 
laws and religion, and were besides permitted to 
remain neuter in any wars between France and 
England, 

In 1746, the French attempting to regain pos- 
session of the province, and the colonists break- 
ing their neutrality, the British government de- 
tarminpd to colonize it efficiently, and at the 
peace of Aix la Chapelle (1748) the disbanded 
officers and soldiers were encouraged to emigrate 
thither by grants of land according to their respec- 
tive! tanks. t 

These encouragements induced 3,750 persons" 
to etabark for the colony in 17*9, who founded 
the! city of Halifax. The French colonists fear- 
ing! a persecution from the new government and 
cokmists, on account of their religion, and being 
altojieticouraged by the Canadian government, 
gtoertfUy retired from Nova Scotia to that pro- 
vince^ while the English, equally anxious to get 
rfttofihpm, removed the remainder to the other ' 
Eo^ishcolowe^ In 1769, the' population of the 

?nril> 1 3 colony 



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1 18 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

nopojcttio, colony had increased to 26,000 persona, by emi-» 
grations from England and Germany; and ia 
the same year its exports amounted to «£30,00&, 
The American war stttl farther increased the 
population, by the emigration of loyalists from 
the insurgent colonies, and gave an extraordinary 
impulse to its commerce and cultivation, by the 
demands of the British fleets and armies. 

The following were the sums voted in 1814 for 
the civil establishments of the British North 
American Colonies, 

Lower Canada * X 

Upper Canada 8,441 

Nova Scotia 13,440 

New Brunswick •• 5,775 

Cape Breton Island 2,141 

Prince Edward's Island . . 3,826 
Newfoundland . 4,002 

* In 1803, the revenue and expenses of Ix>wer Canada were, 

Revenue ,£31,241 

Expenses • 43,220 

About three quarters of the expenses are defrayed by the province, and 
the remainder by the mother country, who also pays the military esta- 
blishment, and supports the Protestant clergy and Indian establishments. 



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( H9 ) 



RISE AND PROGRESS 

OP th* 

EUROPEAN COLONIES IN NORTH AMERICA, 

F0&MIN6 

THE UNITED STATES. 



Though England had an undoubted claim to 
the sovereignty of considerable portions of the 
north-east coast of the continent of America, 
discovered by Sebastian Cabot and other naviga- 
tors in her service, it was not until late in the 
sixteenth century that she made any attempt at 
colonization on this coast. The restless and en- 
terprising genius of Sir Walter Raleigh first 
gave birth to the idea, and he found no diffi- 
culty in inspiring a number of his friends with 
the same sentiments, who, incorporating them- 
selves into a society in 1584, received a patent 
from the crown, authorizing them to form esta- 
blishments on the east coast of the new continent. 
Two vessels were accordingly dispatched by this 
society in 1585, with an intention of founding 
the first settlement on the Ches*peak, but steer- 
ing too far south, they arrived at the Bay Qf 
Roanoke, in the province afterwards called Caro- 

i4 Una, 



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ISO insRit'BflG^EflteAragtoj 

Una, to which they then gave the aatoe jpfo Yif f 
gkria, in boedarufcf the) queen, abd thianwfl* 
stas (afterwards (extended to all the ncoaeft <» wbiq^ 
^EliglishfonneAsetdemfeatak ; (• n >iii 

v The two vessels, after conciliating thfc Ipd&tl* 
bf the Roanoke, returned to England, andiron 
the favourable account given by them ofnthfc 
country the society determined to make it i the 
<seat of its first settlement. In 1586, seven vesr 
*eh and 1 08; emigrants quitted Engjand for this 
purpose, and arrived safely at their destination. 
These adventurers, however, soon quarrelling 
< with the> Indians, the latter attacked and massa- 
cred the greater part of them, and tfie reurani- 
rdw having neglected to provide for their stybofc- 
ttoicfe by cultivation, were <?n the point of peoah- 
fng by famine, when Sir Francis Drake arriwd 
•with succours ; but the miseries they had already 
suffered, left no inclination in the survivors to xe- 
-main, and they accordingly embarked for Eqglaed 
\iti£he admiral's fleet <n ,h 

. ' This feilure, however, did not extinguish tfye 
-pfroJBcts of the society, who continued to make 
wwae trifling efforts to establish a colony at the 
isktne place, and in 1588, 115 persons weite 
.settled there, and in possession of whatever was 
--necessary to subsistance, defence against, and 
-)ttade with the Indians. The disgrace of Raleigh, 
,fthe chief promoter and support of the colony, 
/Jsofrever, . caused it to be neglected, or j^fcher 
to Wily -ab^nil^ned, until 1600, when Gostoidj ofte 
if£tk& associates, determined to visit it; but as 

the 



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th^ &9t adrctitut ere vh^dnatfeeredi todthfcs«lthr rof 
thtte int&idfedr> pas^pQdfotidisteMtid as pmd} 

the coast since named; New EB^Mdyfraoiiwliim)^ 
Stffca^oc tiring by baiter a ^onakterabte quantity 
%f Valuable furs^fbom the Indian*^ he ietirilAd 

'■> ' The profits and rapidity of this, entfrfprnM?) en- 
couraged the merchants of London ta eater into 
a^new society of colonixation^ and ia:(l606fii cdin- 
fnenced its operations, ituader the Jiacievofrthp 
North Virginia, or Hynwuth Company, o while 
the ancient association received that of Abet iStoth 
Virginia Company. Neither of tittle iriqi&ies, 
however, pushed their e&rts atxx)kuri2atoon wifli 
any degree of vigour, for in 1614 hoth^tabtish- 
t meats contained but 1,400 persons. ^; , j mri 
V' At length the religious intolareuce, which to* 
"Wards- the dose of the reign of James Lobegan 
ftxMSt England in aflame, laid the firaft solidrfbun- 
dation of the English population of America/ flRbe 
"paritaufi, persecuted by the established} <*hutch, 
d^l i to th6ne\^ world, in whose unexplored ^d?- 
r 4erti* tliey hoped to enjoy that civil and; religions 
liberty denied them in their native country. *ffiBbe 
zymn l&il was the epoch of their first emigrrittea, 
bvrhen 1£1 persons of this persuasieny having; rpur- 
t(4ha«ditbe territory within the jurisdietiDn/oflitbe 
, Plymouth Company, landed on the ooa^tof jNoafli 
iV^igini^ to which they gave the name of :*Ww 
oEngkmd* ; > Evefy thing opposed their first/ififortfe, 
ae jnd < >i 1.=.. • ■ - •- arriving 



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tt% MARITIME 0J50GRAPHT. 

arriving at the commencement of winter in a 
country whose climate is at that season extremely 
severe, and which they found covered with im- 
mense forests, rendered impenetrable by under- 
woody and spontaneously producing neither fruit 
UW vegetables for their subsistance, and but thin- 
ly inhabited by savages, who possessing no idea 
of agriculture, but living solely on the produce of 
the chace, could afford them no assistance. It 
i& not to be wondered at, that fatigue, cold, hun- 
ger, and the scurvy, carried off more than one 
half of these first colonists. The remainder were 
languishing out a miserable existence, when the 
spring brought to the coast a party of Indian war- 
riors, who instructed them in the cultivation of 
Indian corn, and in the most successful manner of 
fishing, by which they were enabled to subsist, 
until succour arrived from England. 

from the Indians they also received a grant of 
the lands bordering on their little establishment, 
whkhthey named New Plymouth, and the terri- 
tory ceded to them Massachusets. The colonists 
received a charter from the king, by which they 
were permitted to choose their own governor and 
magistrates, with the power of making laws for 
their government, independent of the mother 
country. They accordingly created a governor, 
oouncil, and house of representatives. The fun- 
damental principle in the formation of this last 
anemUy, was a declaration of intolerance in the 
absolute exclusion of all but puritans. Such is 

the 



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UNINTftD STATES OF AMHHCA. 19ft 

the contradiction in the moral nature of m*a, that 
the chains he flies from hiiaaeeif, he rivet* round 
the necks Of his fellow creatures.* 

The emigrations from England were not, how* 
ever, at first considerable, for in 1689 the ntim* 
ber of colonists only amounted to 900 persona. 
In that and the succeeding years, such number* 
fled from religious persecution in England, thai 
the population increased rapidly ; but unfortu- 
nately, many of tbem found the same spirit ef 
persecution raging in the country where they ex* 
pected to find ah universal charity* This obliged 
them to seek new dwellings, and gave rise to the 
three new provinces of New Hampshire in l6flfc 
of Rhode Island and Connecticut in 1635. The 
four provinces of New England, as soon as reli- 
gious disputes had began to subside, formed s 
confederation fot their mutual defence, aad the 
new* ones received similar charters to that of Mas* 
sachusets. 

The first laws of the New Engenders were 
such as might be expected from the austere 
principles of their framers. Witchcraft, btan* 
phemy, adultery, perjury, and murder, were«KQ- 
fbunded as crimes of an equal die, and puntfhed 
with death ; and the same penalty was decreed 
against a child who should presume to strike, or 

even 



*attya, fet wertpuMJdjr whipped, *n4 tten b^tfAtad the colony * w4 
ttose who itt&rned Wtfe condemned to death. 



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M4 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

eren to curse a parent, tying, drunkenness, 
and dancing, were punished by jMblic whipping ; 
and cursing, relaxation of public devotion, or the 
non-observance of the sabbath, by heavy fines. 
Zeal was carried so far, that the "names of the 
days erf* the week, and of the months, were etiang* 
ed, as having a Pagan origin ; while the Saints' 
were deprived of that appellation, and reduced] 
to their simple names, in order to avoid the smal- 
lest appearance of similarity with the church of 
Ron*e. On the same principle, the mere bending 
the knee-to an image was a capital crime; and. 
Catholic priests who should return to the colony 
3fter . banishment, were also doomed to suffer 
death. . Even tilings totally indifferent in them- 
selves* were prohibited as religious profanations ; 
among the rest, wearing long hair, which a 
particular edict made punishable in the men ; ^ 
wfejle the women were forbidden to expose their { 
arms or neck, their gowns being all of one shape, 
with, the sleeves to the wrists and the collars up 
to $he chin. The mode of courtship, the mafi-/ 
ner . of carrying the head, the arms, how to 
sp$ak,: took, and walk, were all rigorously pre- 
seabed; in short, as the climax of absurdity, ri\ 
was forbidden to brew on Saturday for fear tbue ' 
bee* should work on the Sunday. ^ , 

Jn our enlightened days we can scarcely beligve , 
t he i enormous excesses to which the most vile su- 
peju&ioo gave rise in this part of the new world, ^ t 
wei»!theynat attested by all the historians of tie 

times. „ 



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BRITI9H NORTH AMERICA. J&5 

times. l^Qrcery J?ecf mft*he ,w*tchhword te Woody 
Sacrifices, aod in 1692 qpwards of thirty persons 
were convicted, of this crime and executed* Nei^ 
ther the innocence of youth, the infirmities of age; 
the modesty of the sex, the dignity of ra*k, of 
fortune, or pf virtue, were sufficient protection 
against the suspicion of this imaginary crime. 
Children pf ten years of $ge were put to defcth. 
You^g women were stripped naked, and publicly 
examined for the marks of infernal agency. Ton- 1 
ture was applied to extort coniesakm, and the gib- 
bets kept prepared to finish the torments of thofe* 
from whom the torture forced a false acknowledg- 
ment. In short, the colony seemed to be arrived 
at the moment of total dissolution, when, in the 
very height of the stonp, as if by the immediate 
interposition of the Divinity, the eyes erf* the peo- \ 
pfe were suddenly opened, and confidence and" 
peace succeeded, to suspicion and despair. The 
reflection on the horrors that they had hwa en*' J 
gaged in, was. attended with the most piercing Te- ' ' 
morse, and by a general fast and public prayete l 
thley endeavoured to conciliate that meroififlt Divi* J 
nity, in whose name they had spilt so much inflow ' 
cent blood. . /.» p *" 

But though these blood-written: laws have beW 
long abrogated, their effects are stjjl visible amongst 
the Ne>v JiJnglanders, the women being <bsfcin- ; 
gii^M r by their, g^ave, and s$ei& 4etn«8Ufi«y **&£' \ 
by' a starched, frigidity pf i?^»§«» that repulaes ^ 
every idea of social intercourse; while the men 
are marked by a silent reserve, a habit of dissert* 

bling, 



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186 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

bling, and a dereliction of truth, but at the same 
time by an energy of sentiment and action far 4ie* 
yond the other people of the Union. 

The limits of this sketch confining us to a merfc 
chronological outline of the establishments is Awe- 
rica, from their first foundation till their arrival at 
(stability, we must here take leave of New England, 
and turn our view to Virginia, the second colony, 
in point of time, established by England in the 
new world. 



VIRGINIA. 

The name of Virginia was, as we have already 
observed, originally given to all the east coast of 
North America, visited by, or known to the Eng- 
lish ; but when the settlements were multiplied, 
this denomination was confined to the country be- 
tween Maryland and Carolina. 

The company of North Virginia first attempted 
an establishment on this coast in 1606, in which 
year Jamestown was established; bat the colo- 
nists having unfortunately discovered a rivulet « 
the neighbourhood, the sand of which abounded 
in particles of talc, they mistook this substance 
for silver, and every other pursuit was neglected 
for that of collecting this useless dust, with which 
the two first vessels that arrived from England with 
provisions were loaded on their return. 

The neglect of cultivation, the consequence of , 
this ignorance and folly, produced a famine, that 

spared 



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BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. 127 

spared but sixty persons of 500 that arrived in the 
colony ; and these were about to abandon it, and 
seek refuge at Newfoundland, when in 1609 Lord 
Delaware, who had accepted the government, ar- 
rived with a reinforcement of colonists and a sup* 
ply of provisions. The eminent abilities of this 
nobleman restored the colony, and put it on a re- 
spectable footing j its progress was, however, re- 
tarded by the monopoly of the company, until the 
latter was dissolved by Charles I. and a royal go- 
vernment substituted. 

During the civil wars, the population of the 
colony increased rapidly by emigrations of loyal- 
ists, who being in general persons of education 
and property, at once introduced those principles 
of civil society, which were so long unknown in 
the other colonies, of which the first settlers were 
either desperate adventurers, criminals, or igno- 
rant bigots* 

The colonists of Virginia being composed 
chiefly of royalists, resisted the parliamentary do- 
mination even after the murder of Charles L, and 
at last were reduced only by the treachery of 
some of their own members* assisted by a formi- 
dable fleet of the commonwealth. The same spi- 
rit remained unextinguished during the usurpation 
& Cromwell, and the Virginians first proclaimed 
Charles II. in America. 

Bftt ffoough the Virginians were loyal, they were 

too high spirited to suffer oppression, and in 

eon&queftceof some arbitrary acts of the gowern- 

tftfent at home, a young officer, named Bacon; 

1 - > raised 



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.AOttKOUL ID ISTAlt amo 

128 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

raised the standard of insurrection fn the colony, 
and serious consequences were to be apprehended, 
when the death of their leader restored tranquil- 
lity, and soon after their constitution received a 
more, popular form, by the addition of a body of 
representatives, elected by the people. 

bo4 M nnoj 

Tjjkq? x OX CAROLINA. 

> 
The first attempts at colonization on the coast 

now called Carolina, were, as we have seen, un- 
successful, and it was not until past the middle of 
the seventeenth century that this object was re- 
sumed. 

In 1663 a society of noblemen and gentlemen 
received a grant of this country from Charles II., 
and the celebrated Locke was requested to frame 
a constitution for the intended colony, which 
proved to be founded on very different principles 
from what might have been expected from the phi- 
losophic investigator of the human mind. The 
first principle of his constitution was a general 
religious toleration ; but at the same time obliging 
every person above seventeen years of age to 
choose his communion, and to register himself a 
member of it The civil liberty of the colonists 
was left much more unguarded than the religious, 
the whole authority, legislative and executive, 
being lodged in the eight proprietors, who were 
to create three classy of mobility, according to 
the quantity of land granted them. The first 

das$ 



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urnma* trim of axbbica. Iff 

class was confined to two individuals, named 
Landgraves, who reciftteu $0,000 a&fas eadff. 
The second class, named* £*tix#ie&> ' Wesf to re- 
ceive 24,000 acres; and the tbriri or beron£ 
12,000 acres. The numbers of the two letter 
were unlimited* These poasogsions were never to 
be alienated in detail, and the proprietors weret* 
form a bouse of pe«* A house of represents 
Jives, named the court palatine, but with wry li% 
aopted authority, was also created. In spigbt of 
to defects of this constitution, the colony (whick 
mad established its capital at Charlestown) had 
frayed at some degree of solidity, when, in 1705* 
it was thrown into confusion by religious disputes* 
*nd by a bloody war with the Indians; the former 1 
were soon settled by the interference of the mother- 
country, and the Indians were quitted* Bat the 
colonists had still sufficient obstacles ta encounter; 
in the oppression of the proprietary government* 
and their complaints increasing with their &U8K 
bers, the government at last found it necsssary t$ 
resume its grant, which it purchased from thf pro* 
prietors for the sum of j£24,0Q0, all, except JLorq 
Grenville, surrendering both their jurisdiction end 
their territorial property. This nobleman chpset* 
retain his share of the latter, and his f aunty ^jqy^, 
it, till the American revolution- The provipgft 
now received a similar government to that of -Vir- 
ginia, and it was also separated into two pwyince^ 
• called North and South Carolina*, - j. . * v 

oi ^aibroy ? .v* //- ^ \ .. 1 - - ' ■•.: > - * 

fcnft 9rfT rp^rft b fl : r fr K ::J V . H :».:^ . -. ***' 



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brit <*> ebroiui orf'y. o?/£ Lte! %yuoIod aiorfvr sth 

In point of time, the colonization of New York, 
New Jersey, and part of Pennsylvania, Succeeded 
to that of Carolina. 

- These coasts were first taken possession of* ty 
the Dutch, in 1614, and received the general 
name of the New Netherlands ; and the present 
province of New York, that of Nova Belgia. 
The claim of the republic to the sovereignty of 
fhls country was founded on its discovery by Hud- 
son, when in their service ; but James L asserted 
his superior right, from Hudson's being a British 
subject; The disputed object was, however, deem- 
ed of so little consequence, that James, though he 
never relinquished, did not attempt to enforce his 
claim, and- the Dutch were permitted quietly to 
form some Establishments for the purpose of trad- 
ing with the Indians for furs ; the monopoly of 
which was granted to the West India Company. 
The; principal ■ post of this Company was first at 
Fort Orange, since named Albany, on Hudson 
River, ' ' 

In 1620 the citizens of Amsterdam conceiving 
that a colony might be advantageously established 
on this coast, purchased the privileges of the West 
India Company for about .£30,000, and New 
Amsterdam was immediately founded on the island 
Menahaton, at the mouth of the Hudson. This 
city had already made a rapid progress in 1^6*, 
when an English hostile squadron appearing before 
it, it surrendered at the first summons, and, with 

the 



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trantfc idUaem «*•****: a. Jfti 

the whole colony, fell into the hands of the. 
Victors, to whom if ^as formerly ceded by- the 
peace of Breda in 1667s when both the chief city 
of New Amsterdam, and the whole colony, re- 
ceived the name of New York, in honour of the 
Duke of York, to whom tfye king granted it by 
letters patent, immediately after its conquest. 

In 1673 the Dutch again got possession of it, 
but were obliged to restore it the following year. 
On the accession of James II. it became vested in 
the crown, which appointed a governor and 
council to administer its affairs ; but on the re- 
volution, its constitution was new modelled, by 
granting it an elective House of Representatives. 



on ti^EuniTv! 

".1 



10 v;- , • , : ; ■ * • \ • * . - ,■ v 

w.im'j.. NEW JEtlSEY. ' 'i' ' . *> 

To 7;.' .;. '. ••/ ' t ■■->_. ' \ •• "-';••' .. 
vrJ^fWiifelBey was fittt tsettlect by tb* Swedes in 
j^^iiwho gave it the name of Neto Sweden, and 
i&r&fti tjbree small establishments, called CSftnfc- 
tiatta, Hehinbvrg) andGforten6wr^;they,howevef, 
^^ arrived Bt any coiitfderatkm, Mid in li>5S 
iJ^IWftpes^ed by the Ehitcfy and iiteorporotai 
jlftlr #«*** Jte^w- When the latter became tfr£ 
l^pq^otfthe Ddfce of York* he again separate^ 
dfe«r : S^^ea, and .grafted it to Sir George 
t Qfrt&$ti ,$nfr LordBeikely; Who gave, it if s pi^ 
&^\tfm. These #oprietoi» $old the'land; ih 
sA^A^f 0^: j#^rfent diiiveDiftiofi8 9 to the highest biif- 
J^fc$fe*i^^ and rt* 

silr *- o k2 galities, 



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galitieri, and these they ceded to, the *£$ffi r j§L 
1702, when the province received u a .qpujv ^iS? 
^rnmeiit to that of New York. ! ' "T; • 

< v ■'" ^ - ■ *i- • • •» ii::tu bnt 

MARYLAND. ; i.wj 

The persecution the. catholics experienced in 
England, towards the end of the reign of Charles 
I., induced Lord Baltimore, a peer of that per* 
fuaapn, to seek for liberty of conscience in Ame- 
rica, and he fixed on that point yet unoccupied by 
Itoro^eins, between the Delaware and the Potowv : 
Hiack, $f which he received a grant from the 
crown: but by the death of this nobleman, tbe^ 
execution of the plan devolved on his son, who 
quitted England in 1663, with 800 catholic fa* 
allies, many of them, of distinction. ^ ' ? 

r Tfie territory they intended to occupy was pijiv 
chased from the Indians, and received the game 
of Maryland, in honour of the queen of CHxarksi ■ I. f 
The liberal principles arising from the superior 
education of the first colonists, induced theni to 
lifcke i^ligious toleration the basis of their goy<£fc- 1 
xqiSft : in consequence of which, and their c6i*° 
cBkxxry manners towards the Indians, th$ t colonY n 
wis already in a flourishing condition at the deatji " 
cf Chatfes I. Crpmwell deprived Lord Sdthn^e' 
of the government and property of the coldn 3 ^ 
wKch^were restored by Charles II. fyit 
wiiked from; the family by James II. W 

" iAt^a theaptm the $*p$<flty andlirpfi^^iie 1 ^ 



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UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 133 

government only, their religion rendering them 
ineligible to the functions : on their becoming 
protestants, they were also restored to the latter, 
and until the revolution, the governor continued 
tafce appointed by the family, but with the ap- 
proval of the crown. 



PENNSYLVANIA. i 

Though the territory at present named Pen- 1 
jylvania was originally claimed by the Dutch* 
as a part of the New Netherlands, it remained un« , 
settled by any Europeans till 1681, when William 
Pen/ the most celebrated of the then newly sprung k 
up sect of quakers, led thither a colony of his . 
countrymen and brethren. JThe father of Pen 
bad been an Admiral in the English service, and 
had been employed by the Protector, and the two 
last of the Stuarts, in several expeditions, in con* J 
ducting which he had made considerable pe- 
cuniary advances to government, which it not , 
being convenient to repay, he was offered, as a. 
compensation, the vast extent of territory in Ame- 
rica, which forms the province that bears his 
natpe. * The Admiral accepted the grant, but 
djnng "shortly after, left the execution of his 
design, to his son, who determined to found a co» 
loijy on the purest principles of civil and religious 
fifJerifc He soon collected 2,000 persons, chiefly 
of*1^ bwp sect, with whom he sailed from Eng. 
]aj$ apci landed in the Delaware. Pen, not quite 
'* xS satisfied 



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15* MAWTME GEOGBAPHT. 

satined with the title which the grant i 
British King gave him, to a country a!read> oc- 
cupied by man, entered into a negociataon with 
Indians, and concluded a bargain, by which 
they ceded to him all the lands he desired. 
Though this bargain was entirely in favour of the 
purchaser, who, taking advantage of the %no^ 
ranee of the savages, dictated his own price, 
which bore no proportion to the value at the 
cession, it was sufficient to quiet the conscieutkws 



scruples of the benevolent quaker, and 
him to proceed to the establishment of the 
free from all remorse. His laws were, as might be 
expected from such principles, founded on the 
unalienable rights of man, the liberty of coo- 

ence, impartial justice, and security of pro* 
perty. For though he established the hereditary, 
government of the colony in his own family, he 
put it out of the power of his successors to inter- 
fere in the legislation, by confiding the latter .to 
the representatives of the people, chosen by se- 
cret ballot, to prevent corrupt canvassing. The 
agreement of the majority of this assembly wasr 
sufficient to enact a law ; but that of two-thi rds, 
was necessary to impose a tax. The land '*ast 
distributed in lots of 1,000 acres, to those wha 
could purchase it, at the small price of eigUteeu 
pounds ten shillings ; and those who had notM&at 
sum received a grant in perpetuity of fifty acres* 
for each member of a family, at the annual sent 
of one penny halfpenny the acre. % 

In order to introduce a general habit of in-* 

dustrv, 



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UNITED STATES Of AMERICA. 1S5 

dustry, it was enacted, that every child, of what- 
ever rank ot condition, should, at the age of 
twelve years, learn a profession; and to check 
litigation, arbitrators were appointed in every 
district, and it was strictly forbidden to receive 
any pecuniary recompense for pleading in the 
courts of justice. Such simple and just regu- 
lations could not fail of the desired end, and ac- 
cordingly the infancy of the new colony was free 
from those convulsions and dissentkms which tore 
to pieces the more ancient ones, and so long re- 
tarded their progress. 

-ftTV) V. ?/- GEORGIA. ; . :; 

^ t : *Pl^ cdcaiization of the province of Geotrgia* 
flp^p^Uy considered as a dependance of Cartdiiri^ 
,-pflifr ppmipenced by the benevolence of an ilk 
^hfi4^^whd bequeathed his fortune to theiefi$f 
.jlf^soiven|t debtors. Government seeing ho beW 
tJ ]^j(rwajr of. accomplishing this pnd, than that of 
? 0fp#$£ the persons restored to liberty, and who 
^j^^^pubum^ane of living in England* toseetaa 
J^f^fshbiistence in a country whose soil was yet 
f^^yr tjo cultivation, granted an addition' of 
fifQftWo* ^ bequest* which was still farther 
J ifl W W M flJ ff *. considerable private ac^NBofiptio^ 
89 ^^#ufltoient fund being obtained, General 
i(SiKR9^^^ entrusted with the execution^f 

&e plan, ■ '-> ' 

•nr -fritiSP [^Officer ^l^ %gl^^ A« 
.vtteub k4 first 



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first colonists, consisting of 100 persons* and 
founded the town of Savannah. The following 
year 491 persons were sent out at the expense of 
the fund, and 127 who paid their own expenses ; 
and in 17S5 the colonists were still farther in- 
creased by some Highlanders, who received a 
grant of land on the banks of the Alatamaha, on 
condition of defending the frontiers of the colony 
against the Spaniards of Florida. Here they 
founded the town of Darien. In the same year, 
a considerable number of "protestants, driven from 
Saltsbourg in Germany by religious persecution, 
fled to Georgia, and founded the town of Ebene- 
aer, on toe Savannah, sixteen leagues trom M» 
mouth. The colony, however, in its infimoy* lw 
goished under difficulties both physical and motal, 
tfwftrrt proceeding 'from the ofcinete, wfcfefrte 
greatly against any considerable advances in«cA* 
thmtfcm by Europeans, and the latter arosefimr 
Ike defects of the government, and the eppfW 
•km of the governors. The whole power <wi* 
Vested in a few proprietors, who enacted **<* 
regulations as placed the colonists in a state ^tf 
absolute servitude : while they withheld from 
them several of the privileges granted to *4b* 
neighbouring colonies, in partionlnr the Ja& 
portation of slaves and of rum. As the cota*y4*e 
pressed, these evils became less Wtp pof tah te^ eied 
the discontent arose to such a height^ that jb4$M 
government found it necessary to shoish the<prOi 
prietary government, and put the colour *» the 
same footing as the Carolina*. * * :°4 ? lt 

FLOEIDAS, 



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-gmt'oliol sril VI&EU&A& i ■-. • '••':' * •' nuoi 

; ^odar 4b*/«wetal: name -!«/ Hoisida, ,the*p** 
«Mr4»rtMigiiM%^Mteo49d *> tucfede att tb« 
coast between the Gull ©f M«ico and New 
England ; while the otfeer nations of Europe 
confined it to the peroasuJa between' Georgia and 
the Mississipi. This ctountry was* as we have 
elsewhere observed, discovered by Juan Ponce de 
J*on in 1*1% • bat was nested until 150^, 
irhentheft-eacfe Httgoaots formed a smalt 4*2 
ttement, 6o«t, which tbey ware driven the follow^ 
Wg yew fcgr the Spaniards, who feared tbtt 
viomity «f so enterprising a neighbour. 
JbSm Spaniards formed their cbief establishment 
aMwAngurtina, but their progress was esteemed 
a|oy,nanttitarae not until 1696 that Peaaaeefe 
■Mtfawded By the peace of 176$ the piyvinefl 
wwii ccda d t» Great Britain, io exchange £m 
thc/Hawaanah; at which time its population wan 
etolp OQO.pessons, who quitted the colony* and 
tetiMsd to Cuba. England divided the territetjf 
intftltvo provinces, named East and West Elfo 
«iaa,o»itd separated by the Apalachjcola, $t« 
Arigustiae wmaming t»e capital of the foime*, 
wdv&toaaaela «f the lattejr, The fir$t Eipgha^ 
tdenisti nn*. > yoaeipaily disbanded offpera sn4 
w Wfrtl fc «ko received grant* of iaad «* pfeportgHI 
toa^beii iintah^o A number *f e»%f aiM*-. aJWw 
astivnd £omoten Cerplums and Geoj«ie* »n4 
the population was iaaftattd fay^a «feft3bin^» 
.u':uoi: Greeks 



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198 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY, 

Greeks from the Morea. In 1767 Doctor Turn- 
bull, a considerable proprietor in Florida, con- 
ceiving that this people would gladly seize any 
opportunity of escaping from the despotism of the 
Ottoman government, visited the Morea, and of* 
fered its inhabitants an asylum in Florida, Con* 
siderable numbers listening to his proposals, he 
purchased permission from the Turkish governors 
to embark them at Modon, and touching at Cor* 
sica and Minorca, he there also picked up some 
recruits, with whom he set sail for America, and 
landed them, to the amount of 1,000, in East 
Florida, where they received amongst them 
60,000 acres of land. With the exception of the 
first mortality from change of climate, which 
carried off about one quarter of their number, 
thia attempt was successfiil, and the Greeks formed 
a society, which was rapidly improving in wealth 
and numbers, when in I78I both Floridas were re- 
duced by the Spaniards, and confirmed to thera 
at the peace of 1783. 



LOUISIANA. 

The coasts of the country, at present named 
Louisiana, were considered by the Spaniards as 
part of Florida, but were scarcely known to them; 
and it was not until 1660 that the French, from 
the relations of some of the Indians bordering 
oa Canada, became acquainted with the existence 
of the great river Mississipi. . , wW, *, 
UP* Li 



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UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 139 

In I678 La Salle, a Canadian, conceived the 
first idea of establishing a colony on the banks 
of the river, and for that purpose repaired to 
France, where, having procured the sanction of 
the government, and raised a few followers, he re- 
turned td the Mississipi, and formed the establish- 
ment of Fort Louis, at the junction of the Mis- 
souri; from whence he proceeded down the river 
in canoes to its mouth. When returning to 
France to announce his discovery, the govern- 
ment accorded him four small vessels, with 300 
persons, composed of soldiers, mechanics, priests, 
and women of the towi> with whom he sailed from 
La Rochelle in 1684, but steering too far to the 
westward, passed the mouths of the Mississipi and 
made the land of St. Bernard's Bay. Here a dis- 
pute arising between La Salle and the com- 
mander of the ships, the latter determined to se- 
parate, and the colonists who chose to follow the 
former, to the number of 170, were landed. -La 
Salle employed several months in examining the 
rivers which fall into the bay, some of which he 
supposed might be branches of the Mississipi ; 
but being disappointed in these hopes he de- 
termined to penetrate into the interior, in search 
%Hfck Jffcttteftis amines ©£SL Batfe* and wta en- 
gaged in this pursuit, when in I687 he was as- 
te6smated by some of his own people. 

The death of their chief destroying all sub- 
ordination among his followers, some were car- 
ried off by disease, others falling into the hands 
of the Spaniards, finished their days in the mines 

4 of 



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140 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

of Mexico, while the savages surprizing a post 
they had formed, massacred all those they found 
in it ; so that six individuals only, of the 170, 
escaped to the country of the Illinois, and thence 
found their way to Canada. 

After this unfortunate attempt, the Mississipi 
was neglected till 1698, when Yberbille, a French 
naval officer, recalled the attention of his govern- 
ment towards it, and was himself sent out with 
two vessels, and a few colonists, with whom he 
first ascended the river, and established a port 
at the Natches ; then again descending, he fixed 
the remainder of the people at Biloxi, on the east 
coast of the river's mouth. Two years after, 
fresh colonists arriving, the port of Biloxi was 
abandoned on account of its sterility, and the esta- 
blishment fixed at Fort Dauphin, near the mouth 
of the Mobile. -Jill 

The death of Yberville in 1706, again caused 
the total neglect of the infant colony, and the 
greater number of the people abandoned it, 
twenty-eight families only remaining in a state 
of misery in 1712, when Crozet, a private mer- 
chant, received a grant of the vast country wa* 
tered by the Mississipi, and which on the expe- 
dition of Yberville had received the name of : 
Louisiana. 

The avidity of Crozet causing the failure of 
all his schemes, in 1717 he sold his grant to the • 
Mississipi Company. The celebrated Law pro- 
posed, by means of a national bank, to pay oft' 
the enormous public debt of France, and might 
to possibly 



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UNITED STATES OP ABTOWCA. 141 

po&ribly have succeeded, had the necessary refor- 
mation been at the same time made in the pub- 
lic expenditure ; but being obliged also to find 
ways and means of continuing to supply the 
enormous extravagance of a licentious court, he 
was under the necessity of having recourse to ano- 
ther scheme $ and the Mississipi opportunely of- 
fered itself for the purpose. Juan Ponce de 
Leon, in his visit to America, not finding the mi- 
raculous spring he sought for, indemnified him- 
self for the disappointment, by the pretended dis- 
covery of inexhaustible mines of the precious 
metals, which he named the mines of St Barbe ; 
but wisely leaving their situation undetermined, 
they were sought for in various positions without, 
success by the Spaniards for thirty years after, 
and were generally forgotten, when Law revived 
the remembrance of them, and persuaded the 
people of France, that they were rediscovered in 
Louisiana ; and in order to give authenticity to 
this assertion, miners were sent out to commence 
working, and troops to protect them. 

The effervescence that this stratagem produced 
among the people of France of all classes, was 
^ruly astonishing, and the Mississipi became the 
great center of the views, the hopes, and the de- 
gires of seven-eights of the nation. A company, 
called the Western Company, was chartered, and 
before it had existed a year, the shares had 
doubled their original value. The chief persons 
of $be kingdom solicited grants of land in the 
new Eldorado, and Law himself received a grant 

of 



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of four square leagues, erected into a duchy, to 
which he sent 1,000 colonists and a company rf 
dragoons. Other colonists pouring in from France* 
Switzerland, and Germany, were embarked, and 
the whole thrown ashore on the barren and bum-; 
ing sands of Biloxi, where thousands of them 
perished of hunger and chagrin, during four years 
that this port was retained. At length the few 5 
survivors abandoned this grave of their compa^ 
nions, and ascended the Mississipi, where they 
founded the city of New Orleans. 

The people of France had by this time awoke 
from their golden dream; the mines of St. Barbe 
werfe obliged to be acknowledged non-existant, 
and with them vanished all the illusions they had 
created. The very name of the Mississipi was 
execrated, and it was only in the prisons and 
houses of debauch that fresh colonists could be 
found. Accordingly, several ship-loads of thieves 
and prostitutes were sent out, and the latter, ac- 
cording to a French author, became honest women 
and good mothers in the colony. 

However this might be, the progress either 1 in 
population or riches was very slow under the mo- 
nopoly of the company, which lasted till 1730, 
when it relinquished its charter to the crown, ami 
the commerce of the colony was declared free for 
ten years. 

Under the royal government the colony, hertr- 
ever, remained nearly stationary, the number of 
colonists in 1763 (when it was ceded to Spain) 
being only 7,000, and the exports to France in 
**;* indigo* 



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mtligo, furs* hides, smd tallow, . and to tlie West 
Indies ia smoked provisions, rice, Indian corn,. 
&c. scarce worth, notice. 

• Spain did not immediately take possession o£ 
tfee colony, but first sent out Don .Ulloa, in 1766, 
to examine the country, and this; delay gave the 
colonists hopes of returning under the doraiuioa 
«f France. These hopes were^ however;, soon 
destroyed by an order from Spain, .prohilMtihg the 
entrance of any but Spanish v«s3*li intb the ports 
of the colony. This prohibition, together with 
other acts of oppression, produced a rising of the 
colonists, who obliged Ulloa to quit the colony, 
at the same time that they sent deputies to France, 
to remonstrate against the cession. These repre- 
sentations w r ere, however, of no avail, and Spain 
sent out Oreilly to assume the government, who 
having received a force of 3,000 men at Cuba, 
arrived at New Orleans in 1769, and immediately 
caused twelve of the principal colonists, who had 
been instrumental in sending away Ulloa, to be 
executed for disobedience to the orders of the 
Spanish government, although they had taken no 
engagement whatever to that nation. 

Under the restrictive colonial regulations of 

Spain, Louisiana languished in a state approaching 

i& wteerji Until 1778* when it^ CQija^scje y$? 

laid open to all the subjects of Spain, g$d, wj^p 

4folFj?»eb W**t India Island* y^a tprvfy#e$ to 

taqprtfer-rite &*ber and ^QV^psf ^ c t^jr owji 

ni Sn»fflm^oiit^ ; h^^H^^ f»#^i&- 
«o^i!jni gree 



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H4 

gree of prosperity, when in 1803, France (having 
previously sold the province to the United States) 
obliged Spain to cede it to her, and after taking 
a nominal possession, put it into the hands of 
these States. At this cession, the population was 
27,500 whites, and 17,197 negroes. The ex- 
penses of the colony amounted to 600,000 dollars 
per annum, while the receipts of the custom-house 
at New Orleans, the only revenue of the province^ 
did not exceed 100,000. 



i I 



1 ! f i % 

-ft * 



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^aivtd) snn^.l. s^'-i r: i:'.f T ^/ jYiiv ftt--**; :'* ^ ^[ 
(t&tif fey.. ; ::M ,; ; •: ti'j S. v ; -*'*; 

^ l M\¥k> STATES OFAMERtGA. >' 

**» */. i' ; ■ * ; ' .I.-*; <...>* 

'"Wfe tehitory of the TMtea Jimerican Stated 
tfafittctoceSat the Stiver St. Croi^in ktitude^j 
*t&'At\*M hkmm states are, /; '" * y \* * ;* 

Northern Stitc*. MUUkSfotb* * : Wfottiefafade}; ** 

Maine, New York, 

^g f New Hampshire, NewJersey, Virginia, 
•Si J Massachusets, Delaware, North Carolina, 
■3 j Rhode Island, Maryland, South Carolina, 
2 L Connecticut Georgia, 

The Atlantic region of the United States pre- 
sents two grand formations, the granitic, and the 
$andy j the first extends from the River St Croix 
to Long Island, in which space the coast i? com- 
posed of elevated granitic masses, with rft&fs con- 
nected with the continent* JYoiji Long Island, 
to the south, the coast is invariably low, nearly 
level with the water, and entirely composed of 
sea-sand, which extends a considerable way inland, 
and is covered with pine and other resinous tress. t 
The whole of this extent is also lined with s»nd« 
banks and low islands, between which and the 

vou iv, l continent 

• Taepeajneula of Cape Cod U the only exception to the graaitic $or* 
■—km, bctag entirely composed of lea und, brought by the gulf etream. 

* Hence theeetrecfteejti tatted the fiee kmrma they are •imilar ^ the 
r affiance. 



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Jtioer, «*J 



146 MARITIME G^OGgAPHY. 

continent is an interior navigation for small craft, 
extending almost without intermission from the 
Chesapeak to the promontory of Florida, and 
doubling this point to the Mississipi, or even to 
Vera Cruz. 

The next general feature in the Atlantic re- 
gion, is the great number of its rivers, which 
have their sources in the ridges of mountains, 
that lay parallel to the coast at the distance ojf 
fifty to 250 miles. These rivers are distinguish- 
ed from those of every other great region of the 
globe by the direction of their courses, for in- 
stead of following the vallies between the moun- 
tains, they cross the latter at right angles, find- 
ing their way to the sea through narrow chasms j 
after passing through which, and surmounting 1 
the bed of granite that serves as a base to this 
region, by falls oaore or less high, they cross in 
their course to- the sea a flat afttvion plain, where 
they expand into sheets of water, giving to tlie 
coast, particularly towards the south, the aspect 
of a continued chain of lakes, within a chain of 
isfencfe. On the coasts of Carolina, Georgia, 
and Florida, the ishnds ]*ave been evidently 
formed 1 by an irruption of the sea, their arxierrt* 
union to the contiitent being proved hy- tfte 
trunks of trees of the same species as tht>se now 
met on the latter, fbrnid bimed in the saiufc 
When properly drained, these islands are found 
eminently fit for the grpduction of indigo *\nd 
cotton* Their eastern or exterior coasts are con** 
posed oi a Hue heavy stmt?, wftfch resists the at- 



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ijni^ / if Aifli* of America. ivf 

!T«y aoottnii ^n smaH *igers, deer, beans, wolve^ 
^^^%p^oj^\t]^ pole and wildcats* $n4 
are lafosWlby rattlesnakes and other seqieni^ 
The salt, lagoons aad mawhes within then*, are 
^~ Ji with saline jtianla* asiaiicor, barilla, &c. 
mush into the lagoons are named Sounds^ 
je^ujlof fUb> chiefly mullet, whiting, floina^ 
xfjfc slapjacks, sea trout, bass, &c. (ty*- 
.'Wains, crabs, apd prawns, are equally abun* 




-/I J 



tifwion. 



T7ie hays of the . United States being separated ****» 
tfom each other by narrow strips of land, by 
cutting through them An interior navigation may 
fee formed, at inconsiderable expense, from Bos- 
ton to Georgia* The first of these canals would 
Ve from the harbour of Boston to that of Rhodq 
Island, a distance of twenty-si^ miles ; the second 
&pm the Rariton River to the Delaware, twenty* 
fight miles; the third from the Delaware to the 
^tu&apeak, twenty two miles j and the fourth from 
the Ghesapeak to Albemarle Sound, also twenty- 
two miles. Supposing this navigation to be com-' 
rieted, ^ vessel from Boston passing through the 
canal to Rhode Island Bay, and from thence 
fhroqgh Long Island bound and the harbour of 
Kew York* would reach Brunswick, on the 
JUt^oi^ and from thence through the second 
canal to Tientoc, on the Delaware, which she 
welA descend to Newcastle ; from hence the 
canal would be cut to the J£lk River, which 
into the Chesapeak. Descending tliia bay 
l 2 and 




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1« • MARITIME 'otbGlUp^f?'' * 

i*- and ascending Elfzabeth' River, the vessel would 
pass through the fourth canal J into Albleniarie 
Sound, and by Pamtico, Core, and Bogue Sounds^ 
sfie would arrive at Swainsborough, in North Ca-* 
rolina. From hence an iutand navigation con- 
tinues, buf with a diminished depth, through 
Stumpy and Toomer Sounds ; and by cutting two' 
narrow necks, both not exceeding three miles, 
the Vessel I would arrive in Cape Fear River, and 
thence, by a short run along shore, she would 
reach the chain of lagoons, which line the Carol 
Una, Gorgian,' and Florida shores already no- 
ticed. 

The navigation afforded, or whidi may be 
opened by the rivers of America, is not of le$4' 
consequence. Five of the Atlantic rivers ap- 
proach the St. Laurence and the lakes of Canada; 
viz. the Penobscot, the Kenebeck, the Connec- 
ticut, Hudson's River, and the Tioga branch or 
the SusqiLehannah. In the three first or New 
England Rivers, no other meliorations have been 
yet made than some short canals to avoid the falls 
of the Connecticut. 

The Hudson affords a tide navigation for vessels 
of eighty tons to Albany, 160 miles above 'New 
York* Nine miles above Albany the river divides 
into two branches, that retaining the name of 
Hudson taking a direction to the north, and the 
Mohawk to the west; the fitst approaches Lake 
Cliamplain, and the second by a canal of one mile 
and a half to Wood's Creek communicated with 
Lake Oneida, and this lake with Lake Ontario b£ 

Oswego 



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united states of America. 14.9 

Oswego River. From this river there is a com- *««* *«- 
munication by the Seneka into lakes Cayuga, Sene- — ? 
ka, and Canadaque. Several large boats are em- 
ployed in this navigation, and a schooner of sixty 
tons is in constant activity on lake Senek^u* 

The Susquehannah is the largest river of the 
Atlantic region of the United States : it is navi- 
gable with the tide to its falls, near Havre de 
Grace. By the Tioga and other confluent rivers 
on the east it approaches lake Seneka, there 
being only a short portage, or land carriage, and 
the Seneka communicates nearly with lake On- 
tario by the river Genessee. By Jiie Juniata, 
and other tributary rivers on the west, the Sus- 
quenanna^v approaches the Alleghany, one of 
the grand branches of the Ohio, which is itself a 
grand branch of the Mississipi. 

It has been projected to unite the waters of the 
Atlantic with those of the Gulf of Mexico, by 
lock canals across the mountains, joining the 
Potomac with the Monongahela, the James with 
the Kanhaway, and the Santee with the Tenessee. 
The difficulties and consequent expenses of the 
complete execution of these projects are, however, 
very great 

The Potomac, which has its source in the AI- 
l3 ' leghany 

'* A eowrfdemble commercial intercourse at present subsists between 
Nejr Ydrt ami Kcw Orleans by. another, route. The merchandize ascend tha 
Hudson and Mohawk to lake Oneida, from whence they descend by the river 
OiAfregb into lake Ontario; they then are conveyed by land carriage alouj£ 
tfefe: V9»k* T of tjta Niagara to lake Erie, and from this lake by another Jam) 
cprr^ra into the Allegheny and Ohio. 



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*$$£? iegha»y<n*fflrtahf$ after tl course! if IMA; mfeto, 

*■* jteiptirt ifeietf into thte Cbesapekk by a tteuthrdf 

seven miles wide, and nanttwitt$ift the aic«ttc*£ 

ote mtfe art Washington. The daptb^ M4ftelilaiH 

jiar, diminishing from seres fhttonf*^ ittmnnih 

t© five fathoms at Se. George, €*ta<*t •• Ataotofafa, 

jod three at Wwhinjjftoit, f fhe mtf JgalinH^lfcfc 

latter city is unimpeded*, *nd fe< optfe aiaHhto** 

sons, the river never fteeomg. 'A mile fr b w ae 

Washington, one large* «*k Marcs up * in the *)&» 

-die of the rivfcr, and the channels en eediwte 

are obstructed by sand-banks, end are only* p« t> 

'tfeabte by iengboats; which eta aseend^o the^Lifc 

Ite JRffc, nx miles from Wtak lagWfci hert <*«y 

enter into *4ft&al two miles *t>&« half 4#ag> «»d 

atorethe tidts -again -enter the met, tohitfh 4hiJ|r 

ascend to the Gfnmtf #Wfc> «cven gftkte ^j |g htr , 

The- length of these folk is a *nde and a tplrtaf, 

and the petpendicalat 4tesibei* ^eveatJMsl* ^&4fe> 

they are avoided by tucanal, and above 4hen&rlte 

fiter i# Unimpeded by any MotfctrtMtiettfb Cmijin 

land, 'near 400 mites from Waafcngtste, &** 

(toe river is again crossed by folk, *hkjh%fis)*fr. 

tended to *void by a cental, by whs*, wif^rtfcn 

exception of about fifty miles of laiidnctivpgBi^fi 

navigation iflB he opened to the 4Shtf ^ dftJWiWP 

by the rivers Cheat, Metaongahela, Ohio, and 

Mississipi, and also, with the exception of a few 

carrying places, with lakes Erie, Huron* anffMu 

•chigau. 

' The Mississipi (Mmo-ciupi, Father of Watam) 
is the second river of America, $&V%&'s<#JK#$ l 

three 



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vnmam «m» w ammca. 151 

rik^fcfcev** latitude 4?°, *d ifeftcmrAt njg j^,^ 
imfthe^fiulf^ M©xi»,' In latitude «9°, Its ^rhoie *^ 
**>ti**e>betng $£00 mites. 

This great river empties itself by Several mouths, 
forming u detta of drowned islands. Two of the 
channels are only fit for strips, and the deepest 
t*tt? ibr vessels of twelvfe totffteen feet; so that, 
4HBefpt-in'the spring, tvhttt Ihe river is swollen,* 
vessels -of $90 tons only can ascend to New 
Orleans. The <tepth fa tiiese channels also decrea- 
ses atmuafly, having had, it is said, depth for ves- 
sels (rf«00t^ns fifty years ago. 

*Ten leagues from the sea the river deepens, and 
160 leagues farther it is thirty to forty fathoms, 
with a breadth of 500 fathoms. Above the con- 
fluence of the Red River the navigation becomes 
trcmbtcaome, from the islands and shoak formed 
by drift trees arrested in the stream, an& called 
chicots. Above the Bed River the Mississipi re- 
ceives the Arkansas and Missouri on the right, 
md t*« Okm and Illinois on the Mi The Mis- 
AJtta, \Aich is in fact the upward conthuratkm -df 
fhe Mississipi, ifcsrtes from the chains stony mtoin* 
Wfoto near the Grand Ocean, and, after a wiiidmg 
WUtSfeof near 3, 000 miles, takes the name of the 
fcfi&sissipi aba** Fort St. Louis, in 38%°. 

l 4 Thfe 

#6\ a 10 uo ; ; ••.:'/ < ■ • •■•-■■ <;♦ .*,;. ■;,,. 

-iMflhStfkiW^ftad river ** ««*»d' b T tbt melting 'of the snows in the 
aorth, and it to highest in April and May,when the stream runs eight or nine 
mute* an hour in the narrow reaches, and three miles in the widest. The 

r*ltto& ***** W iM&nVsr Ml tfcceWWr, w1*n the wren* isjscarct 
rpt&l*. The exiremes of level at New Organs is fifteen or sixteen 



*=ri<I* 



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*jff£* -The Ohte de^eod^ftam thq waters aidb<dfttb* 

•— Atttgbany.rtdge,- and kfojKned of theAtfteghanjfr 

and Monongaheia rtoern, whose [junction i* at jPitta* 

jwipg j And that of th^ Ohio wfthltoe^MiBsiesipi^b 

Fort Jeflfetton,. In 37°,. after a tortuous cowcxhoS 

near 2> 000 miles, throughout Vrhich itisnavipiile, 

except in sumtqer at the rapids * of Louisville 

caused by a bed of calcareous rocks, which iipw 

marly retained the* waters in an immense take* the 

|>ed of which is still, easily to be traced. - 4 The 

Phio receives many considerable rivers, as. the 

Muskingham, the Scioto, South Miami* and Wa* 

ba6}i on the right, and the Kanhaway, Keittockey, 

Cumberland, and Tenessee on the left. 

, At Pittsburg on t the Ohio, 2,180 miles firpmNew 

Orleans,* vessels of 250 to 300 tons are buik, and 

sent -.in the, spring, loaded with flour t to the portt 

Of the United States in the Atlantic. . The tta^J- 

gatipn upwards from New Orleans to Pittsburg; is 

ptaly practicable by boats, on account of the tvtt- 

rent ^They^use sails, oars, poles, and, are abb 

troche^ where the batiks admit of h. * A loaded 

"boat takes .fortyrftve L to fifty days in ascendmgfrom 

New Orleans, to Pittsburg, and twenty-eight days 

in returning j. but a light canoe may accomplish 

the passage np in twenty to twenty ^ive days, aSid 

that down in fifteen to twenty. 

Hie descending navigate from Ktl a bmg to 

♦ Sml*Us»wttdLc«; 



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uNixsnismunsa of; ambeica. w$ 

Nrf^Orie^nsisabopurFonaiedby flathoete, or raw /^^. 
ther chests, which being unable to return against 
the stream, are broken up at New Orleans, and 
their conductors embark for the Atlantic ports, 
from whence they return by land to Pittsburg. 

It would be easy to connect the waters of the 
Ohio with those of lake Erie, by joining the Cay* 
ugi, which falls into the lake, with Muskingham, 
a tributary of the Ohio, these rivers approaching 
each other within six miles ; also by the union of 
the Sandusky and Scioto, the former debouching 
in. the lake, and the latter in the Ohio. The 
Northern Miami, which also empties itself into the 
lake, may be easily united to the Southern Miami, 
or to the Wabash, both confluents of the Ohio. 

It is also easily possible to form a navigation 
from the Illinois to lake Michigan, by a short 
canal from the former river to the Chikaoo, which 
falls into the lake, or by. uniting the Fox river, 
, which also empties itself* into the lake, with the 
Opisconsing, whose confluence with the Mississipi 
is in latitude 40°. A canal of two miles would 
establish this communication. But the simplest 
communication between the lakes of Canada and 
Gulf of Mexico is by the small lake Chataughgue, 
on the S.E. of the lake Erie, and only eight miles 
distant, from which issues the Conowango, one of 
the branches of the Alleghany, navigable in all its 

The other principal navigable communications 
that maybe effected are, the union of the Tenessee 
with the Tombigbee, one of the branches of the 

Mobile ; 



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IJS4 3jia*riAffi dfinwwp0if. 

jum;**; Mobile,] end this ktter rivet with the Al^iraiiij 

" ~^' Wuch woubL r obviate the tedious ami tiifficbfe n&bX 

Ration imtmd the peninsula of Florida. vU ni 

The coasts of the New England States are in 
general low, and in many places sandy and level, 
but the ridges of inland hills are seen from the sea. 
*£•"** <*f The district of Maine, included in the govern- 
ment of Massachusetts, is separated from the pro- 
vince of New Brunswick by the river St. Croix, 
and extends on the south to Piscataqua rivfer. Xht 
toast fe renmiJvable for the great quantity of rock 
treed that covers the shore, and for the rise of tide, 
which in the north-eastern bays is thirty feet. 

The prinfeipal bays of this district are, Passattta- 
quady, iillready noticed ; Machias, on which is a 
thriving to**n of the same name ; Penobscot, 
twerlty miles wide, with mony islands, the largest 
of which, named Loflg Maud, is ft toon miles km* 
and tw'o to three femttA, VKth a town named H«fe* 
borough, dfHk)0*inh^Wti^ltta. On the east shore -of 
tbei>ny are *tie towns di Pwbbscot and Custine-j 
«nd ■■on J ft#e riwr Penobscot, which falls into thfc 
tttthfe*hc*A of*tte<Me water, rs Bangor, a 
thriving town, 

£hecfw*M*t fitw fornix at its mouth the good hat- 
bo»r*of Wisscasset, and is navigable twenty niilgs, 
Sagadahock Bay receives the considerable Freer 
Kenncbeck, navigable for vessels of 1 50 l&m fony 
miles. At the head of the tide water is 4&&te>+ 
*t11, a thriving town. 

Cnsco Bay is eight leagues wkle m*\ ***"d*fc 
forming an *etfcc4tent -port for large vessete, md 

intersperse^ 



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UNLTfO >5mTW OT AWBEICA. 1&J& 

jltWrynflfdwith oukumttsd islands , Portland, 33& 1 * 
fttaftbaef&wnof the district is on a paint of land "~ 
in the bay, with a fine port, at whose entrance is a 
light-house. The population, in 180a, was 5,000, 
Yarmouth is a thriving town on this bay. 

Saco River is navigable tar ships to its fulls, six 
miles from the sea. Bidiefcffd, on this river, ex* 
ports a great quantity of lumber. York Town had 
(1779) 3,000 inhabitants : it is situated on York 
Hiver, navigable for vessels of 250 ions six 



v.iRiB. stale of Netf flawpahire haa but sixletfpm *• *«■*. 
of coast, *oa Which there are several «ouea formal* 
JB&*mtnj but the only harbour far ifaSpa*a tfant of 
ftacstaqua, rat the entrance of the nwm of the 
mnetuaae, i»ht»e>ciifneiit is so rapid <th at it njorva* 
ftaeaes. In the mouth ef the borbatir da Newcaa* 
ttejsiand, tvio Jeaguea an circuit, vifeh a tight* 
/Portsmouth, the dnef towa of theatate, 
*tlfce eoutk abac, tuo niles from its eBtafluqp; 
Ja 1805 it bad 7,00» inhabitants ; it isdafapdari 
1* a4*ajkeL In 1790 PiscatBqua 2ia*ow had 
#rij*y*tfj*ee Hawaii tibotfe 100 tona^md fifty am to 
100. ..... , 

- *Wieatate of Massachusetts is one of Jthe most »«««<*««*. 
commercial and flourishing of tfae Union : its pirn- 
pottB^are, Nev&Bnyv-at-the mouth c£ Meay- 
3tiue*> ^Mhida <has a gpeatimde wkh the Wcat 
m 42790 on^ieying 14^000 tons #f shipping. 
Government frigates ane built Jwre. Plum hlepd 
)qp*j*i*qi the «Hpt, $** Merrymak Hiver, to 
Jfi^cW W^R separated from the mam. by a aaiw 
< .,,...• row 



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l$P MARITIME GXMJUpqX* 

.vj^iwett. row. channel, . fordable jn spme places athra \vt4gfa 
The island is composed of sand-hills, p^pdu^igj, 
the tushes that bear the fruit called beach pluifl* } 
On the north end are two light-houses, to p#i#k ; 
out Newberry harbour. Ipswich, on a broa4 riyer^ 
is a poor place. Salem has 10,000 inhabitants aijd, 
a large trade to the West Indies ; it is also a great , 
ship-building place. It is between two river^ 1 
fbrmipg two ports, named the winter, and summer 
harbours. 

Boston, the chief town of the state, and the; 
fourth of the United States, is built on a peninsul^ 
in Massachusets Bay. Its road, called Nantasket,^ 
is sheltered by ten or twelve islands, and mapyi 
rocks above water, leaving only one channel for ; 
ships, 120 yards wide. The road can hold 600 
ships, and is protected by a citadel named Fort^ 
William, on an island. Th£ harbour is lined by a 
magnificent quay arid magazines, into which ship3, 
discharge their cargoes from their holds by cranes* 
THe town, built at the mouth of the river Charles* 
is composed of brick and wooden painted houses, , 
and in 1810 contained 38,000 inhabitants. The,, 
river is only navigable for boats seven miles. ,» r 

Plymouth is a town of three or 4,000 inhabitants, j 
with a large but shallow port. . M > 

The peninsula of Cape Cod is the southern Ji- 
mit of Massachusets Bay (of which Cape 4 nne (iS(j 
the north point). The peninsula is in the shape ,ffi fi 
a bent arm, the concavity on the north. . It is epr 
, tirely composed of sand hills*, which are cottstai^y 
shifting, and which naturally produce i^t 

dwarf, 



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UNITED STATES OT AMEUfCA. 1^7 

dwdif, pitch/ pine and whirtle-berry bushes; but * Mum****. 
wheat and rye are cultivated in small quantities. 
Oh/Vfche peninsulii are many clear fresh-water 
pbndsi, abounding in fish. ! The population is said' 
to "be hear ' 20,000, all fishermen. Though this 
tract of land seems to have been originally formed* 
by the accumulation of sea sand, at present the sea' 
evidently wears it away, and of an island which 
existed covered with wood a century ago, there 
only remains a large rock, which has settled down 
as the earth has been washed away. The isthmus 
of the peninsula, at the place called Province 
Tdwfl, is only three miles wide, between Barn-' 
staple Bay on the north and Province Town har- 
bour on the south. 

'Nantucket Island, south of Cape Cod, is low' 
and sandy, without a single tree, though it was 
fbrmerfy well wooded. Its only town, named 
Shelbn/ne, has 5,000 inhabitants, who, as well 1 
as the whole of the islanders, subsist by fishing; 
antf particularly by the whale fishery to the Grand 
Ocean. A shoal runs out from the island to sea 
fifteen leagues. 

Martha's Vineyard, ten leagues west of Nan- 
tucket, is seven leagues long and one broad. 
On the north it is hilly and rocky \ its harbour 
is" formed by the little fertile island Chabaqui- 
d(ck. Edgerton, the chief place, is on this liar- 
botif. The whole population is about 4,000, who 
sutifist by agriculture and raising cattle. 

'tttaODE Island State comprehends a small ex. **•*/•'•»* 
teik r of the main land, and several islands in the 

large 



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2&{ MAMxrttt dfcoakiJPB^ . 

*H*few«iKi. large Bay of Narraganset. This bay receive* 
several rivers, of which the most considerable are 
the Providence and Taunton ; the first is naviga- 
ble for ships of 900 tons to Providence, thirty 
miles from the bay ; the rise of tide in these ri> 
vers is but three feet. The town of Pro\tdekce 
is on both sides of the river ; in 1805, the popu* 
lation was 8,000. In 1791, it had 129> merchant 
vessels of 11,492 tons. Bristol and Tiverton, 
on the Taunton, are flourishing little towns ; and 
on the shores of the bay are Little Compton, 
Warren, Warwick, East and West Greenwich, 
New Kingston, and other rising towns of 1,000 
to 3,000 inhabitants. 

The principal islands of the state are Rhods 
Island, thirteen miles long and four broad. Be- 
fore the revolution it was called the Eden of Ame- 
rica, but dttring the war, all its ornamental woods 
and its vast orchards were de&feroysed. At pre- 
sent its chief riches are in the great herds of sheep, 
cattle, and horses, it feeds. Newport, the chief 
town of the island, contained (1805) 7,000 inha- 
bitants, and is beautifully situated on a capacious 
and secure harbour, which never freezes. Packets 
sail frona this port to New York and other place9 

. CanatoSfcut Island/ west df fthodfe IsMa, W 
six miles long and one broad ; on its sduth 
h 'A light-house. J&rnefttottn is the chief J 
Bldck Island, Moms&tsi of the Ihdians, Is sw« 
kague* S. W. rf Newport. New Shoreliana is ttf 




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only town, and is inhatyite4 by vcod * fi Ajf r^ £b* 
Bay of Narraganset abounding ia these fish* . 

The State of Connbctickp has ninety mile^ of 
sea coast betweeu tjia. Paukattik River cm the 
north, and Byrom Iiimr <n* <ia* south. Several 
considerable riveis JMfplgr titamselves on tips 
coast, t;/-. The Thames whkrifeis navigable four- 
teen miles to the to^ttof Norwich, situated at 
tlie fork, where the river divides into tw* 
branches Connecticut River is of considerable 
size, but its; mouth it UHfitnj by a sandbar, witlj 
ten feet low wat^iy vAioh depth continues to Mitt 
dieton, thirty-six mile*; above this town the navi* 
gation itf impeded by shoale> with but six feet f 
and the rise of tide here is only eight inches*. 
Small vessels ascend to Hartftad, fifty mites from 
the bar j and with the' exception of three carry* 
ing places, in all fifteen miles, the river is navigated 
by flat boats 200 miles. 

The river Housatoaiir is navigable for smalt 
vessels to Derby, twelve' mite* above the bar el 
shells at its mouth. JUboue Derby the wheto 
volunia of the rives* precipitates itself dtewn at 
cataract sixty feet pettpenddcuiaiv W& 13© fee© 

Connecticut has a.gmfr mix-Art of little* poif 
tow^ the whoha ooast pieawttnjf *, quick sue* 
&amm oS hntouM*. TEh* no*- 'toquMteil «« 
tW f ylkiwiiig ; Nfw? iMmbi** orstHre wo#dteiv 
or th6 Thames, near its mouth, .c»ftf&jt*fr£f 179*} 
5JX» inhabitocwts ; it* harbour is- the beat of the 
Aflkte. being four miles long and one broad, with? 

five 



VOWMClkbti 



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160 MAEIWMB 6EOGKAFHT. 

ctmttuuu five to six fathoms depth ; a light-house is placed 
at its entrance, and it is defended by forts 6k 
each side of the river. Norwich, fourteen miles 
above New London, is a trading and manufactur- 
ing tolra of (1794) 3, 000 inhabitants. s 
Haddam, Middleton, and Hartford, are thfc 
chief towns of Connecticut BiVer; the two latter 
hjive about 300 houses each (179 i); in 1805, 
Hartford had (>,OO0 inhabitants. 

Newhaven is situated at the head of a har* 
hour four miles long, with an entrance of half a 
mile in breadth ; the depth is oijly fifteen feet low 
water and sixteen at high. The town in 1805 
had 5,000 inhabitants. Its trade is considerable 
with the West India Islands. Straford, at the 
mouth of the Housatonic, and Fairfield on Ship 
Harbour, are the towns next in consideration. 

No. York. The State of New York extends from the 
River Byrom, on the north, to the entrance of 
the Hudson, ' on the south, only a few miles ; 
but to this state also belongs Long Island, sepav 
rated from the main by Long Island Sound, from 
three to twenty-five miles broad and 140 miles 
long, affording a safe inland navigation along the 
coast of Connecticut. Near the west end of the 
sound is the strait between the island and main, 
called Hell-gate, from its whirlpools, caused by 
the tides rushing through the narrow winding 
channel, over a rocky bottom j the depth is, how* 
ever, sufficient for ships. 

.The navigation of the Hudson, one of the most 
useful and finest rivers of the United States, has 

been 



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UtflTEfc STATE* Of AM£ft|GA. 161 

been already noticed.. The Ifyy of New Yark# i*» r*h 
entered between the west end of Long Island 
and the east end of Staten Island, ,tbe channel 
being two miles wide, and crossed bj a bar with 
but twenty-two feet depth at low water, and 
twenty-four feet at high. The distance from the 
Narrows to New York is ten miles, and from Sandy 
Hook, the extremity of a peninsula # on the 
Jersey shore, on which is a light-bouse, twenty- 
five miles. 

Long Island is 140 miles long and twelve broad. 
The south coast is low and flat, with sandy plains 
and salt meadows. This side is lined by a bank 
of sand and stone, eighty roods broad, forming a 
long lagoon within it two to three miles widc^ 
which was formerly a fresh water lake, but at 
present there are many breaches in the bank, ad- 
mitting vessels of sixty tons into the lagoon ; 
forty or fifty of which are sometimes seen here 
loading oysters, clams, and fish, particularly bass, 
which are so abundant, that thirty waggon loads 
have been caught in qne draught. , , 

The north side of the island, opposite tbp maiq, 
16 hilly, with a clay soil. In the middle of the 
island is a barren heath, overgrown with shrubs, 
Oakland pines, and abounding with deer and grouse, 
for whose preservation laws have been enacted. 
Near the east end of the island, in a sandy beach 

vol. rv. m h^lf 



* In 1777, the aea broke thwmglilhel«l«iui^8«iidyH#ok petitMte, 
and nude it an island. 



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Ift4 ' Mxtttihtk Ofcocaxrtfr. 

*» Tvt. half ft faiile from the sea, the whole skeleton of « 
inhale was dug up some yeai* since. "' 

Die island is well watered by numerous riv#* 
lits j and nearly in the centre is a lake at mile 
fottg, whose waters rise for several years, graftal 
tXtf, to a certain height, and then ffcH quickly to 
their lowest level : this phenomenon has not been 
accounted for. 

The inhabitants of Long Island, about 4O,000> 
are disseminated in many small towns and village* 
Their Chief industrial pursuits are the rearing of 
c&tde, Mid the whale fishery in the neighbouring 
iteas, the produce of which, upwards of 1,000 bararik 
t>f oil, and their cattle and provisions, toe eto» 
ff&ted to the West Ihdies. i '* 

Statcn Island, ateo in the state of New Ifori*, 
is fcigliteen miles long and six broad ; in g&MNl 
it ia hilly and rugged, with about 4,«00 i«ht^ 
bittfntt. 

Ultik YteK, the second city of the Um& 
#«ifea ifi population and commence, is *itti*fted 
on the south point of a tongue of land, ifttukttefi 
by an artificial cut, and at the confluence dF the 
Hucfeon and East Rivers, the former washing to 
<&& tfcfe west atid the latter on the east. $<*th ri- 
vers have depth fbr vessels of «00 toiis t*;9py 
klwAVs aflt^t; but the East River is uuttt fte- 
^uetitea, froth its freeirfrig later thah the HtfAwfc. 
The quarter of the town on this last riVfer te r the 
best built, the houses being of stone or brick, 
the streets wide, with foot-ways* and regularly 
lighted. The quarter next the East River is 

chiefly 



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and is dirty an^^q^ .^r^^^jr c^fc 



^ /whi^^e^^s kj tp)^ #nd uidp^bift^ict 
*f# :^Uo/t^<}^^ip be a cause of the «^at y^- 
feftithines^^the^wn. Tfte population gf j^j 
y^Jsh^ptilfW^, *Pj t^ e sfcprc space ojc fflqpffj. 
jrewfc.j# 17^9 thp number ofs^mls J^w r $}|$ 
32,000; in 1796, 40,000; in 1806, l&^-^f 
jp 1810, ; 96,000. The pijblic buildings jp$ ^en- 
ty<-one placep of worship of all pec^s^ ^.ci^tojc^- 
housg * . court of justice, &c# The copHB^rpe , of 
J$ew York is principally to the We?t, Indict ig- 
Jfend* whither it sends a great quanta tj of provi- 
jjion^iand^^ceivesin return colonial produce. Tbe 
.shipping belonging to the state in 179 1 . amoqpied 
tor (4^7,000 tons, besides about 40,00Q foreign tons 
WBflJoyeii in its trade. A great number of mer- 
4*hj#t teasels are built here. 

The town of Hudson is 130 miles above Ney 

/¥wk, on a beautiful and elevated situation ; and 

ifcbirty miles farther is. Albany, a flourishing tpypi 

htfftQGO inhabitants. . 

fii! ;New.Jb&sey State is bounded on the ea%t by j*» •/"«*. 

? the, River Hudson and the Ocean ; and on the 

.flputfe$y the Delaware* From the River ¥**?$*- 

vqHapd,; in latitude 40°, to Cape lijfay, t^e cp^jjt 

is! lined by sandy banks, generally dry, at $e4is- 

rtaijce^f four or five miles from the sbor,e, within 

,<*hioh amall vessels navigate. 7he whole of this 

. ^flMt appears to be> a deposit of the , sea, 4 the , #jil 

v being a light sand $ and at the.dfU^npe of £t)i?ty 

, *.;l k . .M 2 miles 



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164 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY, 

jfcrjtrmr. miles from the sea, in digging to the depth offifty 
feet through the same soil, a salt marsh is found. 

The rivers are numerous, but not large. Thte 
Hackinsak and Passaik fall into Newark Bay ; thfe 
first is navigable fifteen miles, the second ten miles, 
to where it forms a cataract of its whole vtolame, 
seventy feet perpendicular. The Rariton River 
fells into the bay south of Staten Island, forming 
at its mouth the fine harbour of Amboy. It is 
navigable sixteen miles; and it is in contempla- 
tion to unite it by intermediate rivers and canals 
to the Delaware. Milieus River is navigable 
twenty miles for vessels of sixty tons. Many of 
the other rivers and creeks that fall into th£ sea, 
flowing through a flat country, are navigable to 
their sources by small craft ; such are Great and 
Little Egg harbour Rivers, Matticur, Shark, &c. 

The principal port towns of New Jersey are, 
Newark, on the Passaik, seven miles from New 
York, a handsome little town of wooden houses 
and 2,000 inhabitants (1806). Elizabeth Town, 
pleasantly situated on a bay, fifteen miles from 
New York, contains (1794) 150 houses. Perth 
Amboy, on a neck of land between Rariton 
River and Newark Bay, has one of the best har- 
bours of the United States, having capacity for 
500 ships : the town consists of only sixty houses. 
New Brunswick, five leagues above Amboyi is 
built on the bank of the river at the foot of a hill : 
it had, in 1806, 4,000 inhabitants. Some small ves- 
sels belong to it. i ' i 

Burlington 



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UNITj^P &TATES OF AMERICA. %65 

y MI PfirIington and Trenton, on the Delaware, are m****. 
tvty of the* largest towns of New Jersey, of which 
|$a$e Trenton is the chief town. The vicinity of 
Philadelphia is injurious to their trade. 
^ , The Dei*aware Bay is entered between Cape 
May* on the north, and Hinlopen, or James, , on 
the south, distant from each other six leagues. 
Within them the bay widens to ten league?, and 
again contracts, until at Bombay Hook, seven 
leagues from the capes, it is two leagues wide, 
$nd here the River Delaware is considered as 
commencing. At Reedy Island, twenty miles 
above the Hook, the breadth of the river is three 
miles, at Philadelphia one mile, and at Trentoji 
fifty to sixty fathoms. In general the shores of 
the bay are low, and covered with wood, with 
some marshes. 

Philadelphia, the first city of the United 
States, with respect to population and commerce, 
is situated on the left bank of the Delaware, forty 
leagues frpm the sea. Vessels of 500 tons ascend 
ta it, and lay alongside the numerous jetties of 
wood run out into the river. The streets are all 
drawn from a common centre, and are from 100 
tp, J#0 feet wide. The houses, mostly of brick, 
afe t&jee stories high, with a garden to each. 
The population has increased from 42,000 in 
1/90* to 111,000 in 1810. 

y£$e Scljuylkil River falls into the Delaware, six 
H^l$fl) b^low Philadelphia ; its course is 120 miles, 
q£ which it is navigable ninety, to the town of 

M 3 Thft 



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166 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. '"' J 

**"■"• , The State of Delaware extends oil ^ffle^fej 
shore of the bay of the same name, and als66rt t 
Atlantic from Cape Hinlopen, to tfee lifet 
38° SC. 

In ascending the Delaware the towns rftdt In 
succession are, Lewes, a few miles above Caj& 
Hinlopen, on a creek which has only water fbi 
small craft. It has 150 houses. 

Dover, the chief town of the state, is aEUfo 
on a creek corhmunicating with the Delaware, 
In 179* it contained 100 houses, chiefly of bride. 
Newcastle, on the Delaware, thirty-five mile^ 
below Philadelphia, was founded by the Swedes 
in I672, by the name of New Stockholm, Which 
was cljjipged by the Dutch to New Amsterdam 
It contains 3,000 inhabitants. Wilmington, t3»5f 
largest town of the state, having 6,000 inhabitants 
(1806) is on the Delaware ten miles above KfW-' 
castle. There is no town on the Atlantic coast <Jf 
this state, fui 

Mm^umd. . The State of Maryland extends oti the* A<£ 
lantic coast of the peninsula of the Chesapeak tb 
its southern extremity at Cape Charles, i(ti& 
rounding this cape along the western shore of ^the 
peninsula to the junction of the Sutfquehatfliafii 
and from this river along the east shore of tfie 
Chesapeak to the Pbtomac. ^r/ 

The Atlantic coast of the peninsula is lined by 
saady islands, forming inlets, or sounds. Ji n r ^ 
M The Chesapeak is a vast estuary, 26ty th^tSs 1 ^ 
lei^ftb, an4 eighteen miles wide ; ft % etfft£t!ft 
between Cape Charles on the north, arifl°Oaj$b 

Henry 



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UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. iGj 

Henry on the south, twelve miles from each other. *»*««f 
In the entrance is a sand bank, leaving only a 
sloop channel on the side of Cape Charles, but on 
the side of Cape Henry the passage is fit for 
the largest ships. The bay has many islands, 
abounds in crabs and fish, and is celebrated for 
a species of wild ducks, called canvas-backs. 

Ascending the bay along the east shore, many 
small towns are met with, but none of any note. 
On the west shore the principal places are An- 
napolis, the capital of the state at the mouth 
of the River Severn. It is a place of little con- 
sideration, having, but (1805) 2,500 inhabitants. 

Baltimore, the fifth commercial town of the 
United States, and the fourth in size. Its popu- 
lation in 1810, 46,000. It is situated round a 
Teach of the Patapsco River, in which the depth 
is but five or six feet. Large vessels, therefore, 
are obliged to lay at Fells Point, a kind of sub- 
urb, separated from the city by a creek, where 
are quays, at which vessels of GOO tons lay loaded. 
The streets are at right angles, of good width, 
and paved. The houses chiefly of brick. 

The trade of Maryland centers in Baltimore, 
from whence are exported 30,000 hogsheads of 
tobacco, besides large quantities of corn, pro- 
visions, and lumber. 

The State of Virginia extends from the n?**. 
Carrituck inlet, on the Atlantic, round Cape 
Charles into the Chesapeak, and along its west 
shoje into the Potomac River, which separates 
it from Maryland. On the sea coast the land is 

m 4 not 



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nrginiM, jtritmore than twelve feet above the fevel df 4fci£ 
sfea, and intersected by numerous salt creeks arid- 
rivers, 'terminating in swamps. :-.*»«•* 

The whole territory of Virginia to the foot 6$ 
the mountains, 150 to 200 miles from the s«a, lj ifr 
evidently of marine alluvion formation, and ajU 
pears to have been formed at different periods- 
Near York Town the banks of the river first present 
a stratum of sand, clay, and small shells, five 
feet thick, over which is a horizontal layer, of 
small white shells, cockles, clams, &c. an < inch -or 
two thick; then a stratum similar to the -first, 
eighteen inches ; third and fourth, a layer of shells 
and another of earth $ fifth, a layer of white shells 
and sand, of three feet ; sixth, a body of oyster* 
shells, six feet thick, covered with earth to the 
surface, which is forty feet above the sea. 
* The same appearances are observed on James's 
River, 100 miles from the sea : here the banks- aft? 
filled with sharks' teeth, petrified bones of • fish, 
and of land animals, &c. Even among the Alleg- 
hany mountains there is a tract of 40,000 acres 
surrounded by hills, covered with oyster #n& 
cockle shells to a considerable depth. J -••■* : J 

On the Chesapeak shore of the state ta&ny 
irorisiderabfe rivers empty themselteff* ' J ViMl 
James's, formed of many lesser rivers, empties 
itself just within Cape Henry. Hampton Road, 
at its mouth, is a good arichorage in summ&V tfttd 
above this the river is fiavigable for frigatefe to 
James Town ; above which is a bar, "#*ffe-4Mil 
fifteen feet, Vessels of 250 tone go. up t*Wto* 

wick} 



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UNIT?? WAW9 OP AMBWCA. t<& 

^kk,Tth<He«f 185 to a mile helow Richmond. At : r **"* 
thi» last town the navigatipn . is stopped by fall* 
which descend eighty feet iu a space of si* mjte&; 
above these the navigation is resumed with canoes 
and batteaux, to within ten miles of the Blue 
Mountains. The confluent rivers of James's ar* 
also .navigable to a considerable distance. . The, 
Elizabeth, the lowest of the tributary rivers, ha* 
eighteen feet to Norfolk ; its entrance is covered, 
by Graney Island. Nansemond River is. navjga* 
ble for vessels of 100 tons to Suffolk, andrfor, 
those of twenty-five tons to Milners. Pagan Crgek 
has eight or ten feet to Smithfield, Chiek^ 
hominy is crossed by a bar at its mouth with twelve 
feet high .water, above the bar it is navigable, 
twelve, miles for vessels often feet, and thirty-two, 
miles for those of six tons. ,..;<.. 

York River, at York Town, forms the best b,ar- 
bourof this state for the largest vessels,; th? depth,, 
twenty-five miles above York, is four fathoms $ and, 
attho confluence of the Pamunkey afld Majtapony 
((Whose united streams form York Rivejj) the depth 
fe, three fathoms. Both these rivers me, nayigabk? 
by small craft to the foot of the Blue n Ridge,,r . . , 
v .The Rappahannock has four fathoms to #ob,b/a 
Hole and two fathoms to Erede*ick^Bajfc,llQ 
mtfe*4arthec. ■; ■, 

,i .!The ligation of the Botoma© has fee©fcahwi# 
«*icofL ; . v-:.'.. .. ... 

rtSh* principal towns ^f Virginia a^ewpble, to 
afljfig^Mjo a^e, Nwuww^ .the moft, /Qomm^cia^ 
town ofr thc'stat^ at the awmth of &izabejHiRiv*p 
/ xt 



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It has 7/»0 inhabitant* (1805) : its **j**?s ,jffi* 
chiefly tobacco, wheat, and Indian coro, \n$£ ^ A 
perk, pitch, tar, masts, planks, staves and lumber, 
duns of wild animals, &c. , Y ; T 

Hampton, at the mouth of James's Riv^r, jiw 
duly thirty houses. Richmond, on this i>ver, # t 
the foot of the falls, is the capital of the stats, a#4* 
has 6*000 inhabitants (1805> York, at the n^^th 
of the river of the same name, has 1,000 inhabit 
tftttts, Gloster, on the opposite side of the river, 
has not above a dozen houses. 
• Urbanna and Fredericksburgh, on the Rappat 
bannock, have each about 2,000 inhabitants. 

The district of Columbia consists of aportip^ 
of the states of Virginia and- Maryland, on botj^ 
sides of the Potomac, included within a raywoti 
ten miles round the city of Washington* TW* 
efnbryo capital of the Anglo-American empire, i* 
situated on a point of land at the confluence of tb$ 
eastern and western branches of the PotpnupPp 
MO . miles from the Chesapeak. The ground 
ibarked out for this city has fourteen mile* of circuity 
Ifat streets are all to run north and south and oaafc 
and west; their breadths* ninety to 110 feet Tb« 
public edifices, destroyed by the English in 1,8*1 4^ 
ki rethUiticm for the excesses of the America^ 
tvoOps, consisted of the capital, on an.elevatiox^ift 
tbecefctteoftheoity; the palace of tl>p |*esid<iflt* 
etraronded by a garden of 100 acres, andaJafga 
pnbhchoteL The filling ^of the hpipco^Ato^ 
m,th# <%, however, goes on veiy,slowty TA sj& 
1796 4he population wastf;0Q0$ and thq^ghfift 
" ; h.. '> 1800 



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l&JO Itfcecame the seat of government/ Qn 1806, ****• 
it^tiAd not increased. f . 

rl jfetaridrfa, tetfr miles below Washington, ^n; 
the right bank of the Potomac, is more populous 
than the capital, having, in 1810, 8,500 inhabi- 
tants, George Town is also in the territory* 4f 
Columbia, three miles above Washington, 

North Carolina extends from Currituck inlets 
in about 36° 30' to 33° 50'. The whole of thi* 
state, sixty miles from the sea, is a perfect leVtit 
in which marine productions are found at the depfck 
of twenty feet from the surface. The Coast >is 
lined by islands and sand banks, forming Sounds* 
or lagoons, within them, but generally too shallow 
to admit vessels of any burden, Brunswick being 
the only harbour of the state capable of receiving 
those of sixteen feet. In prolonging th6 coast* 
from north to south the points worthy of mention 
are Albemarle Sound, sixty miles long and' etg&fc 
to twelve broad ; Pamlico Sound, a great lagOmt 
100 miles long and ten to twenty broad, the batik 
that separates it from the sea is a mile wide, and 
composed of sea sand covered with small trees atJifc 
bushes ; there are several breaks in it, of <whu?fe 
that named Ocrecok inlet is the only one that -ad- 
mits vessels of burden, and this is crossed- by af 
shifting hard sandbar with but fourteen feet 6ftf<W> 
water* and the rise of tide is but eighteen ^dhfeS, 4 
so that pilbts are necessary. Between AlbettMtffe 
and Pamlico Sounds, is a large extent naftiGdihd 
Dismal Swamp, latterly converting into rich 'iiGtf 

Cape 



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North 



17$ MARITIME GEOGRAPJHT* 

Cape Hatteras, Cape Look-out, and Cap$ jfear» 
are three prominent points on this coast. Gap? 
Hatteras is the salient point of the sand-haqk that 
encloses Pamlico Sound ; qff the cape is a cluskqr 
of shoals, at the distance of five leagues, with 
channels within them. Iu bad weather, the cotm 
bined forces of the gulf stream and the wiuds, 
produce the most tremendous breakers on these 
shoals, but in fair weather they may be sailed 
pver by vessels of eight or nine feet. Their seat 
ward or exterior edge, goes off perpendicularly 
ftom ten fathoms to no soundings, and by a com- 
parison of the old and modern charts they seem to 
have greatly decreased. A little north of Cape 
Hatteras with the wind offshore, a boat may Unc| 
and procure fresh water by digging a foot of twQ 
deep.in the sand of the beach. .-...! 

Cape Look-out is the south extremity of a sand, 
bank enclosing Core Sound: near it was formerly 
a good harbour, but which has been entirelv filled 
up with sand since 1777- 

Cape Fear is the S.E. point of an island ; on it 
is a light-house, and a dangerous shoal, called the 
Frying-pan, runs off to the south six miles. 

This state has a great many rivers but they are 
all barred, and seldom admit vessels of above 
eleven feet : they are also subject to inundations 
after rains. The islands that line the shore and the 
sounds within, prevent the tides from being per- 
ceptible in the mouths of the rivers. The Roanoke, 
which falls into Albemarle Sound, is only naviga- 
ble for shallops sixty miles, where it is obstructed 

by 



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UNITED STATES OP AMERICA. 173 

by f&Bs. The Pamlico or Tar, is navigable for <*"* 
vessels of nine feet forty miles to the town of 
Washington, and fifty miles farther for flat boats. 
The. Neus also falls into Pamlico Sound, and is 
navigable for small ships twelve miles above New- 
bern,' for flat boats fifty miles, and for small boats 
800 miles. Cape Fear or Clarendon lUver, emp- 
ties itself within Cape Fear Island; it is navigable 
for sea vessels to Wilmington, and for boats to 
Fayetteville, ninety miles further, affording the 
best navigation in North Carolina. 

The chief towns of the state are Edenton on . 
the north shore of Albemarle Sound, containing 
(1794) 150 wood houses. Washington on the 
Pamlico, ninety miles from the sea, exports 
tobacco, beef, pork, corn, wood, pitch, tar, &c, 
by about 130 annual vessels. Newbern, at the 
confluence of the Trent and Neus, is the largest 
town of the state, in 1791 having 400 houses all 
Of wood. 

Wilmington on the Clarendon, thirty miles from 
the sea* has 2,000 inhabitants (1800) : it has consi- 
derable trade, but is unhealthy from being sur- 
rounded by sand hills and swamps. 

SouTri Carolina extends on the south to the 
River Savannah which separates it from Georgia,. 
Thie whole state, eighty miles from the sea, is level 
airt *aimost without a stone, the ascent in this 
distance being 190 feet. Here commences a coun- 
try 'composed of little sand hills, like the waves 
of the Sea arrestee! in their motion. Its coast is 

lined 



CarvUm*. 



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lined by a chaia pf «aiulysi^d%,iiitfr a.n^v^g^ 
tion within then for coasters ; but it hps; onJj, t^ : 
harbours for vessels of any si^e, to*. Charie§ft5ptvn 
tod Port Royal, and the latter having n* &¥$& 
new it ia of little utility to commerce. i«* ?;?* 

. The state has four large rivers and many Jeoggfi 
oms> but all generally crossed by bars. * Tl*e 
Pedee falls into Winya Bay, whose bar admits onJ# 
Vessels of eleven feet. The Santee the lajgest 
iiver of the state empties itself farther douth* _ , v 

The chief towns are Georgetown, at the junc- 
tion of the Pedee and several other rivers twelve 
miles above Winya Bay. * n 

CharjlestOwn, the Sixth commercial city tf 
fee United States, is situated on a point[ of land, 
at the confluence of the Ashley and Cooper uveife 
which fkU into a sound or inlet within SaUivafl^ 
Island, the entrance of which is crossed by a%s 
that admits only vessels of 400 tons, who cajgu {q$ 
alongside the wooden jetties, run out from tbfi 
town. Ashley's River is navigable for vessels* *4 
250 tons twenty miles above the town and [for 
boats forty, Cooper's is navigable a less distance 
for ships, but a greater for boats. ! - ! T 

Charlestown is well built, with wide and straight 
streets. In 1803 the population was 2©,000v r of 
Vhom 9>O00 free people of colour and slaves j jr 
1810, the population had increased to 9£*QQ(fc 
although the ravages of the yellow fevef Us# fm> 
tied off great numbers annually for sojne yetft 
past Sullivan's Island, which enjoys the kmpflt 

of 



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UNITfct) states Of AkBMCA. 2^9 

0r*4&e"se* %*eez&, is not subject to tin*' malMy, ; . d 

iW!f ' doe» it attend twenty miles inland. ' 

" life foreign- atfd eotistirig Hade of ChftHestown 
atfe very cottsideralde, it being the chief depot 1 of 
the produce of this state. The exports are rioej 
Stftgo, tobacco, furs, beef, pork, cotton, pitch, 
tuft timber and lumber, naval stores, ginseng) 
&c. ..•..'. 

: l%e State of Georgia extends from the Sa- e*~t* 
vahnah to the river St Mary -.the whole of the 
coActe the distance of fifty miles fro** die- sea, 
resembles South Carolina, having neither Wi 
nor stone. The coast is also, like tbofeeof tbo. 
WoVinees farther north; lined with islands, covet- 
ed 1 'with trees, pines, oak, biekery, live oak, aftd 
arid ¥ed cedar. The inlets of these islands form 
safe and capacious harbours, communicating with 
e^tfe offier J the principal are Wassaw Sound, Os* 
s5&aW Sotfftd, St. Catherine's Sound, SapdllO, 
Afeaftihaha or Little St. Simon, Jekyl* CurobefJttttd, 
iftd-'Amelia. 

' c, ^th^ { bWe rivers are tfce Savannah, crossed by 
*\m, with sixteen feet at half tide. On Tybee 
Island, Which forhls the south shore Of the m* 
fftoce, is * light-house, eighty feet high. ' > 
to Th* A^tartlaha, Or St. George, is 'the htfgest 
iftrer*ef>ihe state, and falls into the AtkntW fey 
^Vfefral riWuihs; the ndrthemmest between Sapeio 
**& W&$ Island, and die sottth' btanth, >whfeh is 
ttHPtafgWt and deepest, is through St. SimoH** 
tfbm&sAi <l^ ' -•• ■'- ,'■■-■•; -.i.i;* : .*.».i .'-i-a 
'to The 



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176 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

The chief towns of Georgia are Savannah,* thej 
former capital,* on a sandy bluff on the south 
bank of the river of the same name, seventeen 
miles from its mouth ; it has about 7>000 in- 
habitants. 

Sunbury, on the river Medway, which falls into 
St. Catherine's Sound, is a pleasant town, accessi- 
ble to vessels of twelve feet. 

Brunswick, at the mouth of Turtle River, in 
St. Simon's Sound, has a safe harbour, the bar 
having depth for the largest ships j the town is 
in its infancy. 

Frederica, on the west shore of St. Simon's 
Island, has a safe harbour for the largest vessels; 
the town consists of but a few houses. It had a 
regular fortress of brick, built by the English, but 
now in ruins. 

The commerce of the British American colo- 
nies, previous to their independence, was con- 
fined to the mother country, from whence they 
were supplied with all the manufactured objects 
of domestic consumption, in exchange for their 
agricultural produce, and the timber of their fo- 
rests. In 1774, this commerce did not exceed in 
exports, and imports fourteen millions of Ame- 
rican dollars ; but from the epoch of indepen- 
dence, it has had almost a constantly progressive 
increase, in 1784 being thirty millions, and in 
1794 sixty-seven millions. Since this period, the 

Americans, 

• The present capital is Augusta, on the same rirer, 100 miles froaa 
the sea. 



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UNITED STATES O* AMERICA. 1/7 

Americans, by their neutrality, raised their com- 
Inerce to an enormous height, as under theft flag 
only could the whole continent of Europe be 
supplied with colonial prodiice, hencfe in 1804, 
the foreign trade of Ataerica was 143 millions of 
dollars, and in 1806, 211 millions, Frdfti this time 
the decrees of Buonaparte, and the cbuntfer de- 
crees of Great Britain, kept thfe American trade 
in a state of vacillation, until calculating upon 
the accomplishment of the universal monarchy 
aimed at by the Gorsican usurper, the President of 
the United States declared war against England. 

The United States being yet in the infancy Of 
manufactures, the only objects of external com- 
merce afforded by their territory, are derived 
from the soil and the fisheries ; the northern states 
offering corn, timber, potash, Salt provisions, ami 
salt fish ; the middle states, corn, timber, tobite- 
co, and provisions; &rtd the southern states, in- 
digo, rice, cotton, tar, pitch, and turpentine, and 
provisions to the West Indies. 

The imports Of the United States are fine linens 
and woollen^, silks, hardware, glass fend earthen- 
Ware, wines, brandy, tea, cochineal, and other 
colonial produce. Of these objects, about one 
half are re-exported with considerable profit. The 
foilance of tradfe with all the nations of Eurdpe, 
except England, is generally in favour of Ame- 
rica, but this collective favourable balance is al- 
most entirely absorbed by the counterbalance with 
England, which exceeds twenty millions of dollars 

vol. iv. n annually, 



Cummin*. 



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Iffc ' UlARf TiME 6E0MtXKt Y. 

eo«^rr». annually, and which is paid by Bills of Exchange 
chiefly from Holland, France, and Spain, in which 
countries the Americans have a large favourable 
balance, not only by the excess of exports id 
these countries, but also by the profits of the 
carrying trade estimated at ten millions of dollars* 
On the whole, according to M. de Beaujour, 
the net profits of the foreign and external com* 
merce, and navigation of the United States is 
twenty-five millions of dollars. 

On an average of ten years, 1796— -1805, the 
commerce of the United States gives of export* 
sixty-eight millions, and of imports seventy^five 
millions. Of the former, wheat, flower, salt beef 
and pork, and other provisions, for seventeen mil* 
lions j timber, potash, and other produce of the 
woods, six millions ; produce of the fisheries, three 
millions ; and manufactured objects two mxHion&; 
the remaining twenty-nine millions consisted of im- 
ports re-exported. 

Of the sixty-eight millions of exports, twenty- 
four millions were to British dominions,* twelve 
to France, nine to Holland, seven to Spain, four 
to Russia and Germany, three to Italy, two* to 
Fbrtugal, one to India and China, and six to van* 
eufc places. <•* .01 

Of the seventy-five millions of imports, Englkfld 

-K. : ..J- - . : i ■-'...'. !ni ifrtn: 

• i.e. To the British Islands, sixteen millions ; to BritMLNto&ikiMi 
0?a*;P9*iJ4H}ion; to the British \fest Indies, six million* and a half* 
aMifto the East Indies, halt' a million. 

* * - , ' • . •" . ! ' ' . ' ' • t i 1 



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UNm*I> STATES OF AMERICA. J79 

^^}*r/dt)tftinioMgaT0tiirty-six millions,* J^a^ce o?^«. 
eighty /Eu3oia and Germany seven, • Holland six, 
Spam fivev Italy two, Portugal one, India and 
China six, and all other parts of the world f^ur. 

The imports from England are woollens, cot* 
teas, hardware, and earthenware; from France* 
wines, brandies, silks, and other fashionable 
otoailiing; from Holland, Russia, and Germany, 
cordage, linens, glass, and gin ; from Portugal, 
Spain, and Italy, wines, olive oil, and fruits ; 
from India, piece goods, pepper, and spices ; from 
China, teas and nankeens ; and from the West In- 
dia colonies, rum, sugar, and coffee. 
i The Americans excel in ship building, and new 
ships form a considerable branch of their export 
tirade.. The vessels of Baltimore, New York, and 
Philadelphia, are most esteemed as fast sailers ^ 
but those of the southern states, built of the 
timber of the Carolina*, are the most durable* 
The annual average tonnage built throughout the 
United States is 100,000 tons. 
» The foreign trade of the United States, when 
at its height* employed near one million and a 
half tons of shipping, and 100,000 seaman. The 
river and coasting trade, less subject to variation, 
employs 300,000 tons, and 20,000 seamen ; 
ftft4 4hei fisheries (50 to 80,000 tons, and 8 to 
&QP0 fishermen. The produce of the salt and 
fresh water fisheries is valued at seven to eight mil- 
lions «£ dollars* 

- n 2 Amongst 

♦ i. e. From the British Island*, twenty-seven millions ; from British 
North America, half a million; from the British West Ladies, four mjfc* 
fans and a half $ and from the East Indies, ftw millions. 



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ISO . NUMUmHV GEOGRAPHY. 

earner* Amongst the branches of the fishery is that 
of the whale, principally confined to the New 
England States, where it is of ancient date, 
having been carried on in the Gulfs of Florida 
and St. Laurence before 1763. At the present 
time the vessels of these states sail round Cape 
Horn, and take the whale* in the sea of New 
Holland. They also visit the north-west coast 
of America for furs, which they dispose of at 
Canton. 

. The only commercial treaties between Ame- 
rica and foreign nations are with France and 
England ; that with the former was concluded 
m 1787* Its principal clauses relate to the im- 
portation of whale oil and bone, and the pro- 
duce of the fisheries and soil of America into 
Frajace on more favourable terms than from 
other nations. In their commercial relations 
With England, America complains of the re- 
strictions proceeding from the navigation act ; 
but in this respect she is upon the same foot* 
img as other nations, and has, consequently, no 
real ground for complaint. The great subject 
ef discontent on the side of America has been 
the searching of her ships, and the impress- 
ment of seamen from them, under what she 
styles, the pretence of their being British sub- 
jects. This subject, however, which was one 
of the ostensible causes of the war declared by 
America against England, has been left exactly 
ia the same state, not even being mentioned in the 
treaty bf peace just concluded. 



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UNITED STATE* OV AXBttCA. 

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182 



MARITIME GEoi&APgV. 



Table II.— Average Exports of three Years % 
1802-3-4. I 



Home Produce. 

Million*. 

Vegetable food 13 

Animal food 4 

Fish S 

Cotton 7 

Tobacco 6 

Timber, pearl-ashes, 

and naval stores . 4£ 

Sundries 2 

39* 



To what Places exported. 

MM**. 

To England and her T 
colonies. ... .. ..S0' r 

France 5 

Spain 4 

Portugal 2 

Holland 3 

Hanse Towns .... 1 

Denmark 1 

Sweden, Prussia, 

Russia 1£ 

All other parts .... 2 



39* 



To Europe 23 millions. 

West-Indies and foreign 

America 15 

To Asia, &c l§ 



394 



Foreign Merchandize. 

MiUion. 

Manufactures . ... 10 

Coffee 7 

Sugar 6 

Cotton • * . . . . . . • 1 

Carried over. . 24 



To what Places exported, 

MiOkms. 

To Holland 6£ 

France 74 

Spain and her colonies sS 
Hanse Towns .... 3 

Carried over . . 20J 



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UNITED STATES OF AMERfCA. 



V# r 



Foreign Merchandize. 

Brought over . . 24. 

Tea 1 

Wines 1 

Red pepper 1 

Bkckditto 1 

Spirits 0£ 

Indigo • • 0£ 

29 



To what Places exported. Gmm*<*. 
Million* ~-" 

Brought oven . .20£ 

England and her co- 
lonies. 8§ 

Italy . . . . ; , 1 

Portugal 0£ 

Denmark 1£ 

Sweden, Prussia, and 
Russia . 0£ 

All other parts .... 1 J 



29 



To Europe ... ........ 21 millions. 

To the West-Indies and 

America 7 

To Asia, &c. • 1 

29 



Table III. — Average Imports qf three Years, 
1802-3-4. 



Millions. 

Manufactures .... S9§ 

Coffee 8 

Sugar and molasses 9 

Spirits 6 

Wines 3 

T«* 

t£emp ........ 



*k 



Carried over.. 69 



Millions. 

From England and 
her colonies . . .36 

From Holland, 
France, Spain, 
and Italy 25| 

From Russia, Prus- 
sia, and Germany 7 



Carried over. 



681 



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184 



HAB1TIMB GJOGJUPtfY, 

mi***. 



Brought over . . 69 
Nails, lead, steel, and 

coals 0$ 

Salt Of 

Black and red pepper 1 
Cotton ....... 

Indigo 

Cacao 

' Malt liquor and 

Cheese . 150,000 
Bpots and 

shoes . . 100,000 
Sundries and frac 

tions 



;} 






Mmfrn*. 

Brought over. • 68£ 
From Portugal .... 1 
From China — ... 5 
From all other parts 1 

1H: 



Oi 



75i 



Recapitulation. 



Million. 



Total exports qf 

home produce . . 
Total foreign ditto 

Total of exports . , 



29 



68X 



Millions. 

Total uripwta from 
Great Britain ... 36 

From other parts of 
the world 39 J 

75$ 

Balance against America $f millions of dcjJ^s. 
Tliis unfavourable baUncq is however only apjpp- 
rent, the profits of freight ijot only covering it^ - 
but giving a clear bajance to the United States of 
five millions. 

Table 



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UNITSU STAT18 OF AMERICA. 



ISA 



Table IV, — Eocports of eaqh Slate of the Union 
in 180S. 

(Fractions qf J ,0W omitted.) 



>Jew Hampshire 
Massachusets . . 
Rhode Island . . 
Connecticut . . . 
New York 
New Jersey. . . . 
Pensylvania. . . . 

Delaware 

Maryland. 

Columbia. 

Virginia 

North Carolina , 
South Carolina 

Georgia 

Louisiana . . . . 



Home 

Produce. 

390,000 



Foreign 
Merchniidize. 



Total. 

610,000 



220,000 

5,700,000 1 3,738,000 1 9,438,000 
1,065,000] l,506,OOOj 2,571,000 
1,353,000 90,000 1,443,000 
8,098,00015,384,00023,482,000 
20,000 — 20,000 

4,365,000 10,000,000 14,365,000 



78,000 
3,408,000 
1,135,000 
4,946,000 
767,000 
5,958,000 
2,351,000 
2,500,000 



280,000 

7,451,000 

188,000 

661,000 

12,000 

3,109,000 



360,000 
10,859,000 
1,320,000 
5,607,000 
779,000 
9,067,000 
44,0001 2,395,008 
500,000 3,000,000 



42,334,00051 , 1 83,000195,3 15,000 



The United States possess all the materials for 
the construction and equipment of a navy, their 
forests affording a profusion of timber and masts, 
pitch and tar, and their territory affording copper, 
iron and lead ; they are still, however, dependant 
on the north of Europe for a considerable portion 
of cordage. 

In 



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Jfary* 



186 MARITIME 43SOGRAPHY. 

In 1807 the government vessels were, 



5 frigates of 44 guns." 
4 ditto 36 

6 ditto 32 

8 ditto 26 to *0, 
3 sloops of 18 
2 brigs of 18 
5schoonersof 14 to 12. 

7 galiies. 



Manned by 7,532 men, 
and the annual expense 
1,236,000 ducats. 

At the close of 1814 the 
Americans launched 
their first two-decker t 
rated 74gunsbut caifcy- 
ing 90. '» 

'A 



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( 187 ) 



EAST FLORIDA. ' 



The province of East Florida is separated 
from Georgia by the river St. Mary, aud includes 
the peninsula and tract of coast on the gulf of 
Mexico to the river Apalachicola. The eastern, or 
Atlantic coast, of the peninsula, is lined by 
islands, forming an interior navigation through 
lagoons or inlets. The principal rivers on this 
coast are the St Juan and Indian ; the former 
rises in a swamp in the heart of the peninsula, 
and pursues a northern course in a broad naviga- 
ble stream, expanding into lakes, of which Lake 
George is fifteen miles broad and fifteen to twenty 
feet deep, with many beautiful islands, covered 
with orange, palm, and magnolia trees. Near 
Long Lake, which communicates with the St 
Juan by a creek, is a warm mineral spring of 
great volume ; the St. Juan is crossed by a bar at 
its mouth with fifteen feet. 

Indian or Hillsborough River runs from north 
to south parallel to the coast ; its mouth is crossed 
by a bar with but five feet. 

St. Augustine, the chief town of East Flo- 
rida, is on the main opposite the north end of 
Anastasia Island. It consists of four streets, in- 
tersecting each other at right angles j is fortified 

by 



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188 MARITIME GEOGBAPHT. 

by bastions, encompassed by a ditch and wall* 
and defended by the castle of St. John, mounting 
fifty guns. The entrance to the harbour is cros- 
sed by a bar, with only five feet at low water and 
ten at high. St. Anastasia Island is six leagues 
long, and affords good building stone, which is 
Hot to be had on the main. 

From Cape Florida, near the S.E. extremity of 
the peniusula r a great belt of keys and reefs curves 
round the promontory into the gulf of Mexico* 
bearing the general name of the Martyrs, or Flo- 
rida Keys; the numerous channels or inlets be- 
tweea them axe only fit for small craft- Almost alt 
these keys are covered with the mangrove, and 
frequented by turtle ; all of them have received 
names from the English, when in possession of 
Florida. The only farther notice they deserve is, 
that on the north eod of Old Matacornhe, an islet 
four miles long and two broad, is a harbour for 
vessels of seven or eight feet, where fresh water 
naay be procured from a natural well* in a rock 
four feet deep. On Key Huese, or West, which* 
Is seven miles long, is also a good harbour, with 
fouc fathoms , at the west end, and at tbe S.W* 
several wells of tolerable water. The dry tortu- 
ga& (turtle) are a cluster of keys, forming the 
western extreme of the Fkmda keys. 

Punta Blanco, or Cape Sable, is the S.W. point 
of tbe peninsula off Florida, doubling which we 
enter the gulf el Mexico. 



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( 189 ) 
GULF OF MEXICO. 

The Gulf of Mexico is entered between the 
peninsula of Yucatan and the island of Cuba, and 
its egress is between Cuba and the promontory of 
Florida ; its length east and west is 1,000 mites, 
and its greatest breadth north and south 72d 
miles. On the east it is bounded by the low and 
sandy shores of the peninsula of Florida, from 
whence, the north shore particularly, between 
the Mobile and Rio del Norte, is composed of 
marshes. The west coast, or that of Mexico, is 
lined by lagoons and islands, with few intervals, 
to the peninsula of Yucatan, which latter is com- 
posed entirely of the alluvion of the sea, and sur- 
rounded by coral reefs and bays. 

The Gulf of Mexico is remarked by seamen 
for its thunder squalls, tornadoes, water*spouts^ 
and long calms, all concomitants of a hot and 
moist air. These phenomena are ascribed to the 
trade wind, which, constantly rushing into the 
gulf from the Atlantic, and being there imprison- 
ed as it were by the surrounding lands, causes op 1 - 
posite currents of air, particularly near the shores ; 
thus in the southern part of the gulf the prevail- 
ing winds are from S.E. and E. in summer, and 
in winter from N.E. with heavy storms from the 
north-west, the winds, as in all other cases, 
Wowing towards the region most heated by the 
presence c)f the sun. For the same reason, the 
prevailing winds in the gulf west of the peninsula 
-'" " of 



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190 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

of Florida are from the N.W. and W., the healed 
atmosphere of the sandy shore of the peninsula 
drawing the current of air towards it. The pro- 
montory of Florida is also noted for the tornadoes 
experienced near it from May to August, and 
which come from the S-W. or S.S.W. The N.W. 
winds blowing from the lofty mountains of New 
Mexico, bring with them an extraordinary degree 
of cold, which causes the thermometer at the Ha- 
vannah to fall at times to the freezing point ia 
winter, and at Vera Cruz to sixty degrees* 

In addition to the general notice of the current 
of the Gulf of Mexico in the Introduction, tjie 
following observations are offered. 

1. The mass of water that flows into the gulf 
from the Atlantic raises the level of the former 
considerably above that of the Pacific, on the op- 
posite side of the isthmus of Panama. 

2. In the gulf (more properly the channel) of 
Florida the velocity of the stream is five miles an 
hour. 

3. After quitting the channel of Florida the 
ttreain has hollowed itself out a very deep chan- 
nel at the bottom of the ocean, there being ho 
iouudings across it. 

4v The stream runs parallel to the coast of 
America, at the distance of twenty leagues, until 
it strikes against the salient shoals off Cape Hat- 
taras, which turn it off a point and a half of the 
compass, and it is said to wear away the had of 
tbis cape. 

5, From Cape Hattaras the stream again take* 

adirec- 



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WLV OF MfcllCOv ' 191 

i direction parallel to the coast, to Nantucket 
Island, increasing its breadth and decreasing its 
velocity, until at this island it forms a sort of 
eddy, and its depositions have created the shoal* 
iff it as weH as the peninsula of Cape Cod. 

6. The banks of Newfoundland also appear to 
be formed by the combined depositions of die 
golf stream and polar current, and there is reason 
toSfluppo^e that the Great Bank is constantly in* 
creasing at its southern extremity, the ancient 
deep channel of the stream extending to the north 
of the present. 

9* At each edge of the gulf stream, d counter 
current is experienced, which on the side of the 
continent, in conjunction with the streams of the 
rivers, cause the muddy deposit «long the coast 
technically named " the soundings." 

8. In S. W. winds the surface of the gulf stream 
is smooth, the waves and the current being in 
unison, but N.E. winds for a contrary reason 
create a hollow sea dangerous to undecked vessels. 

The tidies in the Gulf of Mexico are so incon- 
siderable, as to be scarcely distinguished from the 
occasional elevations caused by the strong current* 
and winds. On the southern shore of the gulf 
the perpendicular rise is but twelve to fourteen 
inches. i>: 

v J AH tha west coast of the peninsula of Florida i* 
towi aartdy* and lined by a reef. The Gulf of Ponce 
de Leon (Chatham Bay of the English) is limited 
bp Cape Sable on the south and Punta Largo on 

o<-j'l' r the 



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192 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

the ndrth : the accumulation of sand is now 00 
great that eight leagues offshore the depth is only 
lout fathoms. 

Cerasecos (Charlotte Hafbour of the English) 

is an exteiisive inlet with many islands before it, 

Arming several channels, in the deepefct of which, 

named Boca Grande, the depth is fifteeh feet. 

The inlet receives the river Caldcfea. 

Palm Sound, within Palm and Clam Islands, is 
only navigable by long boats* Espiritti Satito 
Bay is a considerable gulf with a channel in twenty 
feet deep. 

St. Martin's Keys are the southernmost of a 
chain of islands that line the coast to the river Su 
Juam This part of the coast is so shoal, that a 
Canoe cab scarcely approach it. The river Apa- 
lacha falls into a bay of the same name, at th6 
fort of St. Mark- 



WEST FLORIDA. 

The coast from the Apalacha to Pensacola is 
tolerably fit for cultivation ; but from this last place 
to the Mobile it is sandy arid barren, producing 
only dwarf pines and cedars. The river Apala- 
chicola, ot Chattahoche, falls into St. George's 
Sound within the island of this name, which is two 
leagues from the main and four leagues long but 
very narrow. 

The Bay or lagoon of St. Joseph is enclosed 
on the south by the curving peninsula of which 
Cape St. Blaize is the extreme point. 

St 



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WEST FLORIDA. 193 

St Rose Island, twenty miles long but very nar- 
row, has plenty of fresh water : its west end forms 
the east side of the entrance to Pensacola Bay* * 

Santa Maria Galvez, or Pensacola Bay, ia a large 
inlet entirely land locked, the entrance two miles 
wide with sixteen to twenty-four feet depth and 
within thirty to thirty-five feet, according as the 
water is elevated br depressed by the strength of 
the winds. Several rivers fall into this inlet, of 
which the largest is the Sharabe, and is navigable 
for sloops a few miles, and fpr canoes a consider- 
able distance. 

The town of Pensacola, the capital of the 
province, is on a plain on the west side of the bay, 
and is defended by a fort on a sand hill, close under 
which all vessels must pass to the town. 

While Florida was an English possession, Pensa- 
cola carried on a considerable trade ; but under th<\ 
restrictive system and indolence of the Spaniards, 
it has fallen into insignificance and poverty, the 
only branch of industry attended to, because it 
requires little labour, being the rearing of cattle. 
The sole trade is to New Orleans, and does not 
occupy above four or five schooners of ten to 
twenty-five tons, which keep along shore to the 
mouth of the Mobile, where they enter the sounds 
between the islands and the main to Lake Pont- 
chartrain : from this lake they enter the river St. 
John, which communicates by a short canal with 
New Orleans. The length of this internal naviga- 
tion is but fifty leagues, and it is usuaUy accom- 
plished in two days, while the out^r passage to 

vol. iv. o New 



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194 MARITIME GEOGKAPHY. 

New Orleans by the mouths of the Missfssipf, is 
ninety leagues, and from the strong adverse cur- 
rent and prevailing winds from the west is often 
lengthened to forty days. 

The climate of Pensacola is so healthy that 
invalids arc sent hither from Louisiana. 

The river Alabama, or Mobile, falls into a largfe 
gulf, whose entrance is between a long peninsufe 
on the cast and Isle Dauphin on the west. The 
town of Mobile, at the mouth of the river, is built 
on the side of a hill. 

The coast west of Mobile Bay is Ikied by low 
sandy islands covered with cypress trees, their 
names in succession are Isle Dauphin where the 
French formed their first settlements, Masseo, 
Horn, Dog, Vaisseau, from having a harbour for 
vessels of burden, Cat, &c. Farther west a great 
number of alluvion islands front the Entrance of 
Lake Pontchartrain and the Bay of St. Esprit. The 
channels between these islands have in general but 
ten to twelve feet, and the depth of Lake Pont- 
chartrain decreases annually, so that it is probable 
a few years will convert it into a marsh, as well as 
Lakes Maurepas and Borgne, the former communf- 
Cating with the Mississipi by Iberville River, which 
is quite dry in summer, its bed being twelve fefet 
above the lowest level of the Mississipi ? but in 
spring, when the river rises, it discharges a part of 
its waters by the Iberville into Lake Poritehartraim, 
Biloxi, ofi the main land within 'Vaisseaux Island, 
was one of the first establishments of the French 
in Louisiana* 

The 



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( W ) ' 



LOUISIANA. 



Hie country of Louisiana is separated from 
Florida, by Lakes Pontchartrain and Maurepas, 
and by the river Iberville to the Mississipi Itj 
would howevef appear that the United States 
claim the territory between the Mobile and Missis- 
sippi, as within the natural limits of Louisiana. 
Oa the west the limits are also a subject of dis- 
pute, Spain confining them to the River Mexica- 
Ba and the Americans extending them to the Rio 
Brava del Norte. 

Having already described the Mississipi and its 
navigation in detail, we have here only to observe 
that from the Fort of Balize, on one of the allu- 
vion islands at its mouth, where pilots are taken 
for the river, the banks for fifteen leagues are low 
snd swampy, covered with reeds and mangroves, 
and incapable of improvement, or of being in- 
habited. The first establishment is at Plaque- 
mine on the right bank, ten leagues above Balize, 
where is a brick fort, and on the opposite side 
another named Fort Bourbon, whose fires cross, 
the former mounts twenty-four large cannon. 
After passing these forts the banks of the river 
grow more elevated, and the aquatic plants are 
gradually replaced by brushwood and trees. Five 
leagues above Plaquemine, the first cultivation is 
•met/ with, in small scattered fields on the banks of 
the river, which are higher than the land within 
them j being raised by the depositions of the river 

o2 in 



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196 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

in its rises. This elevated bank or ridge is not above 
a mile wide, beyond which the whole country is 
a vast marsh covered with cypress trees. 

New Obleans is situated on the left bank of 
the Mississipi thirty-five leagues above Balize, and 
on an island formed by the main river on the west 
and south, by the River Iberville and Lakes Pont* 
chartrain and Maurepas on the north, and by the 
Lake Borgne and St. Esprit on the east The 
island is sixty leagues long, and two to fifteen 
broad, but the only portion of it susceptible of 
cultivation is the elevated bank of the river which 
is here about four miles broad. At the town the 
river is 1000 yards wide and forty fathoms deep, 
and the bank so steep that the ships lay a plank to 
the shore. 

The town is composed of some neat brick houses 
and miserable wooden ones. The former, but of 
one storyv are built on piles, the proximity of the 
water to the surface not admitting of sunk founda- 
tions ; the streets are in fact lower than the base 
of the river in the rise, and are only kept from 
inundation by the greater height of the hank, 
through wliich however the water filtrates, and 
a canal is cut in the middle of every street to 
receive it. These canals all unite, and deliver the 
water they receive into a navigable canal cut from 
the town to the creek of St. John, which com- 
municates with Lake Pontchartrain. The town 
consists of three streets parallel with the river 600 
fathoms long, intersected at right angles by others 
800 fathoms long, the marshes preventing their 

greater 



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LOUISIANA. 197 

greater extension backwards : all the streets are 
sixty feet wide, with raised footways of timber at 
each side five feet wide. The public buildings are 
the town house, church, military and civil hospi- 
tals, barracks, and playhouse. The population 
in 1801, was estimated at 10,000, viz. 4,000 
whites, 250 free people of colour and the remain- 
der slaves. 

Before the cession of Louisiana to the United 
States, the balance of commerce was considerably 
against it, and was paid in specie sent from Mexico. 
In 1801, the exports from New Orleans were 

Dollan. 

Cotton, two millions of pounds, worth 500,000 

Sugar and syrop, four do, ♦ 300,000 

Indigo, tobacco, &c 200,000 

1,000,000 



The coast west of the Mississipi to the limits of 
the territory, is composed of low alluvion islands, 
without any settlements. 



o 3 



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( 198 ) 



WEST INDIA ISLANDS. 



The West India Islands form an irregular 
chain between the peninsula of Florida and the 
north-east extremity of South America, inclosing 
the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. By the 
French geographers they are divided into the 
Great and Little Antilles,* and the latter are also 
distinguished by the denomination of Windward 
Islands, ( Isles au Vent), in respect to their Great 
Antilles, or Cuba, St. Domingo, Jamaica, and 
Porto Rico. 

By the English, the Little Antilles of the French 
are called the Caribbee Islands, and are distin- 
guished, not very correctly, into Windward and- 
Leeward ; the former comprising all those between 
Grenada and Martinique inclusive, and the Lee- 
ward Islands including all those from Dominica 
inclusive to Porto Rico. 

The 



* The origin of this name is thus explained by Mr. Plckertoa, toI^IIL. 
p. 4. " The mathematicians of the middle ages holding the necessity of 
a southern continent, also supposed the existence of lands in the hemis- 
phere between Europe and Asia, to balance these comments, and, accor- 
dingly, imaginary lands were laid down at random, west of the Canariea» 
to which was given the name of Anti-Insults, or Ant\nsul<t> signifying 
islands opposite the continent; thus in the chart of Andrew Bianca,.1434» 
the Krofe de AntWia, and Dtlama* Satarxtfio, or Satan's own~han<i» 
are placed west of the Canaries. 



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WEST INDIA ISLANDS. 199 

The Leeward Islands of the Spaniards ( Soto* 
ventoj are those off the coast of Terra Fiona, 
west of Trinidad. The Bahama Islands form a 
distinct archipelago, north of Cuba. The Virgin 
Islands, between Porto Rico and the Caribbees, are 
.included in the political division of Leeward 
Islands. 

In general the West India Islands are elevated, 
and the larger ones, particularly St. Domingo and 
Jamaica, present mountains whose summits are 
visible thirty leagues. 

With respect to the climate, the temperature 
differs little throughout the year; nevertheless, 
the variations follow the course of the seasons as 
in Europe, July and August being the hottest 
months, when the maximum of the thermometer 
exposed to the sun, and with a clear sky, is 14-5°, 
and in the shade (on shore) 87°, but at sea only % 
83°. The month? of December and January are 
the coldest, when the lowest state of the thermo- 
meter is 72°, 

The year may be divided into four seasons, the 
first commencing with the vernal or moderate 
Tains in April and May, which usually last six 
■weeks; the second season includes June, July, 
and August, and is hot and dry ; the third, Sep- 
tember, October, and November, or the hurricane 
and rainy months; and the fourth, December, 
January, February, and March, which are the 
most serene and coolest months. 

The West India Islands are subject to frequent 
earthquakes, which probably proceed from the 

o 4 weakened 



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£00 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

weakened operation of subterranean fires, by which 
it appears these islands were originally produced, 
there being evident vestiges of volcanoes in the 
whole of the Caribbees, except Barbadoes, which, 
however, has other unequivocal indications of be- 
ing also produced by a convulsion of nature. 

These islands, on their first discovery, were 
found inhabited by two races, materially differing 
from each other. The Caribbs occupied the chain 
of lesser islands, to which geographers have at- 
tached their n^me, and are by some thought to 
have come from Florida, while others, with more 
probability, consider them as a colony from the 
country of Guiana, where their race is still found. 
The description of this people has a singular re- 
semblance to that of the New Zealanders, being 
like these latter a robust, fierce, and warlike race 
of cannibals, sacrificing and devouring their pri- 
soners taken in battle, painting their faces and 
bodies, and tracing white and black circles round 
the eyes, raising cicatrices on the cheeks, pierc- 
ing the cartilage of the nose, and thrusting fish 
bones and parrots' feathers through it, wearing 
necklaces of the teeth of their enemies slain in 
battle, admitting a plurality of women, but who 
were condemned to every species of drudgery, at 
the same time that their tyrants were so jealous of 
them, that according to a French writer, the bare 
suspicion of infidelity was enough to induce them, 
without any formality, to beat their brains out ; 
and, adds this writer, with the levity rather than 
the gallantry of his. countrymen, " Cela est un 

pen 



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WEST TKDtA IBLAKbs. 201 

pen satwage d la vfaite, mats <?est tmjrebt biefi 
propre, pour retenir lesfemmes duns leur devoir. 99 
The women were also precluded from eating with 
the men. ' 

The government of the Caribbs was patriar- 
chal, the young men paying deference to the 
opinion of the felders ; and the war chiefs Were 
chosen solely for their courage, which was pfevi^ 
ously proved by their inflicting on themselves 
the greatest torments. Their arms were bows and 
arrows, and clubs. 

The aboriginal inhabitants of the greater West 
India Islands, Cuba, St. Domingo, Jamaica, and 
Porto Rico, were a mild, and comparatively with 
the Caribbs, a cultivated people ; these two 
races bearing nearly the same relations to each 
other as the New Zealanders and Society Islan- 
ders. Like these latter, the West Indians were 
delicately formed, indolent, and licentious in the 
intercourse of the sexes. Their chief amusement 
was dancing, and their arietos, or public entertain- 
ments of this nature, had a great similitude to the 
Otaheitean heeva, while others of their dances 
were extremely indecent. The governments 
were hereditary absolute monarchies, with a 
class of subordinate chiefs, bound to certain war- 
like services. This race seems to be identified 
with the ArrvwaukSj a people of Guiana, between 
whom and the Caribbs of the same country there 
always existed the most inveterate animosity. 

The quadrupeds found in the West India Is* 
lands, on their discovery, amounted only to eight 

species, 



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202 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

species, all of the smaller kinds, and these were 
not even common to all the islands. 1st. The cary, 
or agouti, (musaguti), an animal between the rabbit 
and rat, which is now only found in the moun- 
tains of the larger islands ; 2d. the pecary, or musk 
hog, (sustqjacu), was only found in the Caribbee 
Islands, but has been exterminated ; 3. the arma- 
dilla ; 4. the opossum ; 5. the racoon \ 6. the 
musk rat (piloris); 7. the alco, or native dog, 
which did not bark; 8. the. monkey of various 
small species, but which in many of the lesser 
islands has become extinct. 

Amongst the birds was the beautiful flamingo, 
which the senseless principle of indiscriminate de- 
struction that has hitherto marked European dis- 
covery, has entirely exterminated in most of the 
islands. 

The serpents of the West India Islands are 
generally thought to be not venemous ; but the 
rivers are infested by the alligator. 



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( «oa ) 



COLONIZATION 

OF THE 

WEST INDIA ISLANDS. 



The island named by the Spaniards Hispaniola, 
or Little Spain, and St. Domingo, and by the 
aborigines Hayti,* received the first European 
colony in America. In 149S, Columbus was led 
.to this island by learning from the natives of some 
of the lesser ones first discovered, that the gold 
prnaroents they wore were procured from a 
larger island, the direction of which they pointed 
out, and he accordingly shaped his course for it ; 
and landing on the north side, entered into a 
friendly exchange with the Indians of beads, 
knives, &c. for gold dust and provisions ; and with 
their assistance constructed a little fort, named 
Nativity, in which he left thirty-nine Spaniards. 
The following year he returned to the island with 
1,500 colonists, composed of soldiers, artificers, 
and monks ; but found that the Spaniards he had 
left behind had been all massacred, and the fort 

destroyed 

• t. e. Mountainous : they also called it QuUquiea, or the Great 
Country. 



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204 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

destroyed by the irritated and injured natives. 
Columbus, however, wisely smothering his anger, 
proceeded quietly to found his colony by the con- 
stuction of a fort, named Isabella, on the coast, 
and another named St. Thomas, in the mountains 
of the interior, in the torrents of which the In- 
dians collected gold dust. The search for this 
metal occupying all the thoughts of the colonists, 
they neglected to provide for their subsistence by 
cultivation, and the provisions brought from Spain 
being exhausted, they became entirely dependent 
on the Indians ; but the latter having no super- 
fluity, were unable to answer these demands with- 
out starving themselves ; in order to avoid which, 
and to revenge the aggressions of the Spaniards, 
they determined to get rid of them by open hos- 
tilities : but naked savages, with no other wea- 
pon than bows, arrows, and spears, were little 
capable of opposing disciplined Europeans possess- 
ed of fire-arms ; and though more than three- 
fourths of the Spaniards had been already car- 
ried off by disease, the remainder were sufficient 
to give a complete defeat to an army of 100,000 
Indians ; and in order to punish those who escaped 
from the battle, for this rebellious attempt, as 
the Spaniards thought proper to call it, every 
Indian, above twelve years old, was subjected to 
pay a tribute in cotton or gold dust. The in- 
dustry the payment of this tax required, was so 
contrary to the habitual indolence of the Indians, 
and to their principles of liberty, that it became 
insupportable $ but as they had learned by ex- 
perience 



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WJEST INDIA ISLANDS. 905 

perience that they were unequal to oppose tfc$ 
Spaniards by force, they determined on obliging 
them to quit the island by famine, and for this 
purpose they refrained from cultivating the 
ground, dug up the roots of the manioc, and re- 
tired to the mountains, where vast numbers of 
them perished of famine, while the Spaniards 
penetrated their retreats with dogs trained to the 
purpose, and hunted and massacred them with-* 
out mercy ; so that of a million of inhabitants, 
which the island was supposed to contain on the 
arrival of the Spaniards, the one-third were de- 
stroyed in less than four years. The remainder, 
to preserve their existence, returned to the plains, 
and became the labourers, or rather the slaves of 
the Spaniards. 

The emigration of voluntary settlers from the 
mother country being \ery trifling, Columbus 
proposed to people the colony with criminal?* 
whose offences were not thought worthy of death, 
and the goals of Spain were accordingly emptied 
upon the New World. From such subjects little 
good was to be expected ; the habits of idle- 
ness and vice were too firmly engrafted, to be 
changed by their new situation, and their num- 
bers rendering them too powerful to be kept in 
subjection by coercive means, it was found ne- 
cessary to have recourse to palliatives, several 
«tf which were tried without success. At last, in 
1499, in order to conciliate these vagabonds, it 
was determined to accompany every grant of land 

with 



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206 afARfriME geography. 

with a certain number of native Indians, as 
labourers. This flagitious measure did not, how- 
ever, reconcile the turbulent colonists to the 
government of Columbus, and in 1500, in con- 
sequence of their intrigues, he was seized, and 
sent to Spain in chains ; and though, on bis arri- 
val, his innocence was publicly acknowledged, 
he was not restored to the command of the 
colony* 

The mines, which when first discovered were 
tolerably rich, decreased so rapidly, that the 
crown was obliged, successively, to reduce the 
share it retained of the produce, from one half* 
to one-third, and one-fifth ; and, finally, the dis- 
covery of the richer mines of Mexico, caused 
those of Hispaniola to be entirely abandoned. 
Not only the cultivation of the soil, but also the 
working of the mines, devolved entirely on the 
wretched Indians, whose physical strength being 
totally inadequate to such unaccustomed labour* 
with the addition of their moral sufferings, rapidly 
carried them off, and at last entirely exterminated 
the race. 

The abandonment of the mines caused a consi- 
derable part of the Spaniards of Hispaniola to 
desert the island, and seek a shorter road to for- 
tune on the continent, and the few who remained 
were obliged to resort to cultivation for the means 
of subsistence ; but as Europeans were supposed 
to be incapable of labouring the earth in this 
equinoctial climate, and as the native Indians 

were 



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WfeST INDIA ISLANDS. 207 

mfeft Extinct, it became necessary to seek slaves in 
some other quarter, and the west coast of -Africa 
presented a race, which, according to the libellers 
of Almighty wisdom and goodness, were fitted by 
nature for slavery only. The introduction ef ne-* 
groes did not, however, give any considerable im- 
pulsion to the prosperity of the colony, and its 
decline was accelerated by the depredations of 
the Buccaneers, a confederation of chiefly French , 
and English freebooters, who long infested the 
West-Indian seas, and committed the most daring 
and incessant depredations on the Spaniards. 

The origin of these celebrated associations is 
traced to about the year 1625, when the French 
and English, being driven from the island of St* 
Christopher, determined to fix themselves on the 
north coast of Hispaniola, then almost depopu- 
lated by the emigration of the Spaniards to the 
Continent ; they therefore drove off the few Spa- 
niards they found on the little islaftd of Tortuga* 
and fixed there their head-quarters. 

At first they subsisted by hunting the wild cat- 
tle on the neighbouring coasts of Hispaniola, the 
hides of which they sold to such vessels as ap- 
proached the island, in exchange for cloathing, 
liquors, arms and ammunition. Their food con- 
sisted chiefly of the meat of these cattle, eaten 
fresh or smoked, according to the method of the 
native Indians, in places called by these latter 
Buccans, whence the name of Buccaneers, by 
which they are generally known in English his- 
tory. The French denomination of Flibust&rs, 

is 



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£0$ MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

is 3 corruption of Freebooters^ by which the Eng- 
lish also designated thein. 

At length the wild cattle becoming scarce, thfe 
Bticcaneers were necessitated to seek other mean* 
of ^subsistence, and the steadiest of them applied 
themselves to agriculture, while those of a restless 
disposition associated themselves with the pirates 
of all nations, and under the name of Brothers qf 
tfte Coast, which they assumed, formed the most 
desperate band of lawless plunderers that ever 
infested the ocean. 

Their first Excursions were made in opan boats, 
containing twenty to thirty men, in which they 
boarded t the largest merchant vessels, and usually 
carried them by their desperate courage. Though 
they often made no distinction of nations, the 
Spanish vessels, as being by far the richest, were 
most particularly the object of their pursuit. 

While acting contrary to every law, human or 
divine, and given up to the grossest debauchery, 
the Buccaneers, pretending to consider the plun- 
dering the Spaniards as a meritorious act, and as 
a proper retaliation for their cruelty to the native 
Indians, never failed to implore the divine assist** 
ance in their expeditions, and to return thank* 
for their successes. 

Their regulations for the division of plunder 
were religiously observed, and if any individual 
was found to have concealed any part, he was 
without pity turned ashore on soi&e desert island. 
A fund was also established ibr the assistance of 
their sick and wounded. . - " 

From 



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WEST INDIA ISLAND. §0$ 

From piracy ob the seas alone, the Buccaneers 
extended their depredations to the continent, and, 
forming themselves into large bodies, plundered 
the greatest towns of the Spaniards in the 1 New 
World, and on the shore* of both the oce§ns, 
Maraycaba, Catnpeacby, Vera Cruz, Potto Bello, 
and Carthagena, as well as Guayaquil, Panama, 
&c. being pillaged by them. 

This confederation continued until 1690, When 
the war between England and France caused a 
separation of the Buccaneers of the two nations, 
and England being at the same time in alliance 
with Spain, found it necessary to repress the 
piracy of her subjects against that nation in 4 the 
West-Indian seas. The French Buccaneers conti- 
nued their career a few years longer, but the 
peace of Ryswick in 1697 restoring the friendly 
relations of France and Spain, they had no longer 
a field to exercise in, and in a very few years the 
name of Buccaneer was no longer heard. 

The Buccaneers did not, however, enjoy the 
quiet possession of the island of Tortugas, for 
the Spaniards, in their turn, watching an "opportu- 
nity when the. greater part of these freebooters 
were absent, fell on the few that remained, whom 
they massacred, and regained possession of the 
iabnd ; but in 1638 the Buccaneers again retook 
awd fortiled it 

Tfoe English and French now quarrelling, and 
th* forth** being the weaker, were obliged to quit 
the island, which between this period and 1659 
three times regained and lost by the Spa- 

*tot. iv. p niards. 



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2^ MARITIME O^QGJUiWy- 

bmrM,, fr #w, latter, ys*r the French, gpt arfitffi 
fyp&Qgion it, ( ^pd then first began to ft* thea^ 
servos ipfi ; ,the neighbouring coa^t of tjhe Great 
I^nd, in spite of the opposition of . the $p$r>t 
niajjls; and in 1665 France, wlueh had hitherto, t 
either paid no- attention to the projects of he£ 
subject* on this island,, or disavowed them, now 
when they began to acquire consistence, {acknow- 
ledged their enterprises, and sent Qut d* Agsraw^s . 
their, governor, who by his wise jidministr^tipn 
reduced a band of lawless pirates to comparative, 
of der apd subordination. . k 

JJut as the French adventurers were without 
women, the colony must h^ive soon fallen, to pje-r , 
ces, had not the government at home endeavoured 
to provide the colonists with wiv^s,, by offering 
very high rewards to poor joung women of good 
character > and by tills means 100 girls were in- 
duced to transport themselves, and were on their 
arrival in the colony sold to the highest bidders., 
The liberal offers of government not being, how- 
ever, sufficient to induce any considerable number 
of modest women thus to sell themp$lves> recourse, 
was liad to women of the town, who hired, or 
rather bound themselves, to cohabit far t^ree 
years, with the person to whom they should be 
allotted. The confusion caused in the colony by 
these abandoned creatures, made it necessary to 
prohibit their further exportation, and many, of, 
the colonists were in consequence obliged to quit 
the islapdi for want of companions. 

Nevertheless, under these unfavourable circum- 
stances, 



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WEST 1OTHA ISLANDS. ** 4$l x 

stances, and sufcject as they were to the open lft»- 
tflitiesand treachery of the Spaniards, th6 French 
continued to encrease, until the accession' of Phi- 
lip V. to the crown of Spain (1701), ttheA the ' 
interests of the two nations being uriited at home, 
thfeir subjects Were forbidden to molest each other 
abroad, and the French remained in quiet posses- 
sion of the east end of the island, though their 
limits were not agreed on until 1776. 
'"Die progress of the French was so rapid, that 
in I790 the population amounted to 81,000 
whites, 24,000 free people of colour, and 480,000 
slaves,* and the annual export of produce ex* 
ceeded four millions and a half sterling (value in 
the island). The spirit of revolution in the colo- 
ny was coeval with that in the mother country, 
and in 1791 an insurrection of the negroes de- 
luged the northern part of the colony with the 
blood of the whites. The wavering conduct of the 
first national assembly with respect to the emanci- 
pation erf* the slaves, and the decree of the legis- 
lative assembly, placing the free people of colour 
on a political equality with the whites, only in- 
creased the flame of insurrection, and in June 
1793 a body of negroes entered Cape Fran9ais, 
massacred the whites without distinction of age 
or setf, and reduced the town to ashes. 

The Royalist party amongst the whites now 
so!icfteff n the English to take' possession of the 
cdkrtiy, : atod^a force was sent from Jamaica for this 

p8 ' purpose,- 

• Edwadt's History of the West-Indict ; other account* make the poyu- 
*tf xoa at the Revolution near 700,000, 



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purpose, which succeeded in getting possession of 
some of the principal places j bpt though th? 
British twops were reinforced with an intention of 
prosecuting the wpr with vigour, the tumble, mor- 
tality among th/em, combined with other reason, 
caused the island to be eradiated in 179% afteftit 
had been the grave of the flower of the Bri&b 
army* 

On the calling in of the English the revolu- 
tionary commissioners, who had been sent from 
France to organize the colony, but who bad com- 
pletely disorganized it, concluded their adn^inw- 
tratioji by the most desperate measure that cpuld 
have entered into the heads of frantic republicans, 
that of declaring the general freedom of the 
slaves, under the idea of their joining them in th^e 
defence of the colony against the English*, The 
sole effect of this declaration was, however, caus- 
ing vast numbers of the slaves to quit their me- 
ters and retire to the mountains, where they plan- 
ned the means of their future independence, 
which they declared formally in 1801. 

In 1802, France being delivered from the, war 
with England, turned her views to the recovery of 
the colopy, and for thiq purpose 20,0Qi) veteran 
fpldieps were s^nt out, under the command of J^ 
Clerc, Buonaparte's brother-in-law. Ijlut theses? 
termiQatirjg principle on which the w^r wa$ ^ con- 
ducted against the negroes, had no other eflgpt 
than to give a desperate energy to their resistance, 
at the same time that the yellow fever carried off 
the French as it had done the English ; an^» final- 



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Wfeftf INDIA ISLAltfife. 413 

ly, 4he cftflfviving w*eck of their army being be- 
ttegfed in Cape Fran$ais, was forced to agree to 
ttbcttiatethe island ;but the negroes, announcing 
their intention of sinking their ships with red hot 
shot, they were obliged to claim the protectkjii 
of the English squadron cruising off the port, to 
whom they surrendered as prisoners of war, and 
were conveyed to Jamaica. In November 1803 
the negroes again proclaimed their independence, 
and the first of January 1804 the ancient name of 
Hayti was restored to the island. DessaKnes, a 
negro general, was declared governor for lift, 
and in September of the same year assumed the 
title of Enjperor of Hayti \ he however fell in a 
conspiracy, and the island has since been con- 
vulsed by the contests of Christophe and Petion, 
the two leading negro chiefs. The former, having 
taken the title of Henry L, King of Hayti, keeps 
possession of the north part of the island, and 
makes Cape Fran$ais his royal residence ; while 
Petion, under the more modest name of Presi- 
dent, governs the southern part, and has his head* 
quarters at Port au Prince. Both these chiefs 
seem determined to defend their liberties against 
^veiy attempt of the French to regain a footing in 
the island; and it would appear that their procla- 
mations on this* subject are not empty boastings, 
the armies of Hayti being represented as nume- 
rous* Tfrell aritted, and perfectly disciplined, and 
the fortifications, particularly m the mountains, 
ns impregnable, and well supplied with every 
thing neceseafy to earry resistance to extremity/ 

p 8 With 



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21* MARITIME GEOGEAPHT. 

With respect to the moral and social state of 
the Haytians, they are described as having no 
form of religious worship, and as admitting and 
encouraging a plurality of wives. The court of 
Henry I. is a burlesque imitation of the ci-devaAf 
court of St Cloud, the negro king being sur- 
rounded by his Grand Chamberlain, his Marshal of 
the Palace, Ministers of the Interior and Exterior, 
grand croix of the legion of honour, dukes, 
counts, and barons, &c. &c. Sumptuousness in} 
dress is carried to excess by the negro nobles and 
gentry. The problem, however, still remains to 
be solved, whether the African race is by nature 
capable of forming a stable civilized community,- 
or whether, according to Mr. Edwards, the Hay- 
tians " will become savages in the midst of so- 
ciety ; without peace, sefeurity, agriculture, dt 
property, ignorant, of the duties of life, and unac- 
quainted with all the soft and endearing relations 
which render it desirable ; averse to labour, 
though frequently perishing of want, suspicious' 
of each other, and towards the rest of mankind 
revengeful and faithless, remorseless and bloody- 
minded; pretending to be free while gToanrn£ 
under the capricious despotism of their chiefs, and 
feeling all the miseries of servitude without thte 
benefits of subordination." 
. TJndfer the prohibitory colonial system of Spain, 
the Spanish part of St. Domingo remained in d 
kind of stationary torpidity, there Hot being even 
a practicable road in this part of the island. ItiT 
population, in 1800, was estimated at 100,000 

whites 



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WEST INDIA ISJLANM. %\5 

Whites and: free people of colour and only 15,000 
d4ve? ?1 The produce was inconsiderable, there 
\>$Wg but twenty-four sugar-works, still fewer of 
Spflfee and cocoa plantations, none of indigo, and 
tfy$ other agricultural objects were rice and wheat 
for the consumption of the inhabitants and somg 
tobacco* ' The breeding of cattje requiring little 
labour, was more suitable to the Spanish indolence, 
and hence the French part of the island was sup- 
plied with them from the Spanish. By the treaty 
#f Basle, Spain ceded her portion of the island to 
France, but it was taken from these latter by the 
English m 1809, and restored to Spain by the 
treaty of Paris 1814. 

PqBTO Rico, discovered by Columbus in 1493, 
and thus named from the gold ornaments observed 
amongst the natives, first received a colony of 
Spaniards from Hispaniola in 1509, and by the 
same flagitious conduct, the natives were quickly 
exterminated; but the colonists being continually 
disturbed by the invasions of the Caribbs of Jhe 
neighbouring islands, the island remained in a 
state of insignificance. In 1595, Sir Francis 
Dra^e took and plundered St. John's, the chief 
town ; and three years after, the. Earl of Cum- 
berland invaded the island and carried off a great 
booty. In 1606 the Dutch got possession of the 
island* and in 1615 St. John's was taken by the 
Engiisfr* It has since been invaded at various 
limes by theFrench and English, the last of which 
in, 1797, when the English made a formidable 
. rt ., • . , p 4 - attack, 



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$16 MABIT1ME tfBOOIUPHT. 

attack t>n St. John's, but were ebbged to re-embark 
without -accomplishing iheir purpose* 

Cuba, discovered in 1492, received a Spanish 
establishment in 1511, and the consequent e&ter* 
mination of the natives followed by their condem- 
nation to the mines, aided by the small pox, a new 
disease which they also received from the Spani- 
ards. The mines being found of little value, the 
island would probably have been abandoned, ha4 
not its position in the direct route to Mexico, then 
just conquered by Cortes, and its excellent port 
of the Havannah, given it a considerable looftl 
importance. This port was accordingly forti- 
fied, but the progress of improvement was so 
slow, that in 1735, it was thought proper to grant 
the monopoly of its commerce to an esclnaiw 
company, whose government Was established *£ 
the Havannah, and who had merely a factory, at 
Cadiz i but the mal-adminiatration of this body 
produced its total bankruptcy, and in 1?<& the 
commerce was made free to all the subjects xof 
Spain. 

Tfr$ little island of Cabaoua wm discoveMd 
apd 4e*p*ed by Columbus in 1498; but the, Spa- 
niard^ spnfe time after* teaming that the baafcaio 
ifo yic^ity funded in pearls, decked to it in 
1#>9>, »n^ga,ve it the urne of Me of Petirls* The 
avidity ;wtoh wb&b thefiakery was earned oft*iwr~ 
eyflfr won$xfom<,?<i the hanks, and in 15^hih^i^ 
l^iWMr#J^ctotte^ which 

*flN#& tt»< «M#ft«>wee of richer but ^hick:itas 
^ M weo^ily e*hau»ted» Nevertheless : tins 

latter 



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WEST INDIA ULAVD8I %Vf 

litfetriftbtod was retained* in order chiefly tii pre* 
vent other nations frpm taking possession of it • 



BRITISH ISLANDS. 

The civil and religious dissensions which tore 
fiogland to pieces, and at last brought Charles 
L to the block, gave rise to the first British 
establishments in the West Indies. A number 
of persons of moderate principles amd peaceful 
dispositions, flying from the horrors of a sangui- 
nary civil war, sought refuge in these islands, and 
the tranquillity they afforded them increased emi- 
grations, so that while the mother country was 
wasting the blood of her children at home, others 
ef them were founding the great fabric of her 
future greatness. . 

During the infancy of the British colonies, their 

Commerce was under no restraint, and they might 

export their productions whither they thought fit, 

or dispose of them to all those indifferently who 

came to their ports to seek for them; but the 

EHutch being then the naval carriers of Europe, 

took off by far the greater part, so that the mother 

eoimlry benefited very little by their possession 

*nitil 1651, when the famous Navigation Act wis 

pasted; which dint the ports of the colonies to all 

fbwigii flags, and obliged the colonists to export 

Aeir productions direct to the toother country, fa 

r British ships only* This regulation sftfll exists in 

' £ril force, ; witfcthe eaoepfckm of tutai * and iMelasses, 

:.V'*i. . which 



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SIS VAMTTME ^GEOGRAPHY. 

which are allowed to be sent to America ia ex* 
change for objects necessary to the islands, as com, 
provisions, stores, and lumber ; but this trade is 
likewise confined to British vessels navigated ac- 
cording to law, though this restriction has been 
relaxed during the late wars, neutrals being al- 
lowed to carry it on* 

The staple productions of the West India Islands 
are sugar, rum, coffee, and cotton, besides which 
they export pimento, cacao, indigo, tamarinds, 
ginger, castor oil, tortoise-shell, arrow root, and 
various woods, as mahogany, logwood, fustic, and 
lignum vibe. < 

The governments of the British islands; are 
called royal governments, consisting of a governor 
appointed by the crown, a council, and legiria* 
tive house of assembly chosen by the cokmista 
from amongst themselves. The British Leewacd 
Caribbees are included in one government, and 
the governor, who has the title of Captain General 
of the Leeward Caribbees, resides at Antigua* 
The common law of England is that of the colo* 
otes with respect to the white population, but the 
slaves are governed by colonial Jaws, enacted by 
the legislative assemblies, the life of the slave 
ahme being protected by particular statutes, en-, 
acted in Gxeat Britain. i 

BarbApobs was discovered by the Portuguese 
in their return from Br&sil and received the first 
British colony in the West Indies, James Town 
being founded by them in 1624 or 5. At this 
period it did;ftQt appear to have ever had any in* 

habitants, 



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WEST INDIA IBLAND& 2J9 

habitants, not did it afford either vegetables or 
animals for the sustenance of man. The island 
being granted by Charles I. to the Earl of Carlisle, 
that nobleman, in 1629* sent out a number of 
colonists at hiy own expense* who being in general 
industrious, and possessed of some capital, the 
island was soon cleared and brought into cultiva- 
tion ; and so rapid was the progress of population, 
in consequence of the emigrations from England, 
caused by the civil war, that in 1650 the island 
contained the astonishing number of 50,000 
whites* and a number of Indians and negro slaves. 

St. Christopher was discovered and thus 
named by Columbus after his patron saint It was 
occupied jointly by the French and English in 
Kte5 ; but three years after, both were dispossessed 
by 'the Spaniards. These latter neglecting it, 
the 'former returned, and continued to possess it 
in equal portions until 1666, when .the war in 
Europe caused hostilities between the two people 
on the island, which ended in the expulsion of the 
French in 1702, and by the treaty of Utreoht it 
was secured to England* In 1782 it was taken 
bf the French, bat restored in 17 83. 

The dittle island Nevis was discovered by ^ Ccw 
lumbus, who is said to have given it this name, 
from the erroneous opinion that its summit was 
hovered with snow.* A part of the English dri- 

'i ■ ' . . . • ' ■:.. y ■-.,■„■ <i 

* Jhii idea probably proceeded from white wfl*i wjiicb may ** tbat r 
•1^2 iavelssued from iticratar. 



;'..»» 



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220 MARITIME GJEOORAPHf. 

ven from St. Kitts by the Spaniards in 1028, 
took refuge at this island, and formed the first 
establishment. In 1706 it fell into the hands of 
the French, but was restored by the treaty of 
Utrecht; it was also taken by the French in 
1782, but restored in I78S. 

Montserrat was first settled by the English in 
1632. 

Antigua was discovered by Columbus, and named 
after the church of Santa Maria de Antigoa, at Se- 
ville. It was then uninhabited, doubtless from itt 
total want of fresh water. A few French families 
driven from St Kitts, in 1628, were its first Euro- 
pean inhabitants, but again abandoned it. When 
the English first occupied it is not exactly known, 
but about thirty families were established on it in 
1640. In 16C6 it was included in a grant of se- 
veral islands from Charles II. to Lord Willoughby, 
who sent out a considerable number of colonists. 
In 1680 it reverted to the crown. 

Anouilla was first occupied by the English in 
1650. 

Grenada, on its discovery by Columbus, was 
thickly inhabited by Caribbs, who continued un-* 
disturbed till 1650, when a party of French, from 
Martinique, invaded it ; and the Indians, defend- 
ing their rights, were, by a course of atrocities 
unequalled even by the Spaniards, almost totaHy 
Exterminated. The progress of their destroyers 
was not however rapid, from the dissensions among 
themselves, their number in 1700 being but 350; 

with 



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WS4T INDIA ISLANDS, 221 

*gtb 560 slaves* From this period the island im- 
proved rapidly ,< by the assistance it received from 
jdartijuque j «and was in a flourishing state when 
captured, in 176#» by the English, to whom it was 
Spded by the peace of 1768. In 1779 it was 
taken by the French, but restored in 1783. 

The Dutch found the Island of Tobago unin- 
habited when they first formed an establishment 
on* it in 1632; but, being driven off by the Spa- 
niards, the island was neglected till 1654, when 
tfcef former people formed a second establishment 
on it; but were again dispossessed by the Eng. 
lish in 1666, who, in their turn, lost it to France, 
by whom it was restored to Holland, but again 
taken in I678 by the French^ when the fortifica- 
tions were destroyed, and the island entirely neg- 
lected, until England claiming it from the right of 
prior occupancy, took possession of it in I76I, 
oad was confirmed in it by the peace of 1763. In 
1781 it was taken by the French, and ceded to 
t&em in 1783, but again captured by the British 
in 1793. About 16*8 the Dutch first formed 
39 estafefohment on the Island of Tortola, but 
wwe d*iv«n off by the English in 1666. A few 
Eflgftst* families then settled on it, but it was 
dtgfWttl o£ 00 little consequence by the. mother* 
OCHmtyy* that until 1748 it had received no* 
g^efzupranfe; and it was only in 1773 that 
the/ Virgin Islands, possessed by Great Bri- 
tain^ ] received the same constitution &s the other 

a: , The 



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2€8 MASimiB GEGGflAfHT. 

Hie Bahama Islands, discovered by Cotatabtfi ' 
in 1492, we*e thought no Other ways wortfc^irf 
notice by tbe Spaniards, than as they ifht&bd 
Indians to work thd mines of Hispaniola, and Jtc- - 
cerdingly the unhappy natives were all conveye* i 
to that island in 1507* and the archipelago »* 
mained uninhabited till 1672, whefe some English ; 
formed a settlement on the Island of Providenfcev 
from which they were driven seven years after by* 
the Spaniards, but returned in 1690, and werfr 
again dispossessed in 1706 by the Spaniards and 
French united, but who formed no establishment* 

In 171*4 some Spanish vessels, richly laden, bed 
ing wrecked on the Florida reefs, the Spaniards 
sent many vessels to attempt to fish up the trea- 
sure* So rich a prize tempted some of the inha- 
bitants of Jamaica to endeavour at sharing in it $ 
but this the Spaniards refusing to permit, one 
Jennings had recourse to force, to support wfcat 
he called a natural right ; but afraid of the conse- 
quences in thus violating the peace which existed 
between the two nations, he united with a number 
of other desperate adventurers, and became a 
professed pirate, making the Bahama Island* tri$* 
rendezvous. The depredations committed by these 
bands, not only on foreign vessels, but ahto oi> 
Engl&h, obliged the British government, in 1719/ 
to send out a force to reduce them, as well as to 
establish a colony on the Island of Providence.' 

Some of the pirates refusing the amnesty offer- 
ed them, retired from the island to pursue their 

depredations. 



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d#p*fed atria s in other parts, whilst totberv incorpo- 
rated themselves* with the new colonists. i 

* After England and France bad long disputed, « 
with respect to the possession of St. Vincent laftd* 
Dom*xh:a,* 'it was agreed by the treaty of Aix te 
Cbapelle, ift 1744, that these islands, together with 
Tobago and St Lucia, should remain neutral, *adr 
the Caribbs be left in unmolested possession of 
them. . This treaty of neutrality was, however, 
satisfactory to neither of the European powers ; 
and at the peace of I76S the Islands of Dominica, 
SU Vincent, and Tobago, were assigned to Great 
Britain, and St. Lucia to France ; the Caribbs not 
being mentioned in this division of the spoil. These 
people wereindeed reduced to a miserable remnant ; 
of the Red Caribbs, or aborigines, not more than 100 
fapoiiies remaining in 1763, to whom the English 
assigned a portion of the mountainous tract of 
Su Vincent. Besides these Red Caribbs there was 
oa the island a tribe named Black Caribbs* the 
progeny of the cargo of a slave ship wrecked on 
the Isle Bequia* in 167$, and who, by marriage 
with Caribb women, and by the accession of run- 
away negroes from the other islands, had greatly 1 
multiplied ; their number, in I76S, beingjupwatda : 
of>2,000. They at first refiisod toaokn^lAlgfe^ 
the authority of the British government, but aftcfr l 
some lives had been lost in a contest Avith ttoetn; ■ 
a treaty was concluded in 177S> by whish £ p&r- ' 
A ; - - • _ -: : ■ 1 : ' : --Hon 

■ . i L . ' , -» * **- * J '■ - 1 -- 

• Thus named by Columbus from being discovered the first on St. Vin- 
•e£& Day, and the second on a Sunday. 



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tioa <*f the island was allotted to tlpftm, *nd Hhef 
submitted to the relations enacted They co»- 
timied peaceable until the beginning of the JYenph 
revolution, whea their tudwlent tpijftt bursting 
forth, and their openly favouring the French* 
obliged the government to act hostildy against 
them, and finally, on their, subjection in 17&Z* t9 
expel them the island, and transport them to IU$* 
tan Island, in the Bay of Honduras. In 177& Do- 
minica was taken by the French and St* Vincent's* 
Che following year; but both were restored in 

.1783. 

Jamaica * was discovered by Columbus in 149*, 
and received a Spanish colony from Hispaniola in 
1500; but the same system of tyranny against 
the native Indians soon exterminated the race, 
and the consequent want of hands cauaed all the 
establishments to be abandoned, except St. Jago 
de la Vega, where, in 1655, the whole population 
of the island, amounting to 1,500 Spaniards aad 
as many slaves, was collected. 
- In that year the English, under Penn and Va- 
riables, after their badly conducted and unsucoess* 
ful attack on St. Domingo, attempted to retrieve 
their credit by the conquest of Jamaica. They . ac- 
cordingly attacked St. Jago, which they easily got 
possession of, and with it the whole island,, the 
Spaniards retiring to Cuba, and though they re- 
turned and made an attempt to regain the island* 
it was without success; and England has since 
retained her conquest undisturbed. 

The 

* * This name is Indian, signifying " abounding in springs/' 



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WIST BHHA WMIP* ffff 

* Tfcg fat Brifoh colonists were frQOO jjabaqtaj 

soldiers of the parliamentary army, who were fol- 
lowed by 1,50Q royalists on the destruction of their 
party. Until the restoration the government of 
the island was entirely military, but at that period 
it received a royal governq&$#£ 

On the surrender of the island to the English, 
in l6o6 f the negro slaves of the Spaniards generally 
fled to the mountains, afid fa> m W mm »prvt*g m 
race since known by the name of MwoonSt wbqte 
depredations on the British plantations aftd nmr? 
der of the whites that fell in their way, obHgff} 
the government several times to act offensively 
against them, until they Were at lei^jth forced to 
sue for peace, and in 1738 a tfeaty was concluded 
with them, by which theif freedom was securedj 
and 1,500 acres of land granted them. They 
continued tolerably peaceable until Y19&, when 
two of their people having been flogged for theft 
by sentence of a court of justice at Montego Bay, 
the whole tribe of Trelawney Town, one of their 
principal villages, rose, ^id attempting to gain the 
ll^vesb tfce> island would probably have experienced 
all the ho?W8 <tf St. Doqainge, had it not beeu 
for the prompt and decisive measures of Lord 
BWcaf^f, the gpveraor. As it was, the Maroon* 
though opt exceeding a few hyodreds, comqaenoed 
hostilities, with a kind of frantic desperation 
against some thousand regular troops and white 
nilitiB, and several detachments of these troops 
falling into their ambushes were cut off) while 
every white person, without distinction of age o& 
vol, iv. a sex, 



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226 KfAfttTIME GEOGftAftfY. 

aex, that fell in their way was massacred in the; 
most ferocious manner* 

A more vigorous system of hostilities, - how* 
ever, having been entered upon, the Maroons were 
hemmed in in the mountains, which, though afford* 
ing impregnable positions, are entirely without 
river or spring ; and after the water left by the 
rains in the hallows of the rocks was exhausted} 
their only resource was in the leaves of the wild 
pine,* but this resource was also soon exhausted * 
and at the same time a singular auxiliary force ar- 
rived in the island to act in concert with the 
troops ; this consisted of about 100 dogs from the 
Island of Cuba, where they are used to hunt the 
wild bullocks, and which it was thought might be 
used with success against the Maroons in driving 
them from their retreads inaccessible to any human 
being but themselves. The panic that the accounts 
of the appearance and force of these animals struck 
into the Maroons, together with their deplorable 
state, brought them to offer submission, and a 
tiegociation was entered into, promising fheift their 
fives and liberties on certain conditions ;*4iit such * 
was their infatuation that few of them accepted 
the terms, and consequently both troops and dogs 
were ordered to advance against them. The dogs 
were, however, kept in the rear, with the t&teiK* 

tkw* 



* A plant that oommpnly takes root in the great forks of the taapch^a; 

of the wild cotton tree ; by the conformation of its leaves it catches and 
retain* the rain watrt-, each leaf resembling a spout, and fbhning at itrbas£ 
a natural reservoir i which, contains abont a quart of puf* watqr* ; 



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Wt&T ItfMA INLANDS. 9$f 

tion <of being brought into action only in Case of 
absolute necessity; This necessity fortunately did 
not occur, for the Maroons, now abandoning all 
hope, submitted on no other condition than spar- 
ing their lives. 

The government of the island, on the final sup- 
pression of the insurrection, came to a resolution 
that the Maroons, who had not surrendered on the 
terras of the first negotiation, were not entitled to 
die benefits then offered them; but that they 
should be shipped from the island to some country 
where they would enjoy freedom, but from whence 
it would be out of their power to return to the 
island. In consequence of this resolution, in 1795, 
600 of them were conveyed to Nova Scotia, where 
they were granted lands, and attempts made to 
convert them from their African superstitions and 
idolatry to Christianity. 

TknriDAD was discovered by Columbus in 1498, 
but wad neglected till 1585, when A Spanish esta> 
btishment was formed on it, more, it appears, for 
the purpose of preventing either nations from oc- 
cupying it, than with the intention of efficiently 
colonising it; and, m fact, the progress was so 
trifling, that independent of the officers and monks, 
die population in 1766 did not exceed 1,600 per- 
sons, existing ill a state of wretched poverty, their 
Sole cfccopatkm being rearing cattle, which they 
disposed of by contraband to the English, French, 
tod other islands. Since that peribd the progress 
has been more rapid, chiefly from the influx of in- 
solvent debtor&'firom the ot*ter islands. The island 

a 2 was 



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228 UJUUTfMR OSOGfAPQT. 

was captured by tbe English in 1797* to vkma it 
was confirmed fry tbe treaty of Amiens. 



FRENCH ISLANDS. 

Tbe first expeditions of tbe French to the West 
ladies were for the sole purpose of capturing 
the vessels of the Spaniard* Their rendezvous, 
when in want of water pr repairs, was tbe Island 
of SL Christopher, on which they formed a mall 
establishment in 1625 j and their chief at the wine 
tjme received a grant of this island fisw the 
crown,, with permission to extend fc*s es ti fa fah - 
jaeitip to all the other iflands be wgbt think pro- 
per, on the conditio of payipg to government the 
^uae-tentb of ail the productions exported from tbe 
new settlements to France. 

In 1626 a company was created to colonize the 
islands, with certain privileges for twenty years j 
but the Dutch supplying the colonists with Euro- 
pean merchandise at a much cheaper rate than the 
company, a contraband trade was the consequence, 
which depriving the company of tbe profits of the 
commerce, it was obliged to resign its charter to 
a new association in 1644, which being equally un- 
successful, sold its privileges between 1640 and 
1651 to private persons, and the islands were now 
held as fiefs of the crown, with almost sovereign 
authority to the proprietors. This socond state of 
the colonies was npt, however, mow advantageous to 
tbe mother country than the former one of esclu* 

aive 



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rftfe C(H$fetH6s; the Dutch atfll cdbtiiftmlg to re- 
ceive the greater part of the produce, in return for 
provisions and other merchandise At lengthy in 
1664, the government repurchased the Whole of 
the islands from the proprietors for 84S?,O0O Kvre*, 
and granted the monopoly of their commerce to a 
company* which already possessed that of .Africa, 
Cayenne, atid North America. The encourage* 
'fttetft granted to this conKpany was insufficient to 
insure success ; and, in 1674, its affairs being in 
total disorder, th&croWrt paid itsr debts, reimbursed 
the capital to the holders of shares, and taking the 
administration of the eoloniea into kfc own hands, 
kid open the trade to all the subjects of France, 
but excluded foreigtteft ; and shortly after the im- 
portation of the produce was confined to a few 
ports of the mother country. These restraints, 
together with a tax of 100 pounds of raw suga* 
for every individual of both sexes in the islands, 
whether fve& or not, and high duties on the ef»- 
jK>rtation of the productions, prevented* the im- 
provement of the islands until 1717, whe& more 
Kberal regulations were adopted, which soon 
brought them into a very flourishing state. 

Guadalocpe, discovered by Columbus, and 
thus named from the resemblance of its mountains* 
to those of the same name in Spain, was first occu* 
pied by 500 French from Dieppe in 1635 : but 
their preparations having been badly made, in two 
months after their arrival they found themselves 
totally destitute of provisions ; while the Caribbs. 
of the island, unable or unwilling to svjpply them, 

q 3- retired 



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-£30 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

retired to the mountains, or fled to the neighboul*- 
ing islands, from whence they sallied forth and 
committed depredations on the colonists, a great 
number of whom were also carried off by famine, 
and the remainder lingered out a miserable exist- 
ence until 1640, when a peace was made with the 
Caribbs. 

The incursions of the Buccaneers, as well as ift* 
testine divisions, however kept the island in a state 
of poverty ; and, in 1700, its population was only 
3,825 whites, 325 Caribbs and free people of co- 
colour, and 6,725 slaves. Its improvement iras 
very slow until 1759, when it was captured by the 
English ; but restored to France in 1763, in a 
state of much greater prosperity than when it fell 
into their hands. In 1794 the English again took 
it, but evacuted it the same year ; and in 1810 it 
again surrendered to the British arms. 

A few French families from St. Christopher's 
formed an establishment on Martinique in 1635, 
and were at first amicably received by the Caribbs; 
but their increasing numbers and daily encroach- 
ments, soon forced the Indians to hostilities, which 
finally terminated in the destruction of the greatest 
part of them, and the abandonment of the island 
by the remainder in 1658. Though more rapid in 
its improvement than Guadaloupe, it counted, in 
1700, but 6,597 whites, 507 free people of colour* 
and 14,000 slaves. 

After the peace of Utretcht the island becbm- 
ing the entrepot of the productions of the other 
French islands, from whence they were shipped for 

France* 



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WEST INDIA ISLANDS. SSI 

Stance, Us prosperity rapidly increased, so that, 
in 1736/ the number of slaves was 72,000. In 
I756 it watf taken by the English, but restored in 
1763. In 1794 it was again captured by the Eng- 
lish, but restored at the peace of Amiens ; and 
again surrendered to the British forces in 1810. 

A small party of English first occupied St. 
Lucie, in 1639; and the island being uninhabited, 
continued undisturbed for eighteen months, when 
an English vessel having carried off some Caribbs 
from Dominica, the natives of that island united 
v4th those of St. Vincent and Martinique, and 
falling on the defenceless colonists of St. Lucie, 
massacred all those they encountered, a few only 
escaping from the island, which remained unoc- 
cupied till 1650 ; when forty French families settled 
on it, but had little improved it, when, in 1664, it 
was taken by the English, who however aban- 
doned it two years after, and the French return- 
ed, but were again driven out by their rivals in 
1684. 

From this period the island was only visited by 
the inhabitants of Martinique to cut wood and 
build canoes, until after the peace of Utretcht, 
when the French monarch granted it to the 
Marshal d'Estrees, who sent out some colonists and 
troops. The British government, however, now 
claimed the island by right of prior occupancy ; 
while thei French founded their claim on long 
continued possession : the latter, however, direct- 
ed the island to be put in the same state as pre- 
vious ta the grant The English continuing their 

0, 4 claim, 



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fgf KAETTXME OSOOR»HT • 

pigum, in 17*8 the king granted the island td &fc 
• Duke of Montague, who tent out person* to takfe 
possession; but the French remonstrating in tftfcit 
turn, it was agreed, in 173 1, that until a final a^ 
tangement could take place, the island should b* 
evacuated by both nations, but that both shonld 
have liberty to visit it for wood and water. This 
conventiofc*dtd not, however, tundes the French- 
from occupying it in 1744; to which England 
made no opposition. In 1762 the island Was 
taken by the English, but restored the following 
year; again taken in 1778, but restored in 178t$ 
in 1794 it again was taken by the English, but 
retaken by the "French the next year; and the 
year following (1796) it again surrendered to the 
English, was restored to France by the treaty of 
Amiens, but again taken in 1806. 

Deseada, or Desirada, discovered and thus 
named by Columbus, was first occupied hy thfe 
French, but in what year is unknown* This na* 
tion also first occupied A^ariegalante (thus 
named after his ship by Columbus) in 1648, and 
obliged the Caribbs to quit it, It has several 
times been taken by the English, but restored on 
peace. • 

The Saints were first occupied by the French in 
1648. 



DUTCH ISLANDS. 



The possessions of Holland in the West Indian 
archipelago, though of very little consideration as 

agricultural 



a 



\ 



jfeHctrittirtl colonies, wfete$ fr6tn pe^nKir' cirriiw: 
stances already noticed, of the gteat&St cftfcMei* " 
cial consequence to the United Prdvftices.* 1 

C0RA9OA was tttken by the Dutch ftorir th6T 
Spaiuaidd in l684w 

. &fr. EtisrATiA was first Occupied by some Fretidi 
rtfugees from St. Christopher's In 1629, but was 
abandoned by them shortly after. The prectsfe 
period of its occupation by the Dutch is un- 
known, but they were itt possession of it in 163& 
when the EtfgUsh drbve them out, but who in {heir 
tiihi gave way to the French, by whom the island 
was restored to Holland. 

The little island of Saba received a Dutch co- 
lony from St Eustatia. 

The Dutch also possessed (conjointly with the 
French) the Island of St. Martin, on which they 
both first landed in 1638, but were dispossessed by 
the Spaniards, who abandoning the island in 1648, 
it Was re-occupied by the Dutch and Frerich, 



DANISH ISLANDS. 

The Danish West India Islands are St. Thomas, 
St. John and St. Croix. 

St. Thomas was first occupied by the Danes ih 
1671, and being one of the rendezvous of the Buc* 
caneers, it rapidly improved by the sale of their 
plunder j and afterwards, being declared a free 

*VoLI. page 446. 



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CM JUBJTIME GJEOGEABHV. 

port, it shared with thti DiAtclvIslaDds in tl^e profit 

' of the transit trade. 

St. John's w^s first settled by the Danes in 

- 1721 ; and, in 1733, the Danish W^st India Com- 
pany purchased St. Ceoix from . the French fpr 
160,000 rix-dollars. This flatter island had been 
, % taken from the Spaniard? by the French in J651 f 
but was alawst entirely neglected. \ 

* The Dane?, conjointly with the English* have 
the liberty of cutting wood on the Isle of Crabs, 
claimed by the Spaniards as an appendage to Porto 
Rico. , ( 

The only possession of Sweden in the West In<* 
dies is the bland of St* Bartholomew, ceded to 
it by France .in 1786. 



BAHAMA ISLANDS. 

We shall commence our topographical notice of 
the West India Islands with the Bahamas, which 
naturally attach themselves to the American con- 
tinent by the neighbouring peninsula of Florida, 
from which they are separated by the Gulf of 
Florida, also called the Bahama Channel. These 
islands are scattered over two coral and sandy 
banks, yarned the Great and Little Bahama Banks, 
be^os others beyond the limits of these banks, 
out of soundings in the Atlantic. Their direction is 
JiJ^a|pq?t pllthe coral-formed archipelagos, from 
jtf. W. to S.E., extending from the Square Hand- 
le rchicF Shoal on the S A E. to the Maranilla Keys 

on 



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WEST INJMA ISLAND fSS 

pa theN.W., or between *he latitudes of 91° and , 
28° N. This position renders their climate tem- 
perate, the northern ones being refreshed it winter 
by cool breezes from the N.W. %nd W. out of the 
Gulf of Mexico, while the southern ones enjoy 
the constant trade wind of the Atlantic. At New 
Providence thp extremes of thtf ^heimometer arc; 
90° and 60*. * * 

The whole of the Bahamas are low, flat, and 
covered with broken porous rocks; the 901I gene- 
rally light and sandy, but producing abundance of 
small tr$es,* and with spots of good $oil,.fitfot the 
cultivation of cotton and rearing of cattle. They 
are very scantily supplied w|tji fresh water, and 
only by pools formed in the rains, or from wells 
dug in the sand, into which the sea water filters. 
The wild hog and agouti are found in the woods. 

The commercial objects are cotton, pimento and 
salt, the latter chiefly taken off by the Americans 
of the United States* The official value of the 
imports from these islands to England, add of the 
exports to them, was; 

Imports, Exports. 

1809 £133,515.., ,£504,567 , 

1810 108,485 481,372 

The exported productions of the islands were, 

Cotton. Pimento* 

1809 1,139,793 lbs. 1,528 lfc> 

1810. 1,348,828 2,22/ 

Considerable 

• Mahogany, braziletto, lignum Tits, fottic, wild cinnamon, pimento, 
ycilow saunders, satin wood, pints, cedars, &c. 



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$36 JfAftlTIMti OEOGftAPftY. 

Considerable quantities of sugar and eoflfeg, th* 
produce tff the foreign eoloMes, were also krtport- 
£d thr<!ligh the Bahamas into England. The fa* 
lands have four legal ports df entry, \\t. KtorPrd* 
Ifidence, Exnma, Caicos, arid Turks Islands. 

The taiali Bahama craft are employed drogghg 
(edifying) betweet* the islands, in catching tmlle 
and fish, which are extremely abundant, and id 
looking 6ut in the Gulf of Florida foi wrecks, for 
which purpose they are licensed by the governor 
6f the Bahamas, and a salvage is allowed them* 
By their exertions many lives afld much property 
arte saved in this dangerous channel. 

The total population of the islands in 1803 was 
2,933 whites, and 11,996 free people of colour afid 
staves. The expense of the civil government iff 
iai4 was ,£3,300. 

The islands worthy a particular mention are the 
following : Abaco; one of the largest and northeri*- 
tfttst j now uninhabited, it having been abandoned 
by the few settlers it possessed since 1788. The 
Great Bahama Island, also on the little bank wesl 
of Abacb, is of considerable size, but uninhabited. 
Andrpfc, or Holy Ghost Islands, a great semicir- 
cular group, extending forty leagues, at the north 
extremity of the great bank. In the interior of 
the Gtfeat Andros is a pond 6f fresh water, com* 
mufricating with the sea by a boat channel. * The 
island has fe*r 9 if any, inhabitants, the reefs that 
surhtafid it rendering the access difficult. 

Bleuthera Island, one of the largest, is of very 
irregular shape, forming a crescent, the concavity 

to 



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WEST INDIA ISLANDS. • U37 

to the west; it is on tjie east edge of the great 
baflk, it9 eastern shore being washed by die blue 
and fathomless ocean, while on the west is the 
white shallow and smooth water of the bank. The 
force of the Atlantic waves has pierced a magni- 
ficent arch through the rock of the island, whicji 
!$ the greatest curiosity of the archipelago. On 
ih# wgst jride are the *ettlements of Wreck Sound, 
awtpining a fey whites and 400 negroes; and 
Governor's Harbour * at the N.W. extremity if 
$p^nfch Wells, with J20 inhabitants. Ha?b<Hur 
Jsjand n close to the north end of iSleutfcpip, and 
has a settlement of 500 whites and 300 slaves* m 
a village beautifully situated on the south side of 
the island facing Eleuthera, and which is esteem- 
ed the most healthy spot of the West-Indies 

Nev Providence Island, nearly in the c^ntxe of 
the great bank, is twenty-five miles long apd nine 
broad. The harbour of Nassau is on the north 
#de of the island and is sheltered on the north by 
Hog Island : it is fit for vessels of thirteen feet. 
The tevn of Nassau is the seat of government of 
the Bahamas, and one of the best laid out towns 
«f the West-Indies, the streets being wide and 
«iry, and the. hpuses well built. The trade of 
Jfassau is very considerable, one hundred English, 
tad an equal number of Americans and Spaniards, 
of Cuba visiting it annually. The English with 
lumber from British America and British roaqy^ 
ftctures from Europe ; the Americans with ltim* 
ber and provisions ; and the Spaniards with dollars* 
The first take off the cotton and dye woods of the 

island, 



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Wthowttv 



2&J % wAftt¥n« ctoGRAwrr'. 

isfettd, and the Spatiisb tfioheyj die second >tfe!t 
and wreck goods ; and the third British manu- 
factures* 

The population of New Providence, in 1805, 
was 1>76S whites, 817 free people of colour, arid 
■£,513 staves. 

Exuma, great and little, on the great bank, in 
1803 had 140 whites and 1000 blacks j they hiave 
a port of entry, and make nfuch salt Long 
Iskttid, or Yuma, at the S.E. extremity of the 
gfe*t bank, fa fifty miles long but very narrow ; in 
I80S it had 2,500 inhabitants. On the east side 
i* Great Harbour, from whence its salt is ex* 
ported* 

Guanahani js chiefly worthy of notice from the 
supposition of its being the first land made by Co* 
fembus, and named by him St. Salvador. By the 
English it is called Cat Island ; it is sixty miles 
Jong, but very narrotf. The east sidfe is lined by 
a reef on which the whole waters of the Atlantic 
burst and render it inaccessible ; but on the S. W. 
h good anchorage in Port Howe* In 1797 the 
island had 657. persons. Rum Key has some in- 
habitants. Crooked Islands are four or five on a 
distmet reef or bank ; the largest, named Acklftt's 
Key, is sixty miles long and one to seven broad, 
an&> North Crooked Island twenty miles long and 
two to six broad. On this latter is the settlement 
of ¥itt'& Town, a port of entry Where the mail* 
betwteeaa London and the Bahamas are dropped 
aad taken up* The population in 1803 was forty; 
whites ami 930 negroes. 

The 



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WEST IHMA IBLANbS* S&9 

The Heneaguas are two island: the largest is *•%** 
forty-five mites long and nineteen broad, and Has 
extensive salt pans, but few inhabitants, being s&ru 
rounded by dangers. 

The Caicos, vulgo Caucases, are four or five 
islands on a bank : the Great Caicos is sixty miles . 
long and two to three broad. There are several 
good harbours for small vessels among the fcejn 
and reefs around them : that of St. George is a 
port of entry and fit for vessels of fourteen feet. - 
In 1803, the population was forty whites apd 
1,200 slaves. 

Turk's Islands, the southernmost of the Ba- 
hamas, lay on a detached reef ; their inhabitants are 
principally temporary, being Bermudians who come 
here to collect salt, of which 7 or 8000 tons are 
exported annually. On Grand Key, the largest of 
these islands, is a port of entry. 



CUBA, 



Cuba, the most considerable of the West-India 
Islands, is 285 leagues long, east and west, and 
forty-five to fourteen leagues broad. It is traversed 
longitudinally by a chain of high mountains which 
give rise to 158 rivers and rivulets foil of fish, but 
none of them navigable. The mountains are 
clothed with forests of mahogany, cedar, ebony, 
«nd many other trees, and have miites <kf gold, 
copper* iron, loadstone, roek crystal, &c. There 
are many wartti and medicinal springs \ and <fee -cli- 
mate 



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240 MARITIME GEOGRAfHr. 

ipate Is healthy, being refreshed by constant 
breezes. It lias eleven large bays and many good 
ports. 

Under the Spanish colonial regulations this fine 
island languished, but has been latterly much im- 
proved by the influx of French refugees from St 
Domingo, who have not only greatly increased the 
population but also the staple produce of 3%atv 
which, in 1790, was but 100,000 arohas, in 1804, 
£50,000, and in 1810, 800,000.— The population 
was in. 

Whites. Free people of colour. Slam. 

1774. .'• 131,800. .. . 5,500,... 44,3$* 
1804... •254,000.... 9,000. ... 108,000 

The trade of the Havannah with the mother 
country excepted, the commerce of Cuba is al- 
most solely contraband, with Jamaica and the Ba- 
hamas, where, the dollars of Mexico are given for 
British merchandise. 

The Havannah, formerly 'called Port Carenas, 
the chief place of the island, is the entrepot be* 
tween Spain and Mexico. Its port is capable of 
containing 100Q ships in perfect shelter; the 
depth generally six fathoms. The entrance is by 
a passage ope mile and a half long, and very nam 
row, and three large ships have be$n sunk ia it t* 
render it more difficult. It is defended by the 
Morro Castle on the east, and by the fort of Punte 
op tHe west. The Monro is situated on an elevar 
tipn, that renders it impossible to cannonade it 
• from shipping ; it consists of two bastions towards 
the sea aad two towards the laod, with a covered 

way 



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,WEST IMDIA ISLANDS* 64fi 

way and deep ditch cut in the rock, And can c**. 
bring many guns to bear qii the entrance of the ""* 
harbour. Punta fort is situated on a low pointy 
and forms a square, with casemates, and a ditch 
cut in the rock. The other fortifications are nu- 
merous Qnd formidable. 

The city is on the west side of the port, and 
on an .island, formed Iby two branches of the river 
Lagida. 

The annual fleet, in peace, sails from the Ha- 
vannah for Old Spain in September, and besides 
merchandize, it usually conveys thirty millions of 
piastres in coin. A packet sails from Corunna to 
the Havannah: and Porto Rico every month. 

St. Yago de Cuba, on the south coast, near the 
east end,, was the ancient capital, and still retains 
that nominal honour, though since the commerce 
of the island has centered in the Havannah, it 
has been forsaken and neglected, . at present con- 
taining but a few*inbabitants, the? proprietors of 
neighbouring estates. It has a good port, de* 
fended by a castle* named the Morro. 

The principal, bays of Cuba visited by shipping, 
are, Nuevitas, within Saviqal Key, which is seven 
Jeagues long, and covers the bay, the entrance for 
large vessels being on the east. Villa del Prin- 
cipe is an insignificant village at the mouth of a 
ivret in this bay. 

St. Juan de los Remedios is a good harbour 
within islands, having three channels in. Matan- 
zas bay is full of islands, and behind it rises a 
gteat sugar-loaf hill, named the Pan de Matan- 

VOL. IV. R 3US. 



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£4$ MAftlttMfe d£d6RA*8T. 

a*?- fcas. St. Carlos, in this bay, is a poor place, but 
defended by a good castle. These three harbours 
are oh the north coast Batabana is a large bay on 
the south eoast. 

Thfe principal headlands of the island are, Cape 
Maize, the east point ; Cape Antonia, the- west j* 
Cape Veto Crug on the south, west of which ii a 
great gulf* filled with innumerable black rodta, stf 
close together, that nothing larger than a long 1 
boat can pass between them, Columbus gave 
them tire name of Jardine de la Reyna (Queen** 
Garden). Among the great number of other 
islands that surround Cuba, the Isle of Fines and 
the Caymans are alone of any size : the first lays 
off Batabana bay, at six leagues distance ; % te 
uninhabited, but has good anchorage* and fresh 
Water to a bay on the west. The Caymans (aHiv 
gators) are three islands west of Cape Vera Crun' 
The nearest being twenty-three leagues from tb£ 
4&pe, is named Cayman-back j *the little Cayman i* 
a league and a half west of thfe latter, and the 
great Cayman fifteen leagues farther. . The ibttef 
is alone inhabited, by about 150 whites, saidtbW 
descended from the Buccaneers, and who efcjfcy 
high health, these iblands being very salubrious* 
Their chief business is fishing for turtle* tosirfpply 
Port lloyrf i* Jamaica. The island has n& port, 
but a tolerable road on the west. There are mskxy 
dingers rottbd these islands* ^ ' 



■ ^ -i» 



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VfiAV INWA t»AK9$« $4f 



ST. DOMINGO. 



St. Domingo is the second of th6 West4ndi* 
islands in sise, being 160 league long, and twen- 
„ %y medium breadth. It is traversed by two great 
chains of mountains from east to west* whosS 
highest elevations are 6,000 feet, and whi<;h ar$ 
covered with forests of mahogany, Brazil wpod^ 
Q&k f walnut, gayac, maple, iron wood* pine, ce- 
dar, ebony, &c. The island has mines of gpJld* 
silver, copper, quicksilver, irop, and lead, pre^ 
cious stones and crystal. 

The rivers are extremely numerous, but none 
pf them are practicable even for boats in the djfy 
season, while in the rains they, oftep rise twenty^ 
five feet perpendicular, and spread destruction jj* 
the plains. Eleven leagues e?st of Port au Prince 
is a salt lake, named Henriquelle, twenty-tWQ 
leagues in circuit; its water is deep, clear, and, 
bitter, and it abounds in alligators and tQrtoises of 
a la?ge size; in it is an island, two leagues lopg % 
abounding with wild goats, and wj«h a. spring of 
fresh water* 

St Domingp is the most fruitful of the West 
India islands, affording excellent pastures, which 
nourish vast herds of cattle, equal iu every respect 
to those of Europe, Ail the natural advantaf es 
q£ the island are, however, moire than counter- 
balanced by the extreme insalubrity of the cli- 
mate, particularly towards the west, arising frpm 
the great beat «*d moisture, and which from the 

ft 8 earliest 



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844 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

k D>min S o. earliest settlement has rendered it the grave o€ 
Europeans. 

The French possessed the western part of the 
island, from the river Massacre on the north coast 
and from the river Neyva on the south. The 
West end of the island forms a deep gulf between ■ 
two peninsulas. At the extremity of the north- 
ernmost, which is rocky and barren, are the har- 
bour and town of St. Nicholas, the former capable 
of receiving the largest fleets land-locked. The 
town is on the south shore, at the entrance of a 
ravine, ddwn which rushes a stream of water run- 
ning through the town. 

Leogane is a good town, surrounded by a wall 
with ten bastions ; it is situated half a league from 
the sea, near a lake, which renders it very un- 
healthy. St. Marks also, in the western gulf, is 
a well built town, but being surrounded by hills 
autF close to swamps, is one of the most deadly 
places of the island. 

Port au Prince, at the head of the gulf, was the 
Seat of the French government : the road for large 
ships is- within a group named Prince's Islands, 
which, together with the island Gonaives, in the 
gulf, intercept the sea breeze from the town, anci 
render it excessively hot, while the neighbouring 
inangrove swamps exhale putrid miasma. 

Le Grand arid le Pfetit Goave were two small 
settlements, on the south shore of the gulfj witK 
each an excellent port. ^ 

Jeremie, on the south shore of the golf, is si- 
tuated oh the side of a hill, at the m&uth €>f a 

brook, 



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WEST INDIA ISLANDS;: 9A$ 

brook, and- is considered one of the healthiest * zx,*,.^. 
spots of the island. 

The extremity of the southern peninsula forms 
two points, the northern named Cape Donna Ma* 
rie, and the southern Cape Tiburon (shark). 

St. Louis is an inconsiderable village on the 
south coast, near the west end, with a harbour for 
ships of the line. 

On the north coast the principal places of the 
French were Port de Paix. 

Cape Francois, before its destruction by the 
Negroes,^ was the handsomest town of the island \ 
it is situated on a promontory at the extremity of 
& plain, four miles broad to the foot of the moun* 
tains : it contained 8,000 whites. Its harbour is 
within several reefs, that break the force of the sea. 

Fort Dauphin, or Bayalia, on Manchanel Bay, 
js the last place of the French, their limits being 
Massacre river, a little east of this port. 

The places deserving*notice on the Spanish part 
.of the island are on the north coast : Spanish 
Town, at the mouth of the river St. Yago, much 
frequented by American Vessels during the war, f 
to ship the produce of the French part of the 
island, under cover of its being Spanish. 

Port St. Yago is a regularly built town of stone 
and brick, on an elevation on the bank of the 
Yaqui. Samana bay, on the N. £• side of the 
island, is formed by the peninsula of Samana on 
the north ; it has some good ports, and its en- 
trance being narrowed by rocks, it may be easily 
fortified. 

r 3 St. 



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6*6 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

«. D^i. St. Domingo, on the south coast, the chief placfe 
of the Spaniards, is built on a rocky point at the 
mouth of the river Ozama j the streets are at right 
angles, N. and S. and E. and W. and have footways 
of brick. The greatest part of the town is built 
of a marble found in the neighbourhood, and in 
the style of the ancient houses of Spain and Italy ; 
the more modern houses are of clay, which ac- 
quires the hardness of stone, or of wood thatched 
with palm tree leaves. The ruins of a house of 
hewn stone, erected by Diego Columbus, the son 
of Christopher, are still seen ; but so little vene- 
ration have the Spaniards for it, that the lower 
etage is used as a cow-house. Hie cathedral is a. 
noble gothic building, erected between 151-2 and 
3540 ; it contained the ashes of Columbus until 
1796t when they were removed. The reckoned 
population of the town is only 20,000, but it is 
probably double that number. 

The fortifications are numerous and well placed, 
and the town is surrounded by a thick wall. The 
fcarbour is at the mouth of the river, and vessels 
entering must pass within hail of a fort on each 
*ide. The bay before the port is filled with reefs, 
on which the sea breaks furiously. 

The east point of the island is Cape Engano. 
The islands near St. Domingo are, Tortugas, or 
Turtle Island, opposite Port au Paix, on the N. W. 
ee&dof the island, already noticed as the grand 
rendezvous of the Buccaneers j it is eight leagues 
long and two and a half broad, with a good har- 
bour on the south. The two Gonaives are in the 

gulf 



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W*ST INDIA ISLANDS. £4JT 

gu^f at the west end of the island j the largest is 
ten leagues long, east and west, and two broad, 
t^uxen, and uninhabited. 

Saona island, five miles from the S.E. end of 
St. Domingo, is seven leagues long and four broad; 
the channel between it and the main is only fit for 
'small praft. 



PORTO RICO. 

1 The form of Porto Rico is that of an oblong 
square, its greatest length being forty-one leagues 
east and west, and breadth fifteen leagues north 
and south. A chain of mountains runs through 
its whole length, with some branches diverging to 
the north and south, and extending to the coasts. 
The whole of these mountains are covered with 
wood, and in their intervals are fertile vajlies and 
plains, watered by more than fifty rivers and ri- 
vulets, in whose sands gold dust is found, and 
four of the former are navigable two leagues from 
their mouth. The highest summits of the moun. 
tains are called the Peaks of Layoonita, which 
are often covered with snow, and are seen far 
at sea. 

The north coast is generally lined by a coral 
reef under water, at a little distance from the 
shore. The east coast is indented with many 
bays, formed by the continual action of the waves. 
A chain of about fifty small islands, extending 
twelve leagues in length, lay off the N.E. coast, 

r 4 and 



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£ 4& MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

****** and serve a& rendezvous for smugglers, ■ butcannot 
be approached by large vessels. 

The population of the island is estimated at 
about 136,000 individuals, composed of European 
and creole whites, who, taken collectively, do 
not exceed 15,000 of unmixed blood, 103,500 
Creoles of mixed blood and free people of colour, 
and 17,500 slaves. 

The wild animals are hogs, dogs, rats, all of 
which were originally brought to the island by 
European vessels. 

The productions of the island are very trifling 
in comparison with its extent and natural fertility, 
and may be estimated at 4,500 quintals of sugar, 
2,000 quintals of cotton, and 20,000 quintals of 
coffee ; the other vegetable productions are Tice, 
Indian corn, and tobacco. A great part of the 
island is under pasture, and a vast number of cat- 
tle are reared to supply the English West Indies 
and America. 

Before 1778 the commerce of Porto Rico with 
Spain was inconsiderable, and confined to some 
coffee and hides, not exceeding in value ^5,000*^ 
and though to these articles have since been added 
sugar, cotton, gayac, and fruit, the whole amount 
x>f exports to Spain is. still infinitely below what it 
must be if a free trade were permitted. On the 
contrary, the Spanish vessels are only allowed to 
visit St. John's, and the whole trade of the rest 
of the island is in the hands of foreign smugglers 
from Jamaica, St. Croix, and St. Thomas. 

The revenue raised in the island is but rf80,00O 
* 4 sterling, 



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Sterling, while the expenses are £565,000, of which **£* 
^58,000 for the military establishment, consisting 
of a regiment of regular infantry from Europe, 
and 2000 island militia. rfl00;000 is received in 
dollars annually from Mexico, and the surplus 
after paying the deficit of the revenue, is applied 
to general public purposes. 

St, Juan de Porto Rico, the capital of tbe island, 
is situated on the north coast on the west point of 
an islot, joined to the main by a bridge* It con- 
tains six straight streets from north to south, iii- * # 
tersected by six others at right angles. The houses 
of the first class are of stone, large and open, but 
wretchedly furnished- The public buildings are 
a cathedral and other churches, two convents of 
monks, one of nuns, and a general hospital. The 
fortifications are numerous and strong. 

The harbour or road is three miles long and 
one and ? quarter broad, and capable of contain- 
ing 3 to 400 vessels ; its depth is from two to se- 
ven fathoms. The channel is winding and intri- 
cate, and is buoyed oft*; two islots, Cabarita and 
Cabras, and many rocks level with the water, ren- 
der it still more dangerous, and make a pilot ne- 
'cessary. AH vessels entering are obliged to pass 
within gun-shot of the Morro, from whence they 
are hailed. 

The other points of the island worthy of no- 
tice are the river Gurabo at the west end, noticed 
for the death of Salcedo drowned in it by the In* 
diam in 1511, in order to discover whether or not 
the Spaniards were immortal. 

The 



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The Bay of Quamca, on the south coast, J* >a 
excellent port with a narrow entrance* 

Near the village of Caomo, on the considerable 
river of the same name, and on the south coast, 
13 a warm sulphureous spring whose tempeiAture 
is 95°. 

The Rio Lovisa is one of the largest rivers of 
the island, having fourteen leagues course, and is 
navigable for large boats. 

The principal capes of the island are, Punta 
Borriquen, the N. W. point, surrounded by reefs ; 
Cape Roxo, the S. W. point ; Cape St. John, the 
N.E. point ; Cape de M alapasqua, or St Francis, 
the S.E. point. 

The small islands dependant on Eorto Rico are 
Bieque or Crab Island, five leagues from Cape 
Pinera, the east point of the island ; it is seven 
leagues long and two leagues wide, and covered 
with wood The English attempted to settle on 
this island towards the close of the seventeenth 
century, but were attacked by the Spaniards, who 
murdered all the men, and carried the women and 
children to Porto Rico. The Danes also attempt- 
ed an establishment in 1717, and the English a 
second time in the same year, but they were both 
driven off by the Spaniards. The island has since 
remained uninhabited, but is frequented both by 
the English and Danes to cut wood. 

The Tropic Keys are a cluster of small islands 
north of Bieque, named from the number of tro- 
pic birds that frequent them. Great Passage 
island, seven miles north of Bieque ; off its N.E* 

end 



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WEST INDIA ISLAM*. t5% 

end are Little Passage Island, and West Key. Ser- 
pent^ or Green Island, six miles from the east 
side of Porto Rico, is one league long, low and 
covered with Wood. 

The channel that separates Porto Rico from St. 
Domingo is fifteen leagues broad, nearly in the mid- 
dle, and on the south are the islands Mona and Mo- 
nica, or LittleMona, the channel between which and 
Porto Rico is called the Mona Passage : it is eight 
leagues wide. Mona Island is three leagues in 
circumference and has plenty of fresh water. 



JAMAICA. 

Jamaica, the most considerable as well as by 
far the most valuable of the British West-India 
Islands, is separated from the west end of St. 
Domingo, by the channel called by English sea- 
men the Windward Passage.* The island is 150 
miles long and forty broad, containing 4,080,000 
acres; or wmen, 

690,000 acres are under sugar canes, and wood 
for the use of the sugar- works. 

700,000 in pasture. 

350,000 all other species of agriculture. 






1,740,000, leaving upwards, of two millions of 

z t acres 

• The Windward Passage continues between Cuba and §t. Bominpo* and 
through the Bahama! by the Crooked Island Passage into the Atlantic. 
Good sailing nhips only attempt tills passage from Kingston, in caniefoenee 
€rf the difficulty of beating round the east end of Jamaica. The common 
; is through the gulf of Florida. * 



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&§& MARITIME GECKTRATHUf. 

•***•. acres of unproductive land, of which hot above 
a quarter is ftnprovabk, the greater part of the 
interior of the island being inaccessible moun- 
tain. 

An elevated ridge, called the Blue Mountains, 
uuns through the island longitudinally, and is 
covered with vast forests of mahogany, lignum 
vitae, iron wood, log-wood, brazilletto, and many 
other heavy and close grained species, fit for cabi- 
net works. On the north, at a small distance 
from the sea, the land rises in* small round topped 
hills, feathered with spontaneous groves of pi- 
mento, under whose shade is a beautiful turfy 
carpet. This side of the island is also finely 
yratered, every valley having its rivulet and every 
hill its cascade, many of which tumble from over- 
banging cliffs into the sea. In the back ground $ 
vast amphitheatre of forest presents itself, melt- 
ing gradually igto the distant Blue Mountains, 
,whose heads are lost in the clouds. On tliQ south 
coast the picture is more sublime, but less pleas*- 
ing. The mountains approaching the sea in stupen- 
dous ridges, first present to the navigator a scene 
of magnificent savageness ; but on nearing the 
land the picture softens, cultivated spots being 
perceived on the sides of the hills, and at last the 
vast savannahs, covered with sugar canes, stretch- 
ing from the sea to the foot of the mountains, 
offer the pleasing indication of human industry. 

The island has upwards of a hundred rivers, 
rising in the mountains and running with torrent 
nmidity to the sea on both sides of the island. 

This 



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WISH* m«™ ISLANDS. - , £53* 

This rapidity, as w^U as the ol^tructions from 
rocks, renders- them unnavigable by'any thing but 
canoes. The deepest is Black River on the south 
coast, which flows gently through a considerable* 
tract oftevftl country, and is navigable by flat boats 
thirty miles. The inland has also some medicinal 
springs warm, sulphureous, and chalybeate* 

Many appearances of metals are observed in the 
island, but the industry of the English colonists 
has always been more wisely employed in the 
certain profits of agriculture than* in the lottery of 
mines. * 

-The qlimate of Jamaica, even on the coasts, is 
temperate, the medium heat at Kingston. through; 
out the year being 80? .and the least .70 °- In a&* 
cendmg .towards the mountains; the temperature 
quickly alters with the elevation eight miles from 
Kingston, the maximum is but 70°; at fourteen 
miles Where the elevation is . 4,200 feet, the gene- 
ral range k fifty-five to sixty-five, and the mioftnum 
fn winter. 44°. On the highest summit, called 
Blue Mountain Peak, 7431 feet above ^the sea, 
the range-in the summer is from 47° at sunrise, to 
58° at -noon, and the ftiinimum in winter is 42°. 
x Besides the staple exports of Jamaica, consisting 
of sugar, indigo, cc^Tee and cotton, the cultivate^ 
vegetables are maize, Guinea corn, and calavances, 
for the food of the negroes ; and almost all * the 
kitchen vegetables of Europe, besides m^ny indT- 
genous ones, as the sweet potatoe, yam, eddoe 
root, callaloo (a kind of spinach, and ther toro^ 
monest substitute for greens), cassaVaV okery, 'ScqJ* 
r: Few 



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Few of the t^nrthern European fruits thrive, but 
the iodigenoiA ones are numerous and delictus ; 
the principal are, the plantain, cocoa-nut, guava, 
tour-sop, sweet-sop, papaw, custard apple, mam- 
mee apple, avocado pear, star apple, cashew apple, 
granadilla, prickly pear, pine apple, &c. The 
orange, lime, lemon, mango, and grape have been 
naturalized, as well as the cinnamon tree, of which 
there are now considerable plantations* Hie 
horned cattle, sheep and hogs of the island am 
abundant and their flesh excellent. 

Progressive population of Jamaica: 

Whtai. ftrte p*>frta of colour. Sltfet. 

1658. . . . 4,500 . . 00 1,400 

1670... • 7,500..... 00 8,000 

I7*5»« • • • /,04nK« ••••••••• Uv/« ••••••• «0>l*u 

1746. . . . 10,000 00 112,48# 

1768.... 17,947... 00. 176,91*4 

1775 18,500 3,700. 190,914 

1787.... 80,000 10,000 250,000 

1805.... — — 280,000 

The official value of the imports from Jamaica 
into England, and exports to the island : 

Imports. Exports. 

1809 . . . ..... .£4,068,897 ^£3,033,284 

1810 4.303,337 .., 2,303,179 

The principal objects of export from the island 
were* 

Coffee Sugar. Rum. Pimento. ' Cotton. 

art. art. ftU. U*. U»- 

1809 .214/115. . 1,104,612. .3,470,250. . 2,219,367. . 1,886,748 
1810 . 252,808. . 1,611,422. .3,428,452. .2,372,964. . 1,798,172 

In 



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• In 1807i when the exports were^canewhat icffe- 
riot 'to the above yean* the ■ number t>f vessel, that 
cleared out from the island vast 

For Great Britain fi43, . 63,471. . 7,74* 

Eorlrelaad ... 10.. 1,251.. dt. 

Far .British America 66.. 6,193., 449 

For ,the United States 133. . 1 3,041. . 493 

Foj: the Foreign West Indies. S£.. 1,903.. yuk 
ftwAfrica.. 1.. 109.. a 

' Total 47*. 1 85,888. . 9,344 

The revenue of the island is about ,£125,000, 
by a capitation tax on the free people, a tax oh 
negroes, and a duty on rum. 

Jamaica is divided into three counties, 'viz* 

Middlesex . . . 8 parishes, . 1 town. . . 13 villages. 

Surrey 7 . 2 ....... . 8 . m \ . : /, 

Cdrnlrafi 5 3 6 • '_ 

^ The capital of the island is St. Jago de la Vega, 
or Spanish Town, on the River Cobre, six miles 
from the south coast, and in the county of Mid* 
dieses. ^ It contains about 5,000 inhabitants, and 
is tfce residence of the governor, whose palace t i# 
a magnificent building. 

The two towns \>f the county of Surrey ar^ 
Kingston and Port Royal. The latter is sitwted 
on a narrow sandy peninsula that separates iJRorjt 
Royal Bay from Kingston Harbour, In J 09- *hp 
town contained 2,000 houses, when an eartlHjuake 
swallowed nine-tenths of it, covering the houses with 

seven 



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seven faffcoms water i It was immediately rebuilt, 
•bat ten years after was destroyed by fire ; and b»- 
ing again rebuilt, wets a third time destroyed . by a 
hurricane in 1722* This succession of calamities 
caused the inhabitants to remove to Kingston, on 
the west side of the harbour, five miles from 'Port 
Royal ; and here the chief government offices 
have been built, but the royal naval arsenal, for 
careening and refitting ships, is at Port Royal. 

The town of Kingston contains about 1,700 
well built houses t the harbour can hold 1,006 
ships, and those of 200 lay at the quays. Both 
the harbour and bay are protected by string fjtfti- 
flcations, which place them beyond all possible in* 
suit from an enemy. 

The towns of the county of Cornwall are, Sa- 
vannah le Mar, which being destroyed by the hur- 
ricane of 1780, now contains but sixty to seventy 
houses: it is at the S.W. end of the island. 
Montego Bay Town, on the north coast, contains 
885 houses : seventy large ships and eighty lesser 
vessels load here annually. Falmouth, the third 
town, is also on the north coast, on the south side 
of Martha Brea Harbour ; including the villages 
of Martha Brea and the Rock the number of 
houses is 250. Thirty large ships, besides small 
Vessels, load here for England. 

The villages of Jamaica are generally small 
Camlets on the bays, where the produce is shipped 
in the droggere to be conveyed to the ports of clear- 
ance. 

The few other places worthy of mention ar^ 

Lucea 



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ifatt IfTOIA I3LANDS. 857 

Ltic& Harbour, on the north coast ; Blue-fields '•*« 
Bay, on the soifth coast, three leagues east of Sa* 
Vannah le Mar, the usual rendezvous of the home- 
ward bound convoys ; and Carlisle Bay, also on 
the south coast. 

The chief headlands of the island are Point 
Morant, more generally known to seamen by the 
name of the East End of Jamaica, and famous 
among them for its thunder and lightning squalls. 
Negril by North, and Negril by South, are two 
promontories at the west end of the island. 

The islands deserving mention near Jamaica are • 

the' Pedea Keys and Portland Rock, on a large 
• bank south of the island, and Morant Keys, eight 
leagues S.E. of Morant Point. 



VIRGIN ISLANDS. 

The Virgin Islands are a group consisting of 
six principal islands, and numerous islets and 
rocks, laying between Porto Rico and the Leewafti 
Caribbees. Their name was given to them by the 
Spaniards from the 11,000 virgins of the legend in 
the Romish ritual. They are divided between the 
English, Spaniards^tnd Danes. 

St. Thomas, the N.W. of the Virgin Islands, is 
ten miles long east and west, and five miles broad. 
It is traversed by a chain of hills running 
through it from east to west, with branches diverg- 
ing to the north and south. The destruction of 
fhe woods, which entirely covered these hills, has 

voi;. rv. s dried 



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dj^upalltberuaoiDgstrea|B8, so^Bt^\ejfif§»4 
is $t tynes badly watered, and often subject to e$r 
treme drought, and the town depends on rainr 
Wjtfer preserved in cisterns. 

The island has forty sugar and thirty-four cottpg 
plantations, which give an annual produce of 1 9 409 
hogsheads of sugar, 450 hogsheads of rum, ^#4 
60,000 to 70,000 pounds of cotton; beside* it 
rears a considerable number of cattle. 

The population of the island in 1797 W»* 7$$ 
whites, 239 free people of colour, and 4,7$) &ros» 
The whites are composed of Danes, English^ 
French, Dutch, Germans and Jews, who have all 
their respective places of worship* 

The town is on the south east side, forming 
one long street of 300 to 400 indifferently built 
houses. The harbour is secure from the hurri- 
canes, and capable of holding 150 sail ; it is pro- 
tected by St Christopher's Fort and several bat- 
teries on eminences. The military force is usually 
100 European troops of the line, and 360 colonial 
militia. 

The other anchorages of the island, on the souttj 
aide, are Jerve Bay, east of the town ; Grigri and 
Musquitto Bay, west of the town. On the wea£ 
side, proceeding from the south, are Bush, Bour- 
deaux and Tallard Bay ; on the north west. Carets 
Bay ; on the north east, East End Bay. 

The islands dependant on St Thomas are Green 
Island, on the N.E. ; Bras Island, on the north } 
Great and Little St James, on the east; Buck 
Island, Water Island, Little Saba, Flat Island, Sa- 
vannah- 



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%4ttMA 6r ttoeten Island, Birds Kteysi, ffld the f££i 
Hoyar Gtfvel bf St Thomas a high tko-headed ~ 
rtidt, m the South. 

St. John's, the next considerable telarid, sotitfi 
cast of St. Thomas, from which it is separated by 
St. James Passage, is thirteen miles long and six 
bfoad. 

• This island has twenty-two sugar works* fbrtyk 
four cotton plantations, producing 800 hogsheads 
of sugar, 800 hogsheads of rum, 3,500 pounds of* 
cotton, and some coffee ; it besides rears cattle* 
h& papulation has decreased since 1775. 

1776. 1789. 1797. 

Whites 110. ... 167. .. . 103 

Free people of colour • . # 0. . . . 20. ... 15 
Slaves 2,324. . . . 2,200. . . . 1,922 

2,434 2,387 2,040 

The chief place of the island is the castle, on thq 
gouth east, on a promontory forming two fine 
coves, which are defended by a fort on the north 

{joint of the entrance, and another on Duct Is* 
and close to the south point. 

* The small islands dependant oh St. John's are 
JLavango and the Corn Islands, on the north west, 
between it and St. Thomas, and Witch Island, the 
western of the chain of islands and rocks enclosing 
Sir Francis Drake's Bay, on the south. Birds 
fcey,' Round Island, or Frenchman's Key, a high 
Wet, Jkur miles and a half south of the south point 
of St. John's, axe also in its dependance. 

J .s2 Tobtola 



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\ 



&6Q MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

"•& Tortola is north east of St. John's, and sepa* 
~ rated from it by the King's Channel. It is twelve 
miles long and four broad. It is badly watered* 
and considered unhealthy, but is fruitful. 
Its population was, 

Whites. Free people of colour. Stores. 

1789 1,200 180 &,<XXJ 

1805 1,300 220 9,000 

The official value of its imports and exports 
Were, 

Imports. Exports*. 

1809 .£33,399 «£*2,©09 

1810. 61,520 6,612 

The principal exports from the island were, 

Sugar. Rum. Cotton. 

CWl. flit. ikU 

1809 9,257 16,862 158,167 

1810 31,562 7,711..... .250,797 

The town is on the south east, at the head of 
the only good road in the island, which is called 
the Bay. In 1802 it was declared a free port. 

The small islands dependant on Tortola are the 
Thatch Islands and Frenchman's Key, between it 
and St. John's ; Jost Van Dyke's and Little Van- 
dyke's Islands, on the N.W. j Guana Island and 
Beef Island, on the N.E. 

Virgin Gorda, also called Spanish Town, is 
east of Tortola, from which it is separated by Sir 
Francis Drake's Channel. It is eighteen miles 
long, and of very irregular shape, indented by deep 
bays, forming two peninsulas. 

The 



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• WfcST INDIA ISLANDS. 26l 

. -Th^ lessef islands subject to Virgin Gorda are **•£ 
on the west, between it and Tortola* Commands, — 
Scrubb, Dogs Island and Keys; on the north', 
Musquitto, Nicker, Prickly Pear; on the south 
west, the Fallen City or Old Jerusalem,* Ginger 
Island, Cooper's Island, Salt Island, Deadman's 
Chest, Peter's Island, Normand's Island, and the 
English Keys. 

The clear space between St. John's on the west, 
Tortola on the north, Virgin Gorda and the Fallen 
City on the east, and Normand's, St. Peter's, Salt, 
fed Cooper's Island on the south, is named Sir 
Francis Drake's Bay, It forms an excellant an- 
chorage, completely landlocked, with from ten to 
twenty-five fathoms, 

Anegada, or the Drowned Island, is north of 
Virgin Gorda and dependant on it. It is almos 1 ; 
entirely covered by the sea at high tides, and pro- 
duces only the mangrove. It is also entirely sur- 
rounded by a dangerous reef, except at its west 
extremity, named Freebooter's Point, from its be- 
ing formerly the rendezvous of the Buccaneers. 

Santa Cruz, or St. Croix, is the southernmost of 
fhe Virgin Islands, being four leagues and a half 
south of St. John's. It is six leagues long, and two 
and a half , broad ; containing 51,900 square acres. 
In general it is level, and indifferently watered by 
fifteen very small rivulets, which are dry a part of 

s 3 the 



# A chain of broken islets and rock* , .extending south, from the west 
point of Virgin Gorda: they are covered with stones that scarce require 
sttiy dressing to be employed in building. 



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262 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY, 

ffffi the year. It has no timber, but it fruitftd, and 
— almost entirely cultivated. It is divided into eight 
quarters, and has 345 plantations, of which 150 
are under sugar-cane, and the remainder under 
cotton. The annual produce is estimated at about 
fourteen millions of pounds of sugar, one milliottif 
gallons of rurp, and 12,600 pounds of cotton* 
Coffee, indigo and cotton do not thrive in conse* 
quence of the dryness of the soil, but a considenu 
ble quantity of cattle are reared. 

St. Croix was taken from the Spaniards by th« 
French in 1651, but again almost deserted by then* 
for St Domingo in 1699. In 1?33 Denmark purw 
chased it from France for 160,000 rix-dollars. 
The population is increasing ; 

1775. 1789, ifftr. 

Whites 2,971.. 1,952.. *,«33 

Free people of colour . . . 155. . 953. . 1,664 
Slaves 22,244. . 22,472. . 25,458 



24,670 25,377 29,349 

The revenues amount to about 280,000 rix-doL 
lars, of which the expenses consume two-thirds. 
Besides 200 troops of the line the island can raise 
about 400 color, ial militia. 

Christianstadt, the chief place, is on the west 
side of the island, contains 5,000 inhabitants. The 
harbour is of difficult access, and shoal in seven! 
peaces ; it is defended by the flJrt of Frederic^ 
Sophia, on an islet north of the town, and Louisa 
Augusta, on a neck of land; under the gm» of 

both 



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-1MST 1M0M Itt4K8S. $68 

froth of which Vessels must pass to the anchorage. ,*££ 
tFhe gwirrisoti does not exceed 100 mfen. *" 

Frdderickstadt, on the S.W.* has 1,500 inhabi- 
tants, a fort, and one hundred soldiers. Its road 
ifnopeti, and seldom visited by foreign vessels. 
Besides these plates, the island has fifteen bAy$ 
fandborage. 



-V. 



LEEWARD CARIBBEES. 

hi JSbMBVito, or Hat Island, the north western of 
the Leeward Caribbees, is three leagues in circuit; 
low, ijat, and uninbahited, and covered chiefly 
with mangrove. Its shores are so bold, as to be 
.approachable by a ship within a cable's length. 
. A*GuniLA, or Shake Island, is six leagues long 
jAtod J two hrdad, low and level, and inhabited by 
* fkw families, whose chief employments are rea&» 
ing cattle and collecting salt. It has a tolerable 
road on the lee side. Front its N.E. point a reef 
jfabg out five leagues, joining Prickly Pear Island, 
^besides which other islets lay round Anguilia. . 

St. JfomriN is five leagued long, east and west, 
-and three broad* Though the soil is stony, light; 
jmd badly watered, it is tolerably fertile, pro- 
ducing the best tobacco of the Caribbees : in it$ 
itftaddtfia the candle tree, whose splinters lighted 
give a fragrant smell, and several trees affording 
gbmsi I The north side was occupied by the 
French and the south by the Diitch ? the forrfiei> 
jbobt thirty years since, were £00 white families 

a 4 and 



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Lt***rd 
C*rt*9m. 



tfyk MARITIME GEOGBAFMY- 

and 10,000 slaves ; the Dutch only sixty familiea 
and 200 slaves. The chief place of the latter \ is 
on the N. W. side, and is named the Harbour ; it 
is defended by a small fort < 

On the S.E. side are three salt ponds, affording 
a considerable quantity of this object for com* 
merce. The small islands attached to St* Martin 
are, Middleburg Key, close to the north point, 1 
and the four Mangrove Keys on the East 

St. Bartholomew is five leagues long, E.S.E. 
and W.N.W. and two broad ; it has no water but 
from the rains, abounds in lignum vitas, icon* 
w>od, and other trees; is surrounded by reefs, but 
has a good, harbour. A great portion of its inhabi- 
tants are the descendants of Irish Roman Ca» 
tholics. ; 

Saba is a great rock, four leagues in circuit, 
without any road for ships, and with but one land* 
ing place, at a creek on the south side ; it has a 
few families of Dutch and their slaves. 

From this island a bank extends to the south 
twenty-three leagues, and two leagues broad, with 
seven to twenty fathoms; at its south extremity is 
Aves or Bird's Island, a high rock, frequented by 
sea birds. 

St. Eustatia is a vast round pyramidal moun- 
tain, ten leagues in circuit, without running wa- 
ter; its population, is 5,000 whites and 15,000 
negroes. 

St* Christopher,- or, as it is morp usually call* 
ed by the English, St. Kitts, by the Oaribbs waft 
paved Liamnga, or the fertile; it is nineteen 

. miles 



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WE8T IOTHA iMiAHBT. V6i§ 

long and eight broad, containing 4£,72G 
acres of land. The interior is composted of rug- 
ged and barren mountains, the highest, named 
Mount Misery, being an extinct volcano; with a 
great crater, whose bottom is a level of fifty acrfes, 
e£ * which seven are covered with a lake and the 
rest* with grass and trees, amongst which latter ife 
the mountain cabbage. Streams of hot water, im- : 
pregnated with sulphur, issue from the fissures in 
the crater. 

The soil 'in the vallies is extremely fertile, being 
a decomposed pumice-stone mixed with pure loam 
over a stratum of gravel, nor is clay found, efr 
cept at considerable height on the mountains. 

The island is divided into nine parishes, con- 
taining four towns and villages. Basse Terre, the 
chief place, is on the west side of the island, 
and contains 800 houses. The other places are, 
Sandy-Point Town, at the N.W. point of the island, 
the second port of entry; Old road j and Deep or 
Dieppe bay. 

The population of the island was, 





Whitei. Free people of colour. 


S1AV03. 


1787-. 


f . x,yi^ • . • . i.,yuo . . . i 


,' 20,435 


1805.. 


..1,800 .... 198 .... 


,26,000 



OriMW. 



Tfye value of the imports from the island and 
QKports to it, 

• • Import*. Export*. 

1809. . . * ... j£266,06*. w * . . . ^132,845 
giv. IjBlft...... 253,611 ^.. t ..| . 8&862/I 

uai ' The 



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800 habituce oMoitannr. 

#93*. The principd imports wete, 

Coffee. 8ugar. Rum. Cotton 

1809. . . 433. . « . 166,053. . . . 343,075. . • . 112,3*7 
1810. • .136. . . . 167,943. . • • 220,886 . . . 26,853 

Nairn is separated from the S.E. end of Sb. 
Kitte by a strait, called the Narrows, three main 
broad It is a great mountain, eight miles taog 
and five broad, with a border of low land a pile 
and a half in breadth, well watered and fertile. 
In the centre of the summit of the mountain is 
an ancient crater, and sulphur is frequently found 
in the fissures of the soil. 

The island forms five parishes : the only town it 
Charlotte, at the S*W. end, but it has two other 
shipping {daces, at Indian Castle and New Castle* 
The population was, 

Whites. Free people of colour. Slave*. 

1787 ••.. M14 140.... 8,420 

1805 1,300 150 8,000 

The imports to England and exports frOt* 
thence were, 

Imports. Exports. 

1809 .£89,062 .£20,500 

1810 126,443 11,764 

The principal imports from the island were* 

Ceftte. 8«ar. Ram. Oettoo. 

twt) . c*t. gmlb. Ot; 

1809.... — 68,720.... 52,478. ... 17,463 

1810, ... 18 87,892 67,010. . . . 11,160 

The Hand has no European regular troops, 

but 



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WEST WWA KLJJCD3. €07 

but the white inhabitants foro ail organized mi- 
litia. 

Barbuda, four leagues and a half long 1 and two 
IJroad : it is the property of the Codrington fa- 
mily, who possess on it about 1,500 negroes, tm- 
dfer the superintendence of two or three whites, 
to breed sheep and raise vegetables for the other 
ial&nds. 

Antigua is nearly round, and about twenty 
leagues in circuit: k is flat, and totally without 
either stream or spring, the inhabitants depending 
entirely oa the rain water preserved in cisterns. 
The island contains six parishes* with each its 
towji or village. St John's, tha chief place on the 
g. W. is the usual residence of the governor of the 
Leeward Islands ; it is situated at the head o£ a 
Iqng spd narrow harbour, whose entrance iff cros- 
sed by t a bar, with only fourteen feet. The other 
towns are, Parham, on the north, Falmouth, Wil- 
loughby on the south, and James Fort ; the: two 
first are ports of entry. At English Harbour, on 
the sputh, is a royal naval depot, where ships of 
war careen. 

The population, in 1774, was 2,390 whites. and 
57,8d8 slaves ; in 1800 the latter had increased to 
60,000. ' " 

The imports from the island to England, and 
the exports from the latter, were, 

Imports. Exports. 

'-'*■ 1809 .£198,121 ...... £21^,000 ' 

1810 285,458 182,392' 

The 



L*w*4 



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$68 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

iaHSii The principal imports were, 

Coffee. Sugar. Rum. Cotton. 

cwt. cut. gaili. /*#. 

1809. . . 309. . . . 106,150. . . . 14S,«£3. . . . 112,016 
1810... 40. ... 188,799. .. • 77,092.... 39,880 

The military establishment of the island is two 
regiments of regular infantry, and two of islandf 
militia. 

. There are many rocky islets round Antigua, of 
which no use is made. The Redondo is a great 
rock, three leagues in circuit, steep to and with 
good landing, but uninhabited : some banks north 
and west of it abound in fish. 

Montserrat is three leagues long and two 
broad, containing 30,000 acres, of which two 
thirds are mountainous and barren, the remainder 
is under sugar, cotton, and pasture. The town is 
on the S.W. side, and it has also three roads for 
ships, Plymouth, Old Harbour, and Kers Bay. 

The population was, 

Whites. Free people of colour. Slares; 

1787 .... 1,300 .... 260 ... . 10,000 
1805 .... 1,000 .... 250 ... . 9,500 

The official value of the imports from the island 
into England, and exports to the island, were, 

Imports Exports,, 

1809 .£35,407 «£i0,460 

1810 62,462 16,816 

The principal imports of the island produce 
were, 

Sugar. 



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WEST INDIA ISLANIW. 269 . 

Sugar. Rum. Cotton. c£S£L 

cwt, galls. ##. — ■ 

1809. . . . 21,917 .... 51482 .... 29,455 
. 1810 41,112 .... 48,880 .... 48,313 

Guadaloupk is properly two islands separated 
by a small strait or arm of the sea, called the Salt 
River, two leagues long and only fifteen to forty 
fathoms wide, vessels of forty to fifty tons can 
pass through it, and the inhabitants cross it in a 
ferry boat 

The westernmost island is eleven leagues long 
north and south, and six leagues broad. It h&$ 
mountains of such elevation that the cold is con- 
siderable on their summits: many of them are ex- 
tinct volcanoes, and among them in the middle 
region, is a track called the Sotsffriere, or ffolfa* 
terra, which emits smoke. This -division of the 
island has not less than fifty rivers, which empty 
themselves into the sea, and innumerable rivulets 
descending from the mountains and fertilizing the 
vallies. The west side of the island is named 
Basse Terre, and the East Cabes Terre. 

The second island lies to the N.E. of the first, 
and is named Grand Terre, it is twelve leagues 
long, W.N.W. and E.S.E., and four leagues broad; 
it has not a single running stream, the inhabitants 
depending on their cisterns for water saved in the 
rains, and the cattle on the swamps. 
The population was, — 

Whites . 



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t f?0 K AMTIME GEOGftAtttY. 

— Whites 13,261 13,466 

Free people of colour. . 1,382 3,044 

Slaves 85,327 85,461 

■ 1 , mi ill III! 

99,970 101,971 

Hie sugar of this island is considered infefSttfc 
to that of Martinique, but its coffee superior to 
that of St. Domingo. 

The exports in 1788, including the produce of 
Mariegalante, the Saintes, and Deseada, were to 
France,— 

Qmfotafc. Francs. 

Rawsugar 11,194 480,000 

Chyed. 64,366 3,715,000 , 

Head 76,511 3,154,000 

Coflee 37,300 4, 103,000 

Cotton, 7,411 1,482*000' 

Indigo. 7 6,000 . 

Sundries — 188,000 * ■ 

Exported by foreigners — 1,599,000 

Value of imports from France. . 5,362,000 
By foreigners, 3,424,000 



8,786,000 
Thp chief place of the S.W. island is 
Terre on the lee side 

The principal place of the N.E. island! or 
Grand Terre, is Port k Pitre on the S.W. 
There are some insignificant islets round Gua- 

daloupe ; 



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WBST INDIA ISLANDS. «7l 

4aIoupe ; the most considerable are two named £$** 
Petit Terrd S.E. of the east point of the Grand — 
Tare. 

Deseada, two leagues distant from the east 
point of Guadaloupe, is four leagues long and 
two broad, with a sandy soil, producing only a 
little coffee and cotton. In 1788 it contained 
919 whites, thirty-three people of colour, and 
619 slaves. 

. The Sainxbs are six rocky islets, three leagues 
south east of the south point of Basse Terte 
(Guadaloupe,) The N.E. is called the Upper 
Saint, and is four miles in circumference. The 
S.W. or Lower Saint, is three miles in circum- 
ference, and has two good landing-places at 
greeks, and a village with a neat church. Be* 
tween these two is a third, a great rock. 

They form among them a secure harbour, but 
with Kttle depth. They are subject to Guada- 
loupe, and were inhabited in 1788 by 419 whites, 
twenty free people of colour, and 865 slaves* 
Their produce is just sufficient cotton and coffee 
to enable the inhabitants to support themselves. 

Mariegai^ante is four leagues long, north and 
south, and three leagues broad ; though it has se- 
veral rivulets and ponds, they sometimes dry and 
leave it without water. The east side is lined by 
rocks, which are respited to by innumerable tro- 
pic birds. The west coast is level and clean. 

Thejopulation in 1788 was 1,938 whites, 226 
free people of colour, and 10,121 slaves. 

It 



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#79 IfAKIXmE 'GEOGRAPHY. 

It produces about 1000 hogsheads of sugar, 
and a considerable quantity of tobacco. I 

In 1788, Mariegalante and the French part of 
St Martin's exported to France, — 

Sugfcr 4,784,0©0ib6. ) 

Coffee 636,000 

Cotton 230,000 

Cocao 55,000 

Indigo 30,000 

Besides considerable quantities of all these ar- 
ticles taken off by foreigners. 

The principal place is Santa Anna. 

Dominica is twenty-nine miles long and thir- 
teen broad, containing 186,436 acres, of which 
however a considerable portion is high and rugged 
hills, and the soil of the vallies being generally 
light and stony, is more calculated to the raising 
coflee than sugar. Several of the mountains are 
unextinguished volcanoes, which frequently dis- 
charge burning sulphur, and from which issue hot 
springs ; the island has thirty rivers, and a great 
number of rivulets. In the mountain woods are 
innumerable swarms of bees, which lodge in the 
trees, and produce great quantities of honey and 
wax ; these insects are of the European specifes^ 
and must have been transported to the island, the 
native West-Indian bee being of a much smaller 
species, without sting, and different in its man- 
ners. • 

The island is divided into ten parishes, Char- 
lotte Town, Roseau of the French, the chief 

placfe 



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yrssT INDIA ISLANDS, *7« 

place is on a point of land between two bays on 
the S.W. side of the island. It has 500 houses, 
Portsmouth, or Prince Rupert's bay, on the N.W. 
side of the island, is the only other town. 
The population was as follows, — 

Whites. Free people of colour. 8Iaves. 

1787 1,236 445 14,967 

1805 1,594 2,822 22,083 

The imports from the island to England, and 
the exports from the latter were, 

Imports. Exports. 

1809 £315,584 .£161,291 

1810. 282,002 39,686 

The principal imports were, 

Coffee. Sugar. Rum. Cotton. 

art, cwt. guilt. lbs, 

1809 . . 3,254 41,990. . . . 56,356. . . . 75,425 

1810.. ..27,185 .... 61,522..,. . 39,397- • • . 59,7*2 
The position of Dominica renders it of great 
consequence to England in war with France, for a 
squadron stationed at Prince Rupert's Bay may ef- 
fectually cut off the communication between Mar- 
unique apa uuaaaioupe. 



WINDWARD CAR1BB&ES. 

Martinique, or Martinico, is thirty-six miles 
long, and seventeen broad. The south coast pre- 
sents high and steep mountains, without wood. 
Irregular ramifications of these mountains cross 
the general chain, and projecting into tfie sea, 
form bays, called by the French Cub de Sac. * 
The north and south-east sides are lined with 
vol. iv, T rocky 



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374 MABITCMB 6E0G&APHY4 

Sh££? rocky islets ; but the south-west is cleaa. It has 
40 rivers, some of which are navigable a good way, 
and never run dry ; but, on the contrary, in the 
rainy season, often overflow, and do considerable 
damage. 

A few families of Caribbs still exist on this 
island, but seclude themselves in the woods, hav- 
ing little communication with the whites or ne- 
groes. 

The population was, 

1779. 1786. 

Whites 11,619 10,603 

Free people of colour 2,892 4,851 

Slaves 71,268 73,416 

85,775 88,871 

The coffee of this island is considered the best 
of the West India growth, being the produce of 
plants originally introduced from Arabia in 1726. 
The sugar is inferior to that of St. Domingo, 

The exports to France in 1788 were , 

Quintals. Francs. 

Raw sugar 18,795 686,000 

Clayed 137,945 8,027,000 

Head 119,453 3,049,000 

Coffee 68,161 8,315,000 

Cotton 11,550 2,355,000 

Indigo 10 10,000 

Sundries 675,000 

Produce taken off by foreigners 7>717,000 

The imports from France were. . 15,133,000 

By foreigners 9,198,000 

. . Fort 



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WEST INDIA ISLANDS. 275 

Port Royal, the chief place, is on the middle of 
the west side, on a narrowneck of land, project- 
ing out from the bottom of a deep bay. 

This neck, which bends round in the form of 
a man's arm, together with another, called Monk's 
Island, forms a safe harbour, the entrance of which 
is protected by forts on each point, whose fires 
cross* The harbour is also commanded by Fort 
Bourbon, on a hill, behind the town. The situa* 
tion is unhealthy, being surrounded by marshes. 

St. Pierre, seven leagues N. W. of Port Royal, 
is the second place of the island : its road is open, 
and consequently unsafe in the hurricane months ; 
and besides ships are obliged to anchor a consider* 
able distance from the town. The latter is built 
on a narrow strip of low land, which forms the 
beach ; the hills rising so close behind it, as nearly 
to overhang the houses. It contains three streets, 
parallel to the beach/ and some transverse ones; 
but these latter are so steep as not to admit car- 
riages. The hills are furrowed by deep ravines, 
through which descend little torrents, the waters 
of which are conducted through the streets, and 
both keep them clean and refresh the atmosphere, 
which would otherwise be intensely hot, from the 
sea breeze being interrupted by the hills. The 
houses are plain, built of stone, and with one or 
two stories. The population is about 30,000. 

Trinity Bay, on the west side of the island, has 
safe anchorage in the hurricane months. It has 
a flourishing town. 

t 2 Robert's 



y*" m,tmttmm<l 

wr mowtn 

Caribbcn. 



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C**kktm. 



276 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

Robert's Bay, on the east, is a good port, formed 
by two islands. 

Off the N.W. point is a large rock, called the 
Pearl ; and off the S. W. «| mile, another, called 
the Diamond (Devil Island, or Isle de Barque of 
the French), which has the shape of a sugar-loaf, 
with the top broken off, and has only a boat's 
passage between it and the main. This rock is 
600 feet high, and one mile in circumference. The 
south, south-west, and east sides are inaccessible, 
rising perpendicularly from the sea ; and the west 
side, where is the only landing, is lined by break- 
ers. It was taken possession of by the English 
in 1804, while blockading Martinique; and, with 
immense labour, three batteries, mounting twenty* 
four pounders, were constructed on it, to command 
the whole bay, 

St. Lucie, or St. Lucia, is eight leagues long and 
four leagues broad. The interior is very moun- 
tainous, two points of which are called the pin 
heads. The island in general is fertile and well 
watered. 

The population was 

1777- 1788. 

Whites 2,300 2,159 

Free people of colour . ♦ 1,050 1,588 
Slaves 16,000 17,221 

19,850 20,968 
The exports in 1787 were, to France 

Quintals. 

Raw sugar 16,660 

Clayed 



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WEST INDIA ISLANDS. 277 

Quintal*. WM*vd 

Clayed 33,340 "^ 

Coffee 15,600 

Cotton 2,000 

Cacao...: 953 

Indigo 250 

Total value four millions of francs, besides sun- 
dry small productions, and what was smuggled out 
of the island. 

Le Carenage, the chief place of the island, is 
about the middle of th$ west side. Nature has 
here formed a spacious and secure harbour, in 
which thirty sail of the line may lay in perfect 
safety during the hurricane months, and the largest 
ships may heave down by the shore. The entrance 
is so narrow, that but one ship can enter at a time, 
and the wind blowing constantly out, she must be 
towed or warped in. 

St. Vincent is twenty-three miles long, and 
eighteen broad, containing 84,000 acres, of which 
nearly one half consist of mountains incapable of 
improvement. The island is sufficiently Watered 
by twenty small rivers, turning sugar-mills. 

The island is divided into five parishes, with one 
town, named Kingston, on the S.W., and three in- 
significant villages. The population, in 1787> was 
1450 whites and 11,853 negroes, In the same 
year the exports of the island sold for ,£186,450 
in England. T*hey were composed Of coffee 634 
cwt., cotton 761,880 lbs., sugar 65,000. cwt, rum 
88,000 gallons, and cocoa 143 eM. 
The peace establishment of the island ** a regi- 
; t3 ment 



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Cariibet$. 



278 MABITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

ment of regular infantry, and a company of artil- 
lery, besides a Negro corps, raised in the island, 
and a militia of two regiments, serving without 
pay. The governor's salary is .£2,000. 

Grenada is twenty-seven miles long and fifteen 
broad : its surface is broken and hilly ; but it is gene- 
rally fertile, and has twenty-six rivers, emptying 
themselves into the sea, all capable of turning sugar 
mills ; besides many rivulets, issuing from a lake 
on the summit of a hill. 

The population of this island, including the Gre- 
nadines under its jurisdiction, was 

Years. Whites. Free People Slftvas. 

of Colour. 

1777. 1300 35,000 

17S7 996 1125 23,926 

1805 1100 800 20,000 

The official values of the imports from the island 
to England, and the exports from the latter, were 

1809 Imports j£4S9,458 Exports ^189,800 

1810 — 888,936 — 173,366 

The principal imports were 

Coffee. Sugar. Row. Cotton. 

act. act. galtt. to*. 

1809 2892 210,037 642,310 1,155,000 

1810 1193 215,262 546,825 588,362 

Grenada is divided into six parishes, and has 
one town and several villages. The former, named 
George Town, Fort Royal of the French, is on ^ 
spacious bay on the west or lee side of the island, 
and possesses one of the best harbour? of the Wefct 
Indies* named the Carenage, in which ships lay 

land- 



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WB8T INDIA WVA*D3< 979 

lfm&ktcked in dejep water, close to the wharfs. £}■££ 
The town is handsomely built of brick, and di- — 
vided into two parts, by an elevated ridge run- 
ning through the neck of land on which it is built ; 
one part called the Bay Town, and the other the 
Carenage. On the, $>oint of the neck of land is 
an old stone fort, built by the first French settlers, 
and capable of holding a regiment. The town and 
port is also defended by several modern works. 
George Town was declared a free port in 1739. 

GrenviUe Bay Town is the other port of entry 
of the island, having a separate custom-house 
establishment. The villages are generally on the 
shipping bays round tfie island. 

The Grenadines* or Greftadillas, are a chain of 
amalL islands and rocks between St. Vincent's and 
Grenada, and whose jurisdiction is divided be- 
tween these islands. Those belonging to St Vin- 
cent's are Young's Island ;, Bequia or Crab Island, 
S700 acres, has: an excellent port, named Admi- . 
ralty Bay ; Maillereau, Balleseau, Canneqvan, 
1777 aqres; Musquito, 1203 acres ; Maycro, Union, 
2150 acres ; Frigate Island, arid Little Martinique. 

The islands in the government of Grenada are 
Cariacoa, seven leagues in circuit, forming a 
parish, with a town, n^med Hillsborough ; Round 
Island, the Diamond, andLevora, These islands 
are without running water. Bequia and Cariacoa 
afford some sugar, and the others a little cotton. 

Barbadoes lies considerably to the east of the 

general chain of the Caribbees. Its length is only 

t4 twenty- 



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CariUmw. 



280 MARITIME GBO&RAPfttf . 

twenty-one miles north and south, and its breadth 
fourteen miles, containing 106,470 square acres. 
f This island rises gradually from the sea to an 
elevation in the centre* which scarce deserves the 
name of hill* With the exception of a few ra- 
vines, it is every where capable of cultivation. 
The soil is a thin layer of earth covering a cal- 
careous rock, and is so exhausted by cultivation, 
that it is only by force of manure that sugar 
(which is its chief production) is raised* This 
manure is principally the sea weeds thrown up on 
the beaches* 

The island has few streams that deserve the 
name even of rivulets, but is watered by springs, 
which, however, occasionally dry up* 

The population of this island has greatly de* 
creased within the last century* In 1676, fifty 
years only after its receiving an English colony, 
it contained th<* extraordinary population of 50,000 
whites and 100,000 slaves* Its later population 
has been, 

Whites. Free people of colour} Mares. 

1786..*. 16,167;... 838.... 62,115 
1805,... 15,000.... 2,130.... 60,000 

In 1737 the produce of the island sold for half 
a million sterling in England. The official value 
of the imports from and exports to the island in 

Import*, Exports. 

1809 £4,50,000 .£288,000 -1 

1810 271,000...... 8H,000 

The 



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WEs? india ifeAiiftit £81 

The fmncipal objects of import from the island c£*t£ 

were* :' ■ • " • ' ~" 

Coffee. Sugar* Sqiu Cotton. 

cwt. cwt. galls. Ibt. 

Ifii09 3,471. . * 139,717. * • 19,964. . . 1,360,000 

1810. . . . 308. . . 181,440. . . 7,909. . . 1,454,000 

The island id divided into eleven parishes, con- 
taining four towns, viz. Bridgetown, Qstea's or 
Chajtfestown, St- James's, and Speight's town. 
Bridgetown, the capital, is at the mouth of a little 
rivulet that falls into Carlisle bay, on the S.W. 
side of the island. 

Speight's town, on the N*W., is defended by 
three forts. Besides these towns there are villages 
at Consett's point, the east point of the island, 
and at St. Andrew's and St. Joseph's. 

The salary of the governor of Barbadoes is 
m,QOQ. 

Tobago is twenty-seven leagues distant from 
Grenada, and seventeen leagues from Trinidad. 
It is eleven leagues long, N.E* and S.WV, and 
three leagues broad. Its surface is less irregular* 
than in most of the other islands, and the accli- 
vities less abrupt. The soil is in general light 
and sandy, but fertile, and sufficiently watered by 
springs. Nearly in the centre of the island is a 
hill, whose reddish black colour denotes th§ an* 
cient existence of a volcano. Its vicinity to the 
continent secures it from the devastation of hur- 
ricanes. The climate is also more temperate than 
that of most' of the other islands. The principal 

place 



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38£ MAMTJMS GEOGRAPHY. 

place is at Man of War's bay, on the N.E. side 
of the island ; the best harbour in the West In- 
dies, having depth for the largest ships close to 
the shore. 
The population of the island was, 

1777- 1788. 1805. 

Whites 400 1,400 900 

Free people of colour — . . . . 1,050. • . . ^00 
Slaves 8,000. . . . 10,539 . . . 14,88$ 

8,400 12,989 16,483 
The productions in 

1777. 1788. 

Quintals. Francs. Quintal*. Franc*. 

Sogar 20,000 800,000 .... 20/250 754,000 

Cotton 8,000. 1,200,000.... 12,320 2,464,000 

Indigo 120 96,000.... 45 42,000 

tyrfee, and sundries 159 29,000 

Carried off by foreigners — 402,000 

2,096,000 3,691,000 

The official value of the imports from and ex- 
ports to the island, 

; Imports. Exports. 

1809 ,£226,824 £ 70,585 

1810 201,169 ...... 70,787 

Principal exports to England of the island pro- 
duce, 

Sugar. Ram. Cotton. 

cwt. galls. lbs. 

1809. . . . 130,122 525,327 .... 48,791 

1810. . . . 124,208 .... 337,433 .... 11,818 

Little 



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WEST INDIA ISLANDS. 283 

Little Tbbago Island is a great rode, two miles 
long and one broad, near the N.E. end of To- 
bago. 



LEEWARD ISLANDS OF THE SPANIARDS. 

The Spaniards give the name of Leeward Islands 
to those laying off the coast of Terra Firma, be- 
cause they are left to leeward in their voyages 
from Europe to St Domingo, Cuba, and Mexico. 

Trinidad, one of the finest of the West India 
islands, is eighty miles long and sixty broad ; it is 
separated from the north-east point of Terra Firma 
by the gulf of Paria, a beautiful basin, having 
good anchorage over a muddy bottom throughout 
In the northern entrance are three islands, form- 
ing four channels, called the Dragon's Mouths. 
Hie western, named Boca Grande, is the largest, 
being six miles wide, but has a dangerous sunken 
rock in it. The second, or Ship Channel, Boca 
de NamSy is seldom used, except for egress. The 
third, or Egg Passage, Boca de Hvivos, is most 
commonly used by ships entering the gulf from 
the north, but requires a strong wind to overcome 
the current. The fourth, next to Trinidad, is 
called the Monkey's Passage, Boca de Monos ; it 
is only Ht for small vessels, being very narrow, 
and having a rock in the middle, on which the 
sea breaks with great fury. 
„ The southern entrance of the gulf is called the 
Serpent's Mouth ( Boca de Sierpe), and is eleven 

leagues 



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J>ori*Jt Lee- 

nurd Islands. 



38* MARITIME GEOGRAPHY* 

leagues wide; in it is an island named Solduda hy 
the Spaniards* and Devil's Island by the English. 
Vessels never attempt an egress from the gulf by 
this channel, the current from the Orinoco set- 
ting through it so strong as to render it impracti- 
cable* 

Besides the gulf in general, which forms a vast 
harbour, the island Chica-Chiccana, the western- 
most of those in the Dragon's Mouths, has a ]!>brt 
lit for the largest fleets. The road of Chagua- 
rania (vulgo Shagaramus), on the coast of TYihi- 
4ad, is a bad anchorage, from the violence of the 
currents. 

The gulf of Pafia is so abundant in fish, that 
it would be possible to establish a fishery here ca- 
pable of supplying the whole West India islands ; 
it has also plenty of shell fish, particularly oysters, 
together with lobsters, crabs, and prawns. 

The interior of the island of Trinidad is chiefly 
occupied by four groups of mountains, which, 
with some diverging branches, form a third of the 
island. These mountains give rise to numerous ri- 
vulets, several of which uniting, form rivers that 
flow to the sea, on both sides of the island ; the 
most considerable is the Coroni, on the south, na- 
vigable for flat boats to the foot of the hills. It 
is remarked that all the rivers on the east side are 
tinged of a yellow colour. 

The island contains large quarries of limestone, 
approaching to marble, and clays for brick and 
pottery. Its greatest curiosity is a lake of ttiitie- 
ral pitch, of 150 acres, which answers every pur- 
pose 



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TOBST IKDIA ISLANDS. 385 

pose of vegetable pitch. The mountains are co- SSf&SZ 
vered with forests of mahogany, cedar and other 
large trees fit for naval construction, besides many 
kinds of cabinet woods. The cinnamon, clove, 
and other East-India vegetables, have been intro- 
duced and promise to succeed. The woods abound 
in deer, wild hogs, and other animals, and among 
the birds is the wild turkey. The extensive sa- 
vannahs pasture large herds of cattle. 

Trinidad lies beyond the limit of the hurri* 
canes, and its climate is generally considered equal 
in salubrity to any other of the West India islands. 
The rainy season is from May to October. 

According to official statements the population 
in 1805 was, whites 2,261, free people of colour 
8&J5, and slaves 19,709. An attempt was made 
to establish a colony of Chinese in this island, but 
failed, as it would appear, from these people having 
none of their countrywomen with them, and the 
other races, white or black, refusing to intermarry 
with them ; hence most of them again quitted the 
island. 

The official value of the imports to England 
and exports to the island was, 

Imports. Exports. 

1809 .£328,522 ,£577,190 

1810 301,000...... 357,073 

The principal objects exported from the island 
were, 

Coffee. Sugar. Rum. , Cottou. 

cwt. cwt. g<&*> lbs, 

1809. • . . 3.696. . 157,866. . . 308,677.. . 1,171,506 
1810. ... 2^713. . 166,627- . • 87,741. . 883,384 

La 



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296 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

££ La Maegaaetta is distant from the main laud 
eighteen or twenty miles ; it is thirty-eight miles 
long and of irregular breadth, from twenty-four to 
seven miles. The soil is a barren sand over coral 
rock, little capable of cultivation, and it has no 
fresh water ; hence its sole value is as a military 
post, being naturally strong and commanding the 
channel to the Spanish settlements on the main* 
The population is 5,500 whites, £,000 Indians, 
and 6,500 slaves. Besides the cultivation of a lit- 
tle cotton, the principal industrial pursuit is the 
fishery between the island and main, which em- 
ploys the Indians for three months of the yeaf. 
The fish salted are sold on the continent, and sent 
to the West-Indian islands. The chief place is 
Assumption, nearly in the middle of the island. 
The three harbours are Pampator on the east, 
where are the chief fortifications ; Puebla de la 
Mar, also on the east ; and Puebla de la Norte on 
the north : at each of these ports is a village. 

In the channel between Margaretta and the main 
are the islands Coche and Cabagua, the latter 
sterile and without wood or water ; it had former- 
ly a pearl fishery but which has been abandoned. 
The Te^tigos, Cola and Frayles, or Friars, are 
groups of rocks between Grenada and Margaretta. 
Blanca Island is barren and uninhabited, eleven 
leagues north of Margaretta ; east of it are the 
Seven Brother Keys. 

Salt Tortugas or Turtle Island, sixteen leagues 
west of Margaretta, is ten leagues in circumference. 
On the N.E. is a tolerable harbour,* and on the 

west, 



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WEtt INDIA ISLANW. 387 

w«V a good road with fresh water ; it is uninha- SSS%tL 
bited, but resorted to between May and August, 
by vessels for salt which is formed by the sun in 
a large natural pond on the east end, 

Orchilla is north, eighteen leagues from Cape 
Gedera on the main. It is eight leagues long 
N.W. and S.E., and is formed by several low 
islets, separated by narrow and shoal channels, 
so as to appear one island. The north side is 
foul, but the south so bold, that a ship may lay 
alongside the rocks. It has no fresh water and 
is uninhabited. West, ten leagues from Orchilla, 
is Rocca, a small island with several rocks, ex- 
tending east and west five leagues, and north 
and south three leagues. The north rock has a 
high white elevation on the west end. There is a 
stream of fresh water on its south side, but it is 
impregnated with some aluminous mineral. 

The other rocks are all low, and none of them 
are inhabited. 

The Aves, or Birds' islands, are seven leagues 
west of Rocca, and thirty-two leagues north of 
La Guyra on the main; they consist of two 
larger and three lesser islets. 

Bonaire is eleven leagues long N-W. and S.E* 
and five to eight miles broad. It • has some salt 
mines and pastures for cattle belonging to Cura$oa. 
The road is on the west within the island Little 
Bonaire- 

CURA90A is sixteen leagues north of Cape St. 
Roman in Venezuela ; it is fifteen leagues long 
and six leagues broad, generally barren, and with- 
out 



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288 *UWTJMB GBQQlUPflY. 

SSiMa^dT. out running water; yet the indefatigable in* 
~ dustry of the Dutch has brought it to prqduce 
tobacco and sugar. It also affords a large quantity 
of salt; but its prosperity is principally derived 
from a contraband trade with the Spaniards, this 
island being heretofore the rendezvous of all na* 
tions during wan 

The Dutch ships from Europe touch here for 
intelligence and pilots, and then proceed to the 
Spanish main to carry on a forced trade, which 
they are enabled to do, being stout ships well 
manned and armed, so as to bid defiance to the 
Guarda Costas, 

There are large magazines of all the manu* 
fectures of Europe and India ; and the Dutch 
West India, which is also the African Company, 
annually imported three or four carges of slaves. 

The Spaniards come hither in small vessels and 
purchase the best of the negroes, together with 
great quantities of goods, for which they pay in 
gold and silver, cacao, bark, vanilla, cochineal, 
ice. 

Fort Amsterdam, the chief place of the island, 
is one of the handsomest towns of the West In4 
(lies ; it is situated on St Anne's bay, which forms 
a road to the harbour, the entrance of which lat- 
ter is only sixty fathoms wide, and strongly fbrti* 
fied. 

Little Cura^oa is an islet off the S.E. poin* of 
th$ Great. 

Aruba is a small uninhabited island affording 
only wood. 

New 



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t i 



"11 I'" 

■ : ^ ' ■ nsnPtW ©toi ^ tvr • > ' 



NEW' SPAIN. 



The 'region of North' Aiftei'ica, tor which the' 
Sp&niards have given the name of New Spain, 
Is washed by hoth oceans. L Tts political division* 
on the coast of the /Gtftf $ Mexico aire Mexico* 
proper,; extending froni the limits of Louisiana to 
the prOvirice of Honduras'; subdivided into the 
Intendandes of Sail Luitf du Pbtosi, Vera Crttz, and 
Hernia, or Yucatan. l *'* ' J ' 

From the limits <Jf Louisiana to Vera Cruz] 
ihere is not a single pott fit for a vessel of any 
burden, the coast being lined by dry banks erf 
sand, which increase armually and contract thd 
limits of the gulf The channels or mleW between 
these banks into the chain of lagoons between* 
them *nd the ^hore, are crossed by bars with 
seldom ittofe than a foot to eighteen inches water.* 
Numerous rivers empty themselves into these la- 
goons; but the vicinity of the hills to the Sea allowing 

vol. iv. . u ' them 

♦ Twenty-six years elapsed from the tot voyage of Columbus heftre 
the rtimoured existence df the' celebrated empires of Mexico and Peru had 
uicsmJ the Spaniards, and their attempts at colonization were tciltcour 
toed to St. Domingo and Cuba. In 1519 riernan Cortes, with eleven 
small Teasel* and 61/ men, quitted Sr. Domingo for tlie couqii^st' of Mex- 
ico ; amdia IStl it was nccOmpQahed hy tht reduction of the epical, said 
hgrtbe Spanish, historians to have contained 140,900 houses, with an im- 
aaenfe number of temples, of which that of the god of war was the most 
aso*jgittoe»t v and struck the' Spaniards with astonishment* 



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2$0 MAftmtfft OWGRAPttY. 

them very shbrt courses, their volume of witei- 5a 
small, though towards their mouths diey spread 
into shallow lakes. The two most considerable 
rivers are the Colorado, which fells into the'lft 
goon of St. Bernard, and has a course of 250 
leagues ; and the Rio Brava del Norte, or Rio 
Grande, whose length is 5,12 leagues : both, how- 
ever, run through an uncultivated and almost un- 
inhabited country. On the south, the only rivers 
of any utility to navigation, are the Guasocualco 
and the Alvaredo, both SLEJ. of Vera Cruz, which 
facilitate the communication between the Gulf of 
Mexico and the towns of Guatiraala on the Pacific. 
The only places capable of receiving even small 
craft, are -Setta la Marina, oitthe bay or lagoon of 
St. Ander ; and Tampico, situated on a neck of 
land between Tarapico ajod Tamiagua lagoons j 
V4)a Ricade Almeria is a small town on a river. 
k Vera Cr.vz- is situated* on a sandy and barren 
plain, in the neighbourhpqd of infectious marshes. 
Its fortifications are a wall six feet high and three 
broad, flanJkid with six smaJl square towers, the 
port is besides protected by two batteries j the 
streets are wide and paved with pebbles ; the houses 
are of coral stone, with, wooden projecting bal- 
conies, many of them in ruins. The population 
is 7*000, amongst whom are many rich merchants. 
The port is intricate, and exposed to the northerly 
ivinds, which in winter blow With the force of 
the hurricane, and often drive ships on shore ; 
there is room for 100 vessels in fburttt tenfttkoifns. 
Opposite the town, at 400 fathoms distance, is aa 

islet^ 



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mounting SOO-pieces ofcannon. 
..l.J^of Vefa,.Cru* the coast $9199 the large 
fry #f C ejnpune hft bounded on the east by the 
l»nintttkv of Yucatan. The considerable, river* 
Qfiva&a, Ma into the hey, by two months enclos, 
tig Jtoglwd Tabasco. The western, o* Tebanc? 
ktvjm*b>r,t* two miles wide, but is crossed by a bat 
ip&tonfy twelve feet .water, within which, fiw 
eight leeguss, the depth*, are three to nvefathpma. 
In, *he lainy season* it carries to great a volume of 
water, to the sea. as to freshen it outside the fear, 
The, tome of TabMce* en the island, is small bnif 
nanbmlt. 

>, Terrainos Lagoon, ,<* the Lake of Tides, # the 
8,9. extremity of the Bay of Campeachy j before 
ifcavethe islands Beet Trieste, and Port Roy ai, ail 
low and generally swampy* , 

.-. The .hanks of the rivers or creeks, commimi* 
eating with the Terminos Lagoon, are covered with 
LogwoodtBees. 

&U Fmncisco de Campeachy is the only town of 
any consideration on the west coast of Yucatan. 
It contains ftOQQ inhabitants, and, has a good port, 
defended by a fort 

On the north coast of Yucatan, between Point 
Kedras, the N.W. point, and Cape Catoche* there 
jaiBo settlement, and the coast is lined with reefs. 
Numerous lookout houses are seen on the shore, 
in .which Indians are continually on the watch 
fiwr f ahspM some of these bouses are built of wood* 



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491 MARITIME e&MtAPHY. 

Had others are constructed like gteafc^agtstota^ 

trees* •» ■* • .''" w- »/ci/l 

• ,The Bay of Honduras is that gulf of the Ca-> 
ribbeau Sea between the peninsula of Yucatan and 
Cape Honduras. The English claim the right of 
cutting logwood on the coasts of all this gulf, from 
Cape Oatoche, on an island at the N.E. point of 
Yticatan, to the River St- Juan in 12°, which has 
several tirries occasioned disputes with the Spanish 
government. The first adventurers in this busi- 1 
liess were persons of desperate fortunes and cha- 
racters, who fled from the West India Islands; 
arid whoi during the season of inactivity on shore, 
pursued the business of piracy. In 1722 the 
Spaniards destroyed their establishments, and put 
to death all the persons they found in them j but 
another settlement being formed, Spain at last was 
prevailed on to tolerate it within certain limits, and 
with the stipulation of building no forts. The 
former are, by treaty of 1783, the district between* 
the Rio Hondo and the River Ballize, or Wallis ofi 
tfete English, the course of the rivers being tibe 
fixed boundaries : this district is a great plain fiifk 
of lakes and swamps. The River Ballize has ar 
course of 200 miles ; and at its mouth is the grand- 
establishment of the English, composed of wooden 
dwellings. i .:> in i 

Cozumel Island, on the east coast of Yncatan^i 
k three leagues offshore, fourteen leagues io©g>a»L 
two broad. It is coveredwith timber, coooa^nut 
and banana tvees ; and fe inhabited (fay a*ftwlaw 
diaris, of whose ancest0rs<it was a sacrpd place of 

pilgrimage ^ 



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9§gdmaget litis ccfeBrated in the history ' of 

New Spain as the first spot where mass was said 
by a monk in the suite of Cortez ; and at the same 
time that the Pagan idols were destroyed, the cross 
Was, erected, and the island received the name of 
Santa Cruz. 

^o Ambergris Key is a sandy island, twenty leagues 
long and one to five broad, laying parallel to the 
main, at the distance of three miles. The north- 
ern triangle is a great reef, with many keys, twelve 
leagues east of the north end of Ambergris Island. 
Turneff Key, off the River Ballizc, at twelve 
leagues distance, is fifteen leagues long, but very 
narrow. It is entirely of sand, with patches of 
wood, and bare intervals, causing it to make like 
many islands. 

The only Spanish place of any consideration on 
the east shore of the Yucatan peninsula is Sala- 
manca de Bacalor, a small well built town and fort, 
situated among unhealthy marshes formed by the 
Rio Hondo. 

. The coast of Honduras extends from the Gulf 
of Anatic to Cape Honduras, where commences 
the Mosquito shore. The only place of any con- 
sideration on the coast of Honduras is San Fer- 
nando de Omoa, a large Spanish fort on a con- 
venient bay ; a fine river runs close to it, but it is 
the most unhealthy part of the coast from the stag- 
Bfarir waters. 

;Truxillo, a town a mile from the sea, between 
4 wojrivers abdurtcHmg in fish. Its port is safe, and 
tbe most frequented of the coast of Honduras. 

a 03 4 . a: u8 Rattan 



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t$4 UAMTTQa 9B0CA4PHT. 

Rattan Island, thirteen leagues (rest 6t 6$* 
Honduras, is eleven leagues long east and ites^ 
and three broad. On its south side is the h^ 
bour of Port Royal, a vast basin capable of b<*C 
ing 500 sail, but with so narrow an entrance, df 
to admit but one ship at a time. The island af- 
fords white oak and pines fit for small masts, as 
well as cocoa-nuts in abundance. It is also fre- 
quented by vast numbers of green turtle, and by 
the manati, in both which animals the Bay of 
Honduras seems to be the most abundant regftm 
of the globe. The climate of Ratten ttaad ft 
esteemed particularly healthy. 

That part of the coast of New Spain from Cape 
Honduras to the River St. Juan, is named the 
Mosquito Shore, and the Indians who inhabit 
it, the Mosquito Indians,* whose implacable en- 
mity to the Spaniards has prevented the latter 
from attempting any establishments on the coast, 
In 1670 these Indians claimed the protection arid 
acknowledged the sovereignty of the King df 
England, but it was not until 1730 that the Eng- 
lish formed a settlement at Blade River, thirty 
leagues east of Cape Honduras; another near 
Cape Gracios i Dios j and a third at BluefieNfc 
Bay. In 1741, a civil government was established, 
forts built, and garrisoned with British troops. At 
(he peace of 1763, the troops and civil officers 



• Near Cape Crack* a Dios is a tribe of negr6es> naiaed Samtoot, pm*. 
fcnily the descendants of African Negroes, fcrraUig tfre cargo of a jlavor. 
ship irtetked on this coast. 



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. -■■•; worn s&j*. *flff 

were withdrawn, under the idea that this extent 
of coast was within the limits of the clause re- 
specting the non-erection of forts, but the govern- 
ment discovering the mistake, and finding these 
settlements not in the limits, in 1776 the establish- 
ments were placed on their former footing, but 
again withdrawn in 1788. 

The Mosquito Indians are chiefly occupied iii 
fishing, particularly in striking the manati, and 
taking turtle ; which latter they supply to the 
small vessels from Jamaica. This nation was for- 
merly very numerous, but has been greatly thin- 
ned by the small-pox, the number of fighting 
men being estimated at from 7 to 10,000. The 
whole Mosquito shore, from Cape Gracios k Dios 
its N.E. point, to the south, is lined by keys and 
reefs. 

The government of Costa Rica is washed by 
both oceans. On the north it is bounded by 
the Lake Nicaragua, 120 miles long and forty-one 
wide, with a great depth, and several islands. It 
empties itself into the Caribbean Sea by the 
River St. Juan or Del Desaguadero, whose course 
is twenty leagues, and its navigation fit for small 
craft, though the current is so strong, that boats 
are nine days ascending it, and but thirty-six 
hours in the descent. - At its issue from the lake 
is the castle of N. S. de la Conception, mount* 
ing thirty-six guns, with a garrison of 200 men, 
it being considered one of the bulwarks between 
the S}>am«fv $QSs66skms Oil the two seas. 

The ptw*M**f VjwagOa & like that of Casta 
v 4 Rica, 



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Ifr marenm**] 

o£ notice on the Caribbean i Seat; :j j aw aommov 
hnThe j province of Fajuua occupies th©- iath&iiu 
that separates tbe,two Oceans, atid uaites Afeitife 
M/ni South America; its nanwwt p&rtrfjfromitk* 
head of Jkf andingo Buy, . in the )C*rribbeaniSaw 
to the mouth of the Riper Bayaum, imtkeGaiifi 
q| Panama, is .only twenty miles. The Cordik 
Jem, or CNn of Andes, continues its course fiaite 
South America through the peninsulai-**(N* B^ 
The provinces of Veraguaand Panama jWBUObo*. 
zidered politically in the kingdom of Terra JFirtaa. 
Porto Bello, in the province of Panama, from 
being ope of the most celebrated cities of Spanish 
Afnerica, has since the discontinuance of thegak 
leans dwindled to totajl insignificance. 1^ is. placed 
on the declivity of a mountain surrounding - ( 4fc| 
pqrt, *nd consists of about 130 houses, chiefly qf 
wood, or the baseiQent pf stone, fonqing one )tijq$ 
street* The port, discovered by Columbus itij^8 # ' 
is entered by a channel with only 15 feet, wate$ 
which was formerly defended by three castles* _ 
destroyed by the English; under Vernon in X7*2* 
N.W. of the city is the cove of La Caldera, shel- 
tered from all winds. . The climate of ?ortq 
Bello is eminently unhealthy, being surtpuiMjpdr 
by Jofty hills, that cause a. total stagnation or 
air, and at the same time produce deluges of rain, 
and tremendous thundqr and lightning. Ode of 
the momUaiftv rising from, the p«S» freamta *• 
similar phenomenon to that of the 2Wfc at thfe 
Pape 01 woa ttope, its toffc beia* covered with 



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*r*rtitedbiifcii^^ <«hltt 

common, indicates a^torra. ^ > ; u no o a ;<< -r^o. 
*urfftiei woods tririoh surround the town, and 
k glte^aaddito4t8uiitaealthitie^ abouad in tigtay 
w&ich often descend into the streets/' and iaiwy 
e&theanaiak thty meet, and even atkfmes'htfj 
man) befogs. ' Snakes ace also very numerous, 
and* the toads are a perfect plagne, the' streets* 
after rain being covered with them so thick that 
i£3s atmoefc impossible to walk without treading! an 
aiutbcpg bitten by then^ i 

* * \ J ( " '! SOUTH AMERICA. 

|j 3rlftfe dhiwn from Ptato Bello in the Carib- 
l>ean Sea, to Panama, on the Pacific Ocean, ii 
^#nerally considered the boundary between North' 
arid South America. 

* Hie kingdom of Terra Firma, or Castile del 
0ro; extends from the province of Veragna bri 
tftewfest to the River St. Juan, which separate* 
it'Aotn thfe province of Carthagena on the east; 
bkife^tlhe provinces of Veragna arid ; Pinakna; 
itctfrip&es those of Terra Firma proper, ind of 

*W th -^ . • / ; »'i -.'■ The* 
.iij;j :, > . " • - * - ■■•• ' '*' ::; 

•i* TJifjppvince of.Dasim affqtfipg no mine* was ave^ooljf* ty Spain, 
vntil Ae beginning of the eighteenth century, when in order to prevent 
me&Ummoi *€$ritl«H afctfbtfofWcfcW i<^ •*!**' «*«*"' 
tjt^ftdi^, ^fcfttlwy B>U*tfed V^ei^t or nia* *iya*ev of^Md^ 
in 1780 only three or four remained $ and the military force in the pro, # 
rtace^dn^leice^'l^ioldicrliiofauriman^nj. ' -' ■ r'' 



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00ft MARJTMZ GGOGIAPHT. 

The oofy place of any consequence a 
vince of Terra Firma is Nombre da Dio$> ai 
town on a bay, open to the east, seven leagues 
cast of Porto Bella. It is little visited except bj 
occasional smugglers* 

Port Scrivan, ten leagues further east, is a 
tolerable harbour, but with a dangerous entraac^ 
and bad landing, the shore being flat and muddy. 

Cape SL Bias, or Samballat Point, is the west 
point of the Gulf of Mandinga, or Damn. Off 
it, at the distance of four miles, are Saraballai 
Islands, said to be 400 in number, all sandy and 
low, but covered with trees, and affording nume- 
rous good anchorages, formerly much frequented 
by the Buccaneers to procure water, which is 
found on most of them, and green turtle, <which 
tre extremely abundant. 

The Isle of Pines, near this coast, is low, two 
leagues long, covered with wild fruit tree-, par* 
ticularly cocoa-nuts, and has abundance of good 
water, and a port for small vessels. It was oc- 
cupied by the Scotch when they attempted in 
1700 to form the settlement of New Edinburgh 
on the main land within it, but from wbick they 
were driven by the Spaniards- 

Santa Maria de Darien, nominally the chief 
place of the province, is a miserable hamlet on the 
west shore, near the head of the gul£ 

The New Kingdom of Granada occupies all 
the north coast of South America, from the pro* 
vince of Darien on the west to the River Oro- 
noco> including the maritime governments of Car- 
thage n*, 



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*KW gftAKKDA. 4fo 

tag*na, Santa Marta, MarMafiWi ^h«taela» 
attd Ctomana.* 

*The government of Carthagena commences tta 
6ife west at the river St. Juan, which is navigable 
and abounds in alligators. The coast is in gene* 
tallow, swampy, and sandy. The Bay of Mores* 
quiHo, on the west coast, is wide, but entirely 
open. St Yago de Tolu, is an insignificant town 
611 the east shore of the bay, from whence the 
fhediclnal balsam has its name, its territory abound* 
#ig in the trees that afford it. 

Carthagena, the principal city of the new king- 
dom of Granada, is situated on a sandy island 
joined to the main by two artificial causeways 
seventy yards wide. The city is well built and 
tegularty fortified, the houses chiefly of stone, the 
streets wide and well paved, the inhabitant* 
45,000. The climate is excessively hot, and un- 
healthy to strangers, and the town has no fresh 
water but what is preserved in cisterns from the 
fains, which are continual in the months froii 
May to November, with heavy storm*. The port, 
trhieh is one of the best of these coasts, is formed 
by three islands. The Boca Chica, is the en- 
trance for large ships, and is so narrow, that but 
one ship can enter at a time. The B6ca Grande 
is a mile wide, but has only twelve feet depth. 

Carthagena is the depot of all the productions dF 

the 



* Tfa'coMt ta^era tfcc Gtiife «f Darfea and Mtr»caH*>, fe cailtA *f 

t fee English The Spanith Main, which k alio sometiutfs extended tQ tfie 
Whol^ coast as far « tifuldati bhmft. : ' ' 



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^Pp MARHTMC; 0BOGB4f HY- 

tip provinces (^Dari^n, and §&nta Mart^^«fa#«| 
they are shipped for Europe. There is a,pr<$t$W& 
reprl fishery in the vicinity. ... i^m 

: J^rnba or Tun^ba Bay, north of Cartbagena,4siW 
exqeljent port within the four Arena^Saj^jj) Jftt 
lands j the channels between which are aU$a£e#. , K | 
•' Thegoverpmentof Santa. Marta extend^ff^flfr 
the Great River Magdalena, on the west*, ta $bpf 
pulfof Maracaibo. The above river has $ aot{Ef<fe 
of 300 leagues, almost directly from soiMjh fa 
north ; and is navigable 160 leagues to the4ovn 
of jHonda. Its banks are covered with immen*a 
forests, the retreat of tigers and of savage Indian 
The river is also greatly infested by alligator*, b^t 
abounds in fish. The produce, of the interim i* 
conveyed down it by flat boats. At its mouth its 
alluvion has formed the Isle Verd. It disembogues 
with such velocity that it does not mix with the 
sea water for twenty leagues. 

Santa Marta, the chief place of the governing t, 
is a poor place, of generally straw-thatched houses*, 
but with a port fit for a' large fleet. It is*m> 
rounded by vast mountains, whose summits, thtee 
leagues from the town, are sometimes covered yntf* 
snow; hence it is less hot and more Wealthy t&m 
Carthagen^: besides, it is abundantly 4 supplied 
with excellent water by the River Gajxa, which, . 

passep close to it, ^ i: 

Rostra Senora de Remedioa, the only other pqjfc . 
town pf this province, is at the mouth of a riv(?r. ;: 
It is entirely gohe to ruin since the abandonment _ 
* ot the pearl fishery, which formerly gave it sornf* 

consequence. 



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mm^l&xe.' ltis,neverthe]e^V^fei^^ by^ 
«^&£r> 1 da&t!e of St George j But' what givpft it 
most importance is a miraculous image of the 
JHirffuV which, whenever the city was attacked ty 
tfc^Buccaneers, turned her back upon it, and Hex 
&ce towards the mountain ; the truth of which 
rttfracfe, gay s Alcedo, is justly authenticated by the 
Iftshop of Santa Marta. This must be allowed to 
fe#*fe tteefl rather an extraordinary method of 
&tacmgthe Virgin's protection. 
11 C&p% deia< Vela is a long high promontory^ jpin* 
«&'ttf "the main by low land. Portete and Bahia 
Hbnda, between it and the Gulf of Maracaitxv 
Bfete -no settlements ; but are sometimes visited by 
t&e 'English to purchase pearls from the Indians. . 






CARACCAS. 



.^fltte Captairt-generalship of the Caraccas com- 
prises the provinces of Maracaibo, Venezuela, Cu- . 
mana, and Spanish Guiana. 

The tides on the coast of Caraccas are very in- 
COrtriderable. 

The Gulf of Maracaibo penetrates into the pro- 
vince of Venezuela seventy leagues, and commu- 
rrfcates by a strait, three leagues wide, with the 
Lake of Maracaibo, which is fifty leagues lopg 
a*tf>1htrty broad ; and is navigable for the largest 
shijWJ * -Thei^atets 6f the lake are perfectly fresh t ', 
etttept itt strong iotherly winds, but they hav^ 4 
- Ti V nauseous 



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0Og MAU3NM& CBGWUPH1T* 

aauseous taste* The* lake abound* in ell the/nfe 
water fish of the Caribbean Sea> but.bArtJe 4q wt 
enter it. ■ , ' vtusr 

On theN.E. shore of the lake are mmy pit* of 
mineral pitch, the exbalatkma from *&ick anat 4r 
a cottstaatatate of ignition, at night appearing as 
a bluish vivid flkme, which, serving to guide the 
fishermen, has got the name of the lanthorn of 
Maracaiho. The banks of the lake are in general 
barren and unhealthy, and hence the Indians pre* 
faired constructing their dwellings on floating 
stages in the lake ; the great number of which, ob- 
eeffved by the Spaniards in their first visits to this 
eoafct, caused them to give it the name of Vene- 
zuela, or Little Venice. At present but four of 
those floating villages remain ; and their inhabi- 
tants subsist solely on fish and wild ducks, with 
which the lake abounds 

The west bank of the lake being fertile some 
Spaniaids have there formed plantations of eaoao ; 
the south and east banks are entirely covered witiv 
wood and uninhabited. 

The town of Maracaibo is on the west shore of 
the strait into the lake. Its houses are mostly at 
stone, tfaatehed with reeds ; and in 18045 it con- 
tained 25,000 inhabitants. It has three forts, with 
a garrison of £50 men, besides a large militia* 
The climate is extremely hot, but is not found uai 
healthy; The port is capacious a*id secute j aoi 
from the abundance of ship-Jthnber in the. neigh* 
bourhood a number of vessels are built here. The 

water 



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HEW «ftA**Mk 4HM 

*Wte*.#f*4he lake feting dittgreeabl* *mi><&m 
feftuefcbft* Traitowitft pre*nr«d ia cisterns i» gene* 
eafly used: by the people of condition. 
V<thtf pmrnoe of IfewstofiLA lies between those 
#1 M«ataibtf and Cumatta. This country was ibtt 
Vattaiby th* Spaniards in 1627, tat tbarlhow^ht* 
hiiftg «atj|tfy4grned to the search for mints, they 
%e^eettd:4h*" taore certain means of enriching 
themselves by cultivating the soil ? and it was not 
mtil 4he* Dutch got possession of Otxa$oa» ia 
i$$4 thajt these colonists began to raise cacao, for 
winch they found a ready market in exchange ibr 
Tftfrgpum good* at the Dutch island; and bithef 
they have always continued to send it, in spit* 
o^jtiie temerity of the prohibitions* 

*'<Tlie ptoimUb. of Paragoana forms the east side 
#C the Gqlf of jMaracaibo> and is joined to the 
main by *n isthmus two leagues broad. The pe* 
ifmwfa is twenty leagues long, and is inhabited by 
f fltfjwf if trf n few whites, who breed cattle, which 
tkpf dispose of at Cura$oa* 
r Cora, on tbe isthmus, is at the mouth ef a salt 
wive**, 011 a barren sandy spot It contains 10,000 
inhabitants, who subsist by the export of cattle 
aad skins to Cura9©a, and the contraband import 
cf manufactpued goods in rtturn* 

wThe lUver Guignes, sixteea leagues east of 
Cora, i*. navigable six leagues, but. is little &e» 
Rented. Tocuyo River is navigable forty leagues* 
and considerable quantities of timber are floated 
down it , . s J 

Porto 



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SUM maritime mmm&Bt. 

Porto £abelk>* is the only harbour »af * b e |i*»* 
vince perfectly sheltered from north winds f^to 

which direction it is formed by a semicircular 
peninsula, and on the other side is surrounded by 
high hills. Ships of the largest size lay alongside 
a handsome quay. The town, which contains 
7,500 inhabitants, is unhealthy, from the confine- 
ment of the air and the vicinity of marshes. The 
variations of the thermometer are 90° and 75°. 
The fortifications are a strong fort, on an island to 
the N.E., and some other works, on a hill com- 
manding the town. The garrison consists of two 
companies of regulars, and the inhabitants com- 
pose a militia of 3,000. 

The trade of Venezuela centers in Porto Ca- 
bello ; but though, in 1796, it was allowed a direct 
trade with Spain, little advantage was taken of this 
permission, and its chief transactions were of a 
smuggling nature with Cura^oa and Jamaica ? 
which, together with the coasting trade, occupied 
fifty to sixty vessels ; while the trade with Europe 
never exceeded three or four a year. Between 
Porto Cabello and la Guaira are a number of 
forts with small garrisons, intended to prevent 
smuggling; the largest is one of eight guns, on 
Ocumare Bay, which is well sheltered. 

La Guaira, though the worst port on the coast. 
is the most frequented ; it is entirely exposed to 

the 
..V"' »*/ 

* Literally If airport, alluding so its security, Which Jk inch, that, accord- 
ing to the trivial expression, a vessel may ride by a fcrir. 



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<hf ^ <M» tfliiiyi Uy ie iiradj wand mteudfcmrott are 

very strong. The town Br.huut at the foot of a 
rugged '11101111 tain, which rises so close behind it 
that the loosened masses ofiflock from its side fre- 
^toeaiiyroli itit* tie streets and do >muab d*n»gfe» 
•This situation also renders the heat extreme by 
Reverberation from the mountain \ the thermometer 
fbr nine months rising to 98°, and the summer 
months are very unhealthy. The population, in- 
cluding the garrison, is 6,000. La Guaica is the 
port of Leon de Caraccas, the chief town of the 
captain-generalship, and is the principal entrepot 
ef the commerce of this province with Europe.* 

Between La Guatra and Cape Codera are seven- 
teen small rii^ers, emptying themselves into the 
sea and fertilizing the cacao plantations on their 
banks. The only port is Jasper Bay, or Cape 
Fran^ais; by which the inhabitants export their 
produce to La Guaira. 

The River Tuy, the most considerable of this 
coast, empties itself east of Cape Codera. It is 
navigable for vessels of middling size, and subject 
to inundations. 

mo'fiKpriguft Lake is a circular lagoon, or father 

4»y,fwfcp*' entrance is at times tiroftsed by ta sand 

bank, btlt WtWn is deep water/ M abdttftde m 

^*^h*b«xproWtibe^ of Cum*na efctetute fltoin Jthe 

dMver tJnare to the Orinoco. It is a continued 

Vol. ir. . x sierra, 

• Both the cities of daraccas and La Guaira were almost totally destroy- 
ed ft* * tcnriblt •arthquakt in 1612. 



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8«f MARim^ eEQa*&#Bf. 

sierra % or chain of mountains, approaching near the 
sea, where they are very barren and the soil infc- 
pregnated with nitre j the coast also abounds with 
natural salt-pans, of which the most celebrated ar$. 
those of Araya and the Gulf of Trist, Tks safo, 
is used in curing fish, with which this coast 
abounds, as well as in shell-fish of many species. 
The three rivers of any consequence are the Ca- 
riaco, the Cumana and Guarapiche. ri This pro- 
vince has several good ports, and its coasts are 
seldom visited by storms. , .; fiofc.a^J> 

Cumana was first attempted to be colonised by 
Las Casas, the protector of the Indians, uponpruv 
ciples very different from those of the conquerors 
of Mexico and Peru — those of justice and mode- 
ration; but the 200 husbandmen and artificers 
that were prevailed on to follow, him from old 
Spain, were soon thinned by disease* desertion, aud 
the hostilities of the Indians, and obliged him to 
relinquish the idea. Some straggling Spaniards 
afterwards fixed themselves on this coast, but un- 
til the middle of the eighteenth century, the pro.- 
vince was almost entirely neglected by die mother 
country. , « . , /t-wl jmi 

The inhabitants are about 14,000, of whom opg t 
half are whites. The chief industrial pursuit of 
this district is the rearing of cattle, and tl^ sup- 
plying the Havannah and other islands with jerked 
and salted beef. This coast ha* also a great s^j^y 
gling trade with Trinidad, whither it is said 
400,000 dollars are sent annually for the purchase 
of dry goods. f ; u x l^J^r^ 

The 



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XtW (STUN ADA. ' -- " -^ "' 30f * 

: The Gulf of Cariaco is formed by the low pe-* 
ninsula of Costa di Araya on the east, and on the 
sjde of the main is surrounded by high moun-" 
tains. It runs in S.E* ten leagues, and is three to 
four leagues broad, with a depth of eight to ten 
fathoms. The city of Santa Ines de Cutnana & 
on the south shore of the gulf, on the River Man- 
zanares or Cumana, which admits only boats, ves- 
sels being obliged to anchor a league west of the 
rfver's mouth. The town being well built on a 
dry soil is healthy, though the heat is great, the 
thermometer rising to 95°. The frequency of 
earthquakes has caused the houses to be all built 
low, and generally of wood. The population i$ 
24,000. 

The principal fortification is a strong fort* on 
an eminence, with a garrison of from 1,000 to 
1,500 regulars, militia, and negroes. 

The river Cariaco falls into the head of the 
gulf, arid on it is the city of Cariaco, 6r St. Philip 
de Austria, containing 6,000 to 7,000 inhabitants. 
It exports a considerable quantity of cotton. 

The Guarapiche is a considerable river, empty- 
ing itself into the Gulf of Paria with great velo- 
city, twelve leagues north of the Grand Manamo 
mbuth of the Orinoco, 

The Orinoco is the third river of America ; its 
source, though not ascertained, is probably in the 
Sierra Nevada, in the province of Guiana. It i% 
named by the Indians Ibirinoto^ which has been 
corrupted to Oririoco, Orenoque, Oroonoko, by 
the Spaniards, French and English* The course 

x2 of 



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308 MARITIME 0Z0GRAP1IY* 

of this great rxv^r is siiigukrlytoHbmaiTortihg 
* perfect spiral unta it emptifes itself into tfcesea 
by fifty mouth*, traversing a tfeto of swattapy w* 
lands of sixtiy leagues in extent towards the sea. * 

An annual riee and inundation of the Oiinoco 
takes place in April, and the waters return to theirf 
. beef in October, and are at the lowest in Febrdary* 
At St. Thomas, ninety leagues from thecsea, the 
difference between the highest and lowest level 
of the river is ninety feet i the volume of water 
it carries to the sea renders the latter fresh thirty 
Iteagues rfrom the coast. 

: The Orinoco abounds with feh, and wiffothe 
manaiii but is . likewise infested with aHi gators at 
an enormous size. The quartatinqjas and t\ie<xjpa 
are atnphibdous animals of this river eaten by the 
Indiana ; and the Urver is a small quadraped found 
in the river, with a pouch resembling that of fhe 
opdssum*- . < - T 

Seveil only of the fifty mouths of the 'Oriiabca 

axe practicable by any kited of vessels,* and of these 

.: { • '.■•vfwari 

* The* first of the navigable mouths 1s the Gtand Manttmor Jhe" second, 
the canal of Padmuks, three leagues sMftfa of Devil** Isls^nm/ at the m* 
trance of tue.Gulf of Paria, it is only fit for long boats; thejfcird ropu^. 
named €<tpura t is sereti leagues south of Padernales, la also oafy fit. fb* 
boats; the fourth, named Macares, is six leagues south tfFCflpuiftjaflt'H 
navigable by small craft ; Afarinsas, tat fifth, is twelve lea^me^aMttay^C&t 
fourth, t>ut between them are many mouths navigable when themer fa 
hhih; the si*rh mouth, H eighteen leagues south of Marinsas, aiwrs narw 
gable»b7 *mall vessels * the seventh, namea* the Grand Jfotfp, %*tjf*. 
leagues south of the sixth, its breadth is eight leagues "between the fefanttsj 
Cougrejos on (he fo.W., and Point fierima on the S.EJ, but tbewvignttf 
c^ttroei la not above three miles, an4 is eAw^d by a bar with vsevemeeto 
feet at low water ; the approach to this entrance is dangerous from thn 
shoals running off seven 'leagues from Umgrcjc* Island and two league* 
from Point Darima. - - 



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GUIAtfA* - . 600 

t&pto ]pvt one admits vessels ef any .size- The 
tide imperceptible to 8t. Thomas, where the breadth 
of the. riwr is four miles, and its depth sixty-fiv* 
fctfums; 100 leagues above St. Thomas the breadth 
iA war three miles. 

The .town of St. Thomas exports a great num* 
ber q£ osea and mules to the West India islands. 
Ixx.lSQS, thirty small vessels were employed in 
this tntffc to Trinidacj. 



GUIANA. 



'yhe regiop naipflj Guiana $xten& from th& 
south .taauch f the Qrinp^a $o the riter Ama- 
zons., The nuflnep9U8 rivers wbieb empty then}- 
selvep gn theqe coasfs -carry wit^i them v^t quan- 
tities of mud, >vhicH teing deposited on the shores, 
form a border of low ground, betww.higb and 
Jj>W ^JWh Wfifed with mangrove. When 
$ye i^e #pw& ,this : fecy dgr has several feet water 
9XSFJfru an d whep.ij ebbs it presents an inacCessi* 
hte nwid-bank ; 

£en$n4 &# ibprd^r *tf poaagrpves, & 4 pr 500 
paces, cp^im^pce low, level, swampy savannahs, 
4wroe4 ( J#,#ie rain^ apd which we protenggd in 
the d^WPtiq« of the coast wiito » depth wore or 
lcjfp^^fjsi^ah^, *p£p*dmg io the d&a#ce of tho, 
ni |¥ ^aww < The water pn jdl the oa«sti$ bract- 
igj*. tj Jfcere ar§p^.ithesft gp^ts $wo imy and two 
cj^jSj^wR* b> th^ yw*t the JSbnner in Dewrober, 
Jkp«arji, *$4 February, and again ip ) tine* July, 

x 3 and. 



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510 MARITIME GSDGRAPHY. 

and Augost The land winds ] 
'months and ate unhealthy. I» the'dryseatieartile 
air is refreshed by regular diurnal 8eafoeeafescm % l 
' Guiana is divided geographically into Sputiab, 
Dutch, French, and Portuguese, diftretxb<f»flN 
tton% having been occupied by those nstfeup* 
Spanish Getiana extends on the coast tfoooMfee 
Orinoco to the river Poumaron a (btanceio£ thir- 
ty leagues. There is no European establishment on 
the ooast, it being inhabited by Caribb Indians, 
inveterate enemies of the Spaniards, tin, which 
they are supported by the Dutch. i.in 

Dutch Guiana extends from the Potuparo» tQ 
ibe Maroni, or Marowing, though the first tout 
does not seem to be much respected by the .Hol- 
landers, who have encroached on the Spanidfcfffo- 
vince, having formed a settlement at Maeoca 
Creek fifteen leagues west of Poumaron- He 
French were the first Europeans who attempted a 
settlement on tlm coast in about 1630 or 401 but 
they again abandoned it on account bf the up- 
healthiness of the climate* In 1650 the%J$¥gtish 
projected a colony on it, and in lQG^^ucb^ter 
wae granted for that purpose by Cfaerle* IJ. At 
the ' same time the Jews, driven out of ftarf* 
bought refuge here, and their degeendMitfrgew 
fttfnvthe half of the whole population Jx&§07, 
the tettlements were captured by th»n r I 
*Aate the English got possession t>f &&*$$ 
aa* at the peace each nation agreed tp keq^fts 
^nqoest In 17&1, Deroerara and Etffecp&o 
we^»8a^d4fen<^te».fhat^ 

; * * Bnglist) 



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English privateer; but receiving no succours the 
British were in their turn obliged to cede to a 
French corvette, and by the peace of 1783 these 
colonies returned to Holland. In the war of the 
French revolution (1796) they were captured, to- 
gether with Surinam in 1799, by the English, but 
restored by the peace of Amiens, and again taken 
in the late war by the English by whom they are 
still retained. 
.enxDotdx Guiana is divided into three govern* 
ments, 1. Essequibo and Demerara ; 2. Berbicc, 
and 3. Surinam : each named from the considera- 
ble river that runs through it. The Essequibo 
issues from Lake Parima, has a course of 300 
miles, and empties itself by four mouths, practi- 
cable only by small craft ; barges ascend it six 
days navigation. Before the river are a number of 
fertile islands. Fort Island, fifteen leagues up the 
river,, is the chief place, but the fort is in ruins,. 

The river Demerara is two miles wide at its 
mouth, but is crossed by a mud-bank with eight 
or nine feet low water, and eighteen at high -, 
ships capable of passing over this bar may ascend 
the river 200 miles. Staebroeck, the chief place 
of this government, is on the left bank of the ri- 
ver, one mile and a half from the fort on the 
#est bank that defends the entrance- The po- 
pulation of the town is 1,500 whites, 2,000 tree 
p^dple of colour, and 5,000 slaves* The. .other 
tokens and villages are Kingston, contiguous to 
the fort at the entrance of the river, and New 
Town built by the English. Cumingsburg, 
3*S x 4 and 



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&# MARITIMB 0S63RAPHY. 

and Bridge Town are on or near the banks of (he 
river; 

The population of the government of Essequibo 
and Demerara is 3,000 whites and 40,000 slaves. 
About fifty ships from Holland loaded annually at 
Staebroeek, besides 250 small vessels. 

The official value of imports to England and 
exports thence was, 

Imports. Exports. 

1809 ,£510,871 ,£278,998 

1810 778,404 346,783 

The chief exports from the colony were, 

Coffee. Sugar. Rum. Cotton. 

trrt. cmt. galte. lbs. 

1809 .... 24,528. . 156,481. . 313,370. . 4,012,257 

1810 . . - 45,480. . 150,624. . 98,442. . 7,331,122 

The river Berbice empties itself by two mouths, 
surrounding an ulluvian island named Crab Island 
from the number of land crabs on it. A bar of 
sand five miles without the river, prevents vessels 
of more than fourteen feet from entering it, and 
hence it is little frequented. 

New Amsterdam, the chief town, is near the 
mouth of the river, and is intersected by canals, 
which being accessible to the tide, have not the 
ill effects of stagnation. The government house 
and public buildings are of brick and handsome. 
The entrance of the river is protected by three 
forts or batteries - 7 but they are of little use, for 
Berbice must, from its situation, always follow the 
fate .of Demerara. 



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a£ rfew Amsterdam, is pfvigaWe for schooners 
tjur r ty, mile?, and 9 n^vjgabje communication 
m^jljt fce easijj e^cted from it to the Surinam, 
tJT/ift imports and exports were, 

Imports. * Export*. 

£800 - *. «£l93,663.~. t <£4&06a 

" 1810 ... . , ... .. 191,566 ........ .-51,785 

The principal exports from the island were, 

Cotton. Sugar. Hum. Cotton. 

W$* ctctr guilt. lbs. 

1809 . . . • 17,665- . . . 7*760. . 20,355. . 1,874,190 

1810 . . . 22,582. . • . 3,827. . • . 6,193. . 1,656,057 
Surinam river has a course of 250 miles; its 

mouth is four miles broad, with a depth of six- 
teen tp eighteen feet at low water, and twenty, 
eight to thirty at high. These depths continue fo* 
tan miles, where i% is crossed by a bar with twelve 
to twenty feet, according to the tide ; and here it 
divides into spvetal branches, all navigable by small 
craft far into the country. 

Piuimat$K>> fchechief place, is on theleft bank 
of tbe river, si* teagues from the sea, and is H 
very neat (own, $e houses chitfly of brick base** 
uient . {the bricks fbping brotrght from Holland) 
and ^iipers^ctiire of wood with sjltrtgte <50verkij£ 
Tl**mte\>efo# bo«esdsabbuti,400. Th<* streets 
are shaded kyuW&gz) lemon, ' ifcfcldock, and 
tap^cip^lXf^ .^Tjbewmter pf^tbeliver atrd #ells 
being bro^kis^, 'thfe white inhabitant* hse* 'ohly 
thai preserved in cisterns titom the rtluw. l ^ J 
Tbeapprofteh to the town foy^fc'Wifer iitie- 
3il l [j fended 



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U» MAEITIl*Ha«K51iAlJBT. 

fended by several works on each shore, of which 

the fortress of Amsterdam is the most considera- 
ble; it is eight miles above the river's mouth. 
The citadel of Zealandia is below the town, from 
which it is separated by an esplanade : it protects 
the shipping, which lay in a fine reach of the river a 
mile wide, and'capable of holding one hundred sail. 
The other rivers of Surinam of any note, are, 
the Surainine crossed by a bar with three fathoms. 
The Marowine, which empties itself by many 
mouths among alluvion islands \ above the islands 
its mouth is three leagues wide, and it is navigable 
fifty leagues, to which distance the depth is four 
to six fathoms. 



French Guiana occupies 1 60 leagues of coast 
from the Maroni on the north to the Carapona on 
the south ; this latter, which falls into the Ama- 
zon in 6° 30' north latitude, being agreed on as the 
limit by France and Portugal in 1801. 

The French first established themselves on this 
coast in 1625, and gave it the name of equinoctial 
France ; but in 1654 they again abandoned their 
only establishment at Cayenne, and the Dutch 
sought to fix themselves on it, but the French re- 
turning in 1664, drove them out, and though the 
island was again tqtken by the Dutch in I676 they 
were obliged to restore it the following year. 

In 1809 the colony was captured by the Eng- 
lish and Portuguese forces combined, but restored 
by the recent treaty of peace. 
^ The whole coast of French Guiana is lined by 
p / r - : drowned 



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YiftA r.r.TOffASIBUMJT/^ BIS 

drowned mangrove islands and mud banks, which 
bar the mouths of the numerous rivers, and the 
navigation of which is also generally impeded by 
ledges of rock. The rains which prevail from Ja- 
nuary to July, form stagnant ponds and marshes, 
that render the climate extremely unhealthy. The 
currents are very strong and irregular along this 
coast. 

The colony of Cayenne has never been of any 
considerable advantage to France, as will appear 
from the following statements of its population 
and exports. 

Population of the colony, exclusive of Cayenne 
Island. 

1775. 1788. 1798. 

Whites 1,300 . . . 1,307. . . .1,800* 

Free people of colour 394? 

Slaves 8,000. . . 10,748 

___ . — _ 

9,300 12,449 
In 1772, Cayenne Island contained only ninety 
-white families, 125 Caribbs, and 1,500 slaves. 
. The exports from the colony were, 

. . fv Sugar. Coffee. Cacao. Cotton, lloeou. Wood. Hides. 
quint, quint. quint. quint. quint. quint. Xo. 

1775. .840. . .900. . .1,000. . .1,000. . .6,000. . .1,400. . .350 
1788.. 20... 159... 210... 925... Indigo 50 

The only place worthy of mention north of 
Cayenne, is Sinamari, a miserable post, con- v 
tajning in 1798 only fifteen or sixteen huts, the 

remains 

- 

* Cayenne included. M jflTr 



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816 MARITIME $$QGRAPHY. 

remains df a settlement ibwMeiw42^ 
Island lies in the mouth- of the v^y^^j^^ 
ing two branches*- The northeypi^o^t 
Cayenne River, has hut thirteen feet 8of\ mud } 
the southern branch is caljecj tk% ftjahwi* r fhd 
island is sixteen Leagues in cifciiit, #nd is e^r 
tremely unhealthy ; for tha interior being h»we$ 
than the shores, the rain water stagnates a$4 
forms putrid marshes. The town is built op the 
N.W. point of the island, and is a wretched plapp* 
the streets steep and narrow and paved with stoftg 
stones. i„ * Itity 

Among the numerous islands of Cayea#e, the 
only ones deserving mention are the Two Con£ 
stables, or Gunners, barren conical rocks whitened 
with birds* dung. The ,Malingne. Islands* three 
leagues S.E. of Cayenne, ,aro almost Inaccessible j 
on one of them is an fcoepital for lepers, . tiiis ma* 
lady being very common at Cayenne. 

South of Cayenne the principal rivers are the 
Approuak, which has' twelve feet Mepth at its 
entrance ; the Oyapofe, Which eirijities itself 
west of Cape Orange j the Cassipooir; Coan«. 
wine, &c. 



Pobtuoufse Guiana occupies the left bank of the 
Amazons. 

The Amazons, Marana^ or Oeei4*ana, is not 
only the largest river of America, but of the* 
world. Its source, though not absolutely ascer- 
tained, must be within two or three degrees 
■■■•-* * ! of 



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bf the Pacific Ocean, in about the ktitude 
toV atidv ite course is nearly due west across 
the continent, emptying itself under the equa- 
tor. It is navigable nearly its whole length, 
though it has many *banks^ of sand, some of 
which are thirty to forty leagues long. Thirty- 
five leagues from the sea, at the confluence of the 
5ingu, its banks are oqt of sight of each other, 
and at Obidos*, 150 leagues from the sea, the 
breadth is 1,000 fathoms. The tide is* percep- 
fjfcte 200 leagues. Though the declivity of ita 
bed from Obidos to the sea is only four feet, 
tne imihense body of anterior water gives it such 
avast impetus, that it rushes into the sea with 
Amazing velocity, freshening the latter eighty 
leagues from the shore. This rapidity also occaf 
sions a bore, named pororoca by the Indians, far 
surpassing thdse of the rivers of Hindosfan. 
This phenomenou always occurs two (Jays before 
and after the fu^l and change of the m<?ooi 
when, at the commencement of the flood, 1 * the 
sea rushes x into the river,, fbrniing three . of four 
Successive waves that break mountains higft v on 
the bar, and raise' the tide within to its*' greatest 
elevation in one or two minutes. It is said that 
t^e elevation pf these ridges of water ip.qot.lei9 
ihan 500 feetj ..':.'-,* ,* / 

The two Jrrincipal mouth* of the riv^r |rd 
separated by the swampy alluvion islaiwirCavian$r* 
besides which, ' m&ny similar islands are fprmed by 

it3K«l.M4t: ; .n».- ;•.» •■ \ •* ^ .•.;,:«• 

The only places in Portuguese Guiana *of which 



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8J8L MARITIME BEOMLAPHY. 

aftji thing ia Jcnown; ^i^^elittle^ib^^^Ml^ 
ctp*iaod the fortified viliag* of P#ti, bothW- 

..-:.' - -• f. -• ■■ < : --*o: :: <rr oriT 

t *.- '.: . - » " ' " ' • '* ; -^ v "° ^airi 

...,'. . ' . :>:->■- tnoriv 

BRASIL. ;J :;^?vav/ 

The great region of South America iwnecj 
Brasil extends from the Amazons to the , £10 
Grande de St. Pedro.* TheN.E. extremity wm 
discovered by Vincent Pin9on, in the service x£ 
Spain, who landed in 1500 at the Cape, wincfe 
he named Consolation, but which the Portuguese 
changed to St Augustine. This country being 
within the Portuguese line of demarcation, was 
taken possession of by this nation the year of . 
its discovery ; and in 1502, Cabral, on his course, 
to India fell in with the coast near Porto Seguro, 
and also took possession of it for his king. In 
1504, Americus Vespucius was sent out to ex~ 
amine the country, and bringing to Portugal a . 
cargo of Brasil wood, it turned out so profitable^ . 
that many expeditions of the same kind followed, * 

• '* After many disputes respecting tlie limits of ftrasiT on the sout^ * 
thdywerd fee* at the lUo Grande de St. Pedro ; but in lfro, the Wri ' 
tuguese crossed this river an<Kormed { settlemnts,o& the west t^SpanisV 1 * 
bank, which nearly produced a war in Europe between the two nations, 
an& 'hostilities were commenced in America, the Spaniards taking the 
island of St. Catherine. By treaty in 1777, the limits were, however, 
finally settled, the Bio Grande still remaining the boundary, but its navi- 
gation was exclusively secured to Portugal, From taj* river the toundt**^ 
runs algug the eastbank otLake Merin* v ^' *.-*:? 



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and the whole coast roceived the popular name 
of Brasil, which entirely superseded the more 
holy ones conferred on it by Pinion and Cabral. 
The first colonists were twenty-four men left be- 
hind by Cabral in a small fort he constructed, to 
whom were added some agents of the merchants 
who entered into the trade of w r ood ; and finally 
Portugal, who had hitherto transported her crimi; 
nals to Africa, now sent them to America. 

* It was not, however, until thirty years after 
the voyage of Vespucius that the mother country 
commenced the efficient colonization of Brasil, 
and for this purpose it was dhided into fourteen 
captainships, each of which was granted to some 
noble Portuguese who possessed the means of car- 
rying the plans into execution. The first of these 
captainships that received European settlers was 
St. Vicente, and here the first sugar-canes were 
introduced from Madeira, and the first cattle from 
Portugal. The progress of colonization was so 
rapid, that it was soon found necessary to give 
the colony a new form of government, and ac- 
cordingly the grants to the captains, who had ge- 
nerally abused their unlimited power, were re- 
voked, and the crown appointed a governor-gene- 
ral for the whole colony. About the same thp^ 
the Jesuits sent some of their brethren- to <eonve$ 
the: Pagan and savage natives.* 

-;;;;-.. ' . 'L/C...V The,; 

•Uwf tiaf CTwHt the relation of these ' misftionarics, the epithet leitfg* 
jmrmimcrtaott deservedly applied than to the Brazil Indian*. A3 Wia- * 
•Uflce of the horrible bwbarism ef tfcet£-">nnJm ot 'nifiixf* th^Vofc J1 



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1 $S0 MARITIME fefed4*tA*Hr* 

The infancy of the colony was n<rt, h( W e fr fe f # 
tranquil. In 155S, tlic French attempted to form 
an establishment at Rio de Janeiro, whfch the 
Portuguese resisting, hostilities in the colony were 
the consequence ; the details of which have little 
interest. The English also, on the subjection of 
Portugal to Spain, carried their depredations to 
the coast of Brasil \ but Spain found a much more 
formidable enemy in the Dutch, who in 1623 cap- 
tured the city of San Salvador, but were again 
obliged to relinquish it. In 1629, however, they 
returned with a strong force and made themselves 
masters of six of the provinces from Seara to Ser- 
gippe, and were upon the point of conquering 
the whole colony, when the separation of Portu- 
gal from Spain caused a pacification in Europe. 
The Dutch, however, refused to restore soma of 
these provinces, and delayed evacuating others' ; 
and the Portuguese not being prepared to reco- 
ver 

lowing is cited:—** Whilst the preparations wr*rc mating for the *acTi- 
fiee of a war captive, a woman was appointed to receive hu caress & a 
husband, the captor not scrupling thus to best o v.- hi or >i_snjr» 

and her pregnancy was celebrate;! as a joyful event, for it 1 
that the child partook solely of the flesh and Hood of the totheT, *»hen 
it grew to a certain ape, and was thought to be in proper condition, it 
was killed and deroMred, ' Hie 'nearest klijsmnh to the mother olnciatfig 
as butcher, and the first mouthful being Given to the mcMlier-hdtoJtol**- 
We should deny the possibility of lids horxiuk nuinau na- 

ture, was h not corroborated by the assertion 

, the .women, in whom tenderness of heart is an innate principle, often in- 
sisted their captive husbands to escape, and sometimes tiedwiiU Ujei*, 
while others took drugs to procure abortion, and thus sava themselves 
thfc horror of nourishing a child for slaughter j neither were there \vmti»s 
instances of mothers who courageously defended their offspring. 



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iKf$J^£m bgr farce, pretended to acquiesce m this 
■pefrntkny until the Dutch, duped into security, 
.withdrew the greater part of their troops, to save 
.expense, and left the colony defenceless, of whiqh 
the Portuguese taking advantage, secretly sent out 
.a large force, and made themselves masters of 3II 
-the strong posts, except Reciffe, in which tbfy 
. blocked up the Dutch* Though the court of Portu- 
gal disavowed the conduct of its officers, a wfir 
was the consequence, which was conducted so 
badly by the Dutch, that it terminated in their 
entire evacuation of the colony, and the relin- 
4juishment of all claims, in consideration of about 
.£350,000 sterling paid by Portugal. Since this 
period (1661) the Portuguese have enjoyed the 
undisturbed possession of the colony, with the ex- 
ception of some disputes with Spain, respecting the 
limits. 

Each of the fourteen captainries of Brazil, is 
under the government of a commander, who is 
subject to the general orders of the viceroy ; but 
also receives orders direct from Europe. The eap- 
teinries from north to south are Para, Maranhao, 
Seara, Rio Grande, Paraiba, Tamarica, Feroaw* 
biico, Sergippedel Rey, Bahia, Ilheos, Porto Se- 
gtfro, Espiritu Santo, Rio de Janeiro, San Vicejtfe 
and del Rey. 

Flrorn the Amazons to Fernambuco the coast is 

lined by a reef three leagues off shore, forming a 

barrier to the encroachment of the sea on the #>a!n 

i 4jnd l , and through which are the entrances to the 

different ports of tile coast. A niralbeT of rWets 

vol. iv. X . empty 



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522 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

empty themselves on this coast, which swell and 
ovcrflpw in the rainy reason, but run dry in sum- 
mer. Farther south, the only navigable rivers be- 
tween Fernambuco and ltio de Janeiro are .the St. 
Francis and Ilio Grande de Porto Seguro; and from 
Rio Janeiro to the Rio Grande de St. Pedro, the 
coast is totally devoid of rivers. 

The island Don Johannes or Marago is on the* 
southern shore, at the mouth of the Amazons, the 
grand branch of this river passing it on the north, 
and on the south it has the branch named the Grand 
Para or Tocatines. In ascending this las.t river, a 
number of fertile and populous islands are past, 
belonging to Portuguese noblemen, to whom thej 
give the title of baron. 

The city of Nostra Senora de Belem, or Grand 
Para, is on the right bank of the river, at the con- 
fluence of the Muja, which forms the port. Tho 
strength and irregularity of the tides among the 
islands render the access difficult. The depth in 
the port is four to six fathoms ; but it rapidly di- 
minishes by the mud deposited in it. The city of 
Belem is the chief place of the captainry of Para, 
and has 10,000 inhabitants. 

The island of Maranham, in the great gulph of 
the same name, is twenty-six leagues in circuit, 
extremely fertile, and has 25,000 inhabitants. The 
city of St. Louis, founded by the French in l6l2, 
is on the south side of the island, and contains 
1,0,000 inhabitants. It is the seat of government 
©f tiie three northern provinces, and the centre of 

their 



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gHttbift vfenturing tip 1 to Para. ' Jj " //0i ^ ' 

- 9(J ThfcWver Paranaibo separates thd d&ptairttfe$ 
<# Bftiratftao and Seara : thfc latter contains) but 
1RP,0bty Inhabitants, and its chief place, of the 
iiAtfie'narae, or San Joseph de Riba Mar, is ah in- 
significant town, on a hill; its port only fit for 
irall ; 'craft, and the military force not exceeding 

* f '^9i£at Salinas bdy and rivfei' are named from tli* 
fyffitatlty of salt made upon them. 
£ <Jk^)6 St. Roque is the N. E. point of Brasil. 
♦^Itie only place of any consideration in the cap- 
fiftty^bf 'Rio Grande, is Natal, on the Rio 
Grande, three leagues from its mouth, which fa 
fltefetided by the castle of Three Kings. 
' ThiD u m r er Paraiba separates the captainrieS of 
ttici Grande and Paraiba : at its mouth is the island 
S^fi Ahtonio) arid eight leagues up it the town of 
Pkrftibai the thief place Of the government, havirig 
*60O inhabitants. It exports to Portugal, sugai 4 ; 
<fyd*1j?6o&h, and drugs, by seven or eight ships of 
555fr toiW. c The entrance of the river is a leagiid 
wide, and is defended by a fort on each shortf. 
1<> fti* province of Tamarica has only tfeven leagued 
d^&ja&t, and but 1000 inhabitants. Nostra Senora 
& Vdftc!&9ao, the principal place, is a town of* 
^6 u fiiHtlies, Situated on a hill in the island of Ta-' 
i#4¥t#AV which is separated from the main by a 
rffifV6^ 6hiarinel on the south, forming a good pori 
ifrMk' J Th'e l&Uhd is eight leagued 16rf g ; Ifctf 
tlJ$J ^nd well watered. 

t 2 Fernambucd, 



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QGMk MARITIME . X^EQpRAFH Y. 

Ferparabuco, Pernambuco, or Olindo,* the chief 
place of the capitainrie of the same name, is at the 
extreme east point of Brasil : its harbour is within 
the reef that lines the shore, and the entrance is 
three leagues north of the city. It is built on an 
elevation. In 1781 it had 12,000 inhabitants, be- 
sides the garrison of 800 or 900. 

The other towns of this province are Serinham, 
on the river of the same name, Alagoas del Norte, 
San Antonio de Rio Grande, Alagoas de Midi, 
and Penada, on the St. Francis, which limits the 
captainry on the south. North of the St. Francis 
are the lakes Lagra de Sal and North Lake, com- 
municating with each other, and with the sea, by 
a channel that admits only boats. The North Lake 
is three leagues long and half a league broad: 
the southern seven leagues long and two broad. 

The captainry of Sergippe has no port for ves- 
sels of any size. The chief place is Sergippe del 
Rey, or St. Christopher, on the river Vazaboris, 
five miles from its mouth, and on an eminence. It is 
defended by a fort, and contains about 500 houses. 
The Rio Real separates Sergippe from Rahia. 

Rahia de Todos Santos, or Ray of All Saints, is 
a great basin, thirty-six miles in circumference, 
with many islands, of which that named Taparica 
lies before the entrance, forming two channels, 
the eastern being a league wide, with twelve to 
tucftyrf boton twenty- 

r fc PffcutoMro, tfie i*#tw name, denotes it» antra** through *Kftffii 
The name o( Olindo it said to be derived trom the first exitaatioiinf Qj/l 
dtecoWrirs, *** O qot tfada sitnafcam para se fandar talma rlfla !° •' &^bn 
**8 A rttlfttJon for founding a town !"\ 



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a^d tfirrow. ' ••' ,i -' 4 '' - 4 ^-<i 

UI *H& city of S*n Salvador, dVe'bWfef^Jafc^Wt^ 
jftoftnce, and the &cond of Bmsil; ii'teifwi 
Jock^ eminence 600 feet high, dn'ftie'^St'slft)^ 
oHthe b&y, a league within Cape Salvador, '{fti^cft& 
point of the entrance. The streets, fhfetlgh 1 wi&; r 
are L! d6 steep, as generally to precludfe the ifte^of 
^it&gek. The number of private hbus& is ilibrft 
2,bti6, mostly Of stone, and massively WBtti^THe 
religious buildings are of course numertfiirt ! afhcT 
rich, particularly the cathedral, dedicated to' SaiT 
Salvador. The population (1801) is estimated W 
^d!,O0d whites and 70,000 Indians and Negroes. 
Kite natural strength of the position is aided by 
st&ng fortifications, and the garrison usually dori- 
^sts of 5,000 regular troops, besides a large 
vrHite and black militia. Many ships of war and 
i&efrchant vessels are built here, 
^^tinhafem river separates the provinces of Bahia 
&ka Ilheos : the chief place of the latter is St. 
Oeofge, in a pleasant valley, on the river of the 
same name, which is crossed by a bar, Arid pro- 
tected 1>y forts. The population in 1778 fras 
ZOJtJtiti; df which not above 1,200 were whites. 

J Tfi^ltio Grande de Porto Seguro sepatatefe the 
p^lfifces of Ilheos and Seguro. It is naVig^le a 
c^Aisidbrtble distance, and fdrms an racellent haf- 
bdtiVit Its mouth. Its situation is denoted by four 
high rocks, resembling the Needled of the Isle of 
l^gKt The port is formed by a ledge of rocks; 

y 3 runnings 



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fh^ai&nd:T6ritiitifa?aiiaturalmole, imileinrttogifc 
ijftite dry at low watbf; Raff a leagueucfeiaai« 
Wbifi the ettV$m#f of the mole are thb rocksaat 
ready noticed ; the channel between there ibeiog 
&dss$i "by bfcft^wfth but twelve fee* at lovfytoAer. 
The port is lined by a fine sandy beach. The ohjfc 
•biiilt on the Sii'ttittiit of a hill, is a meanplade^ of 
soft brick houses, plaistered, with but twd churober 
At the foot of the hill, on the bank of tHe riv»fj>is 
mt Ifidian village, the chief employment 5 offqwBose 
inhabitants is fishing for a species of salmon fading 
die Abrollos reefs, which lay off this port,* ? %nd 
Which is salted for the Bahia market Op&ynto 
sixty small vessels are employed in this tisbonf, 
iind remain out from a month to six weeks, <*ptil 
they ape full. The other commerce of this pOrt^gi 
insignificant « % /'J 

South of Porto Seguro are the establishments «f 
Belmont and Santa Cruz. The harbour of the lat- 
ter is onlyfit for vessels of twelve feet* btit^aMU 
joinitig it is the Coroe Vermeil, a p*rft Jbon *ii? 
largest ships. To the south of Rio des!FVtttrto<tHe 
coast is mountainous, lined with reefs, 'afidMBdlA- 
bited by unconqUered Indians, as far*p ft&Qish- 
jng town of Villa Prado. The town of QetorettM 
js iix miles up a river, whose pnoqtfr is crowed fcy 
'£ bar that exdudes all but small cfaft^llriq^jh 

• The Abrollos Bank extends a great dfettace from the co&t/idM $on 
to be formed of several extensive patches or banks, wfttntotylfflftei twinb* 
'them. The dangerous part of them extends along the coast several leagues 
to the north and south of the latitude 18°. 



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iridurtHous and thriving place than Porto Spguppy 
tncpapthag considerable quantities <xf ca^vft tyt^ 
^borth and' south, and buildifig, , sniaU ejepa^jpg 

* > Sk Matthew is the last place in tf*e province; $ 

JPorto Sfeguro. ; ' . iH^ 

"j«> The only place of any consideration aa th^prflf 

Tirioetof Espiritu Santo bears the name of thq pffQ- 

arinoeJ < It is a $mali town, with a good pprt. .-» t /~ 

^oGape» ,Frio is a conspicuous promontory, upuqlfy 

zam&eihy >ships bound to Rio Janeiro. , ! ; ' 

tartSt? Ann's bay is six leagues north of Gape Fap t ; 

oon/ itei north side are the three islands of St. A n ty* 

r ^wafcittg a harbour between them, but which is 

imposed to the southerly winds that blow in strong 

dgusty > These islands lay off the river Macal ne^r 

two leagues ; they have plenty of wood but no 

twafiwvin Besides the river Macal, the river St. John 

-tiri rthe north, and Una on the south, fall into 

4feejb4y» off the south point of which is Anchor 

sUaiid, darom whence to Cape Frio the coast is 

sUltdifitiUh islands, and north of the Cape two 

-tobgubftis the. entrance of the lake Iraruam*. 

^J^iOflffCape Frio, one mile, is Double Island, 30 

2«kbmd<>from its two hills* The passage between 

yit ftmdothe » Cape seems to be safe, Th# Cape is 

r|^ghlan4)i^regular, with severaj mountains befripd 

cffc## which are many vertical whitish spots. Seven 

J^g^^^^pf Q*#e Frio is the; entrance of the 

*£al» Saquarema* « 

*">- : ^ y 4 Rio 



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%Mt MARITDOiJUMRAPRT. 

Rio Janeiro entrance is twenty-one leagues wtst 
of Cape Frio i it is known by some islands off it, 
viz. Redqnda, two leagues and a half S. by W. ef 
Santa Cruz foil. It is high, round and rockg# 
Vrith two rocky islets two leagues east of it, and 
four miles off shore is Razor Island, four leagues 
south of Santa Cruz fort. The entrance is also 
known by a remarkable break in the land, between 
two perpendicular and naked mountains of gra- 
nite j that on the left is insulated, and has the ex- 
act form of a sugar loaf, the peak of which is 680 
feet above the sea ; that on the right is a moun- 
tain attached to the coast, which rises to the same 
height as the former, but with a gentle ascent to 
the summit. A small island lies in the entrance 
and narrows the channel to three quarters of a 
mile. When through this narrow entrance, a beau- 
tiful basin opens of at least 100 miles in circum- 
ference, being thirty miles deep, and ten to four- 
teen wide, with several small, but exuberantly 
fertile islands, covered with the most beautiful 
trees and shrubs. The shores of the basin rise in 
general abruptly to hills of moderate height, 
behind which, are other ridges, increasing 
in elevation till their summits are lost in the 

n 7j%r« ; is jsewtti t ft* suppose that tbis<yart Aifcml j 
w?£ piN# .3 jfcke, eepwited from tf» w^fej&a wto» * 
row£ank> .tfiQfatswlid parte of wtochhavjalhteou 
wqjfl W9jr/1I9A teft <*nty rtw itfcky bec.nrfhicbii: 
n °fti grosses tbP entrance from tMJOimiks^wthcaibn 



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S«tB^Qrw iort tor tbtf tuagAr hafl itffcfisSven^to 
t&nii&dioiQJ water on it towards the ea^t, ^ White dt J 
rte .ibfe^iextrwiitjri tfce roeks are *bo** Water/ 
Bo<h wittiifl and withonfcthis bar the deptfi is tfgft£ 
teen fathoms. f ;7/ 

k All parts of the port aflbrd anchort^t^tt tȣ 
most numerous fleets, and with the gteat&t ftt#? 
tifcprf access and egress, by means ofthe ^S v intf l 
laoctbreeaes, which are regular. WiftfiPth^Ihitfi* 
boaraiti* ^istttfiy calm from midnight tiU sun-ns&/ f 
whfen;* land toted springs up and la*ts till ndotrf 
wfeicfarships mult take advantage of to ran out? 1 
Wfeea ibis wind dies away, a eahn succeeds anil* 
l«ts titt two o'clock, when the sea breeze sets in, 
awlnferiftgs in the ships which are in the offing. 
TSh^osea breeze drives a great quantity of water 
iatn the, port, which, when the breeze ceases, 
rwhes out again with great rapidity, setting right 
on JBaota Crua point, which is steep to, so that 
w**h little wind, ships are often obliged to anchor 
t& aural being driven against it. 

oTbe entrance of the port is defended by the fort 
o£$a*ta Oozi Hie height of the guns above the! 
30*is jtwenty-four to thirty feet, and it has twenty* 
ttoftfe on the sotth* thirty-three on the welst, and 
the same number on the north. It is situated oft 
tbelo*ert part of a roek, separate from the rii^n 
rocky orvthe east side of the«*ttttioe, ahteactyho* 
tiesfc.by a chasm ten to twelve fefet wide ; ft is 
aUotffkmked by batteries on the acc« vity of tfife 
mimnrock^ werioeking Same C#U2. Ohtheislandr 
ifipthc<tentrance of the harbour, is Fort St. Lucia, 

with 



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99* MARrmni «»grapht. 

with Imimita sorteeorguns//whose)fi*e i liwi nnftfl 
that of Santa Cruz. , i ua* 

.■ The city i©f St. Sebastian, nowathe <*pitti>oF 
Bnurik is akuatodi on the west side of' the* pert, 
four miles within the sugar loaf, on a* eqnak* me* 
galas promontory, three sides of which ate washed 
by the water, and ahe fourth, or west, is sheltered 
by high mountains, covered with wood, 3ttftg 
close behind it. The north and south angles <of 
the promontory are elevated rocks ; the &*lHe¥ 
forms in two summits, on one of which is'fcifor- 
tress, and on the other a fortified Benedictine cow 
vent; and on the southern angle is the JeflutBs* 
convent, also fortified. The town extending tei 
tween these two rocks occupies the east side orUhi 
promontory. Separated from the north angle- rf 
the promontory, by a narrow but deep ehsnrteh * 
the island Cobras (Serpent Island), on which am 
the principal fortifications, consisting of a sqaare 
citadel on the side next the town, where cfce&hKM 
is eighty feet high, and on which sidftiv 4*»>*bte 
naval arsenal, where the largest ships* heeveodown 
by the shore. The island descends towafdtf th* 
east, on which side it is defended by a wahtyfc 
tome places not aboveeight feet high, and withMft 
afditchi The whole. works on thisJ island' mowfc 
fldty>siot guns, of which twenty face the &B»<*Mft. 
mending the usual anchorage, jo •. . .;»Lk> . . 
,<- The labding place, at the town is at a fine cpe? 
of granite, which forms one 'side >of a< sattahwi** 
«be<cenl/9 of which i& a tiuptainnthat supplied the 



''" ' •'■ ' ■ .-!.i'i./jy .J.\UII*»W«* 



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Hm&ifMlr rffttke town njapd> the ahippi»gt#fttr 
water* ...y,, * j;iiur* O 'mil 

lo Of* Ahe* summi* of aihaU^ closer behind the *otvn, 
jsia reservoir^ to which therwateri off several springs 
^ico&djttfcd. by canals of stone, vaulted with 
brick-,, and from this reservoir .• it is conducted *q 
the town ^by an aqueduct, built on two* tiers of 
grab^s, ttbieh ic*osses a deep valley between 1 tlid 
trttt«^*tow», qlf. which it is one of the principal 
<wmwnts, / -..;, 

.irSome ,p£, the* streets are very /wide* and paved 
Ott.eaah 4de wifth WoGks of granite. The .houses 
JW^ia general well built, of two stories, with pis* 
j^qtiog bakopies froin the upper one, and, covered 
$rfth< tiles. The windows are furnished with jea* 
1#usie* instead of glass. The ground floor uatwHy 
nerves as a magaaine, shop, woodhouse* or apart* 
jvents for Abe negroes. r 

o The population of the city before the arrival, of 
Iheltoyal Family was about 3,000 whites, and 
4/0OQ- people , of colour and negroes. 
p/Pfcovisions are abundant and extremely cheap 
44tBw.de Janeiro ; the beef, however > is very ipt 
gtffferent, but the pork is excellent Muttoftii 
se&rteelyito be procured at any price. Fhh^LQdhaU 
kmdfr ofndpme^tic poultry are plenty] an di cheapo 
fWrticttUrly turkies, and the large speoi® 0£4ftje& 
called the Muscovy duck \ the hreadisi excellent; 
*i*^ ihfe fruit* especially, ooangp?. m*A grapes^ 
itq^lft^those)of any part qf the wotU. . • r r u to 
orij^flfp|i»^ipfiiRw^nriro ia-beabhjViAoi^h 
^#pmmer (November to January) the beat is 

oftea 



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S& MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

oftfen great ; the 'thermometer then vatyWg be- 
twewT^andStfV . •■■uo.ii /*, 

. Isle Griwide, south of Rio de Janeiro sUtttefo 
leagues, has a good harbour for ships of bikrdem 
The channel is bounded by the island Marantntya 
cm the feast ; ahd on the west side of this iddnd 4 
a good watering place, j« - ; 

i The province of San Vicente has no portl or 
place of consequence on the coast. I0t ? 

The southern province of Brasil is del-itey* 1 
Thd most noted place within its jurisdiction u -if( 
the Isle of St. Catharine, celebrated by thfe'W 
Viators of all nations as one of the mostbeatitiftfi* 
and fertile spots of the globe ; the hills, the vial* 
Hfes and the plains being cloathed with orange 
lemon and other fruit trees, and the groirrtd cto* 
vfered with flowers and odoriferous heifos. T& 
cbiinterbalance these advantages, however, ; ffife > 
climate is said to be unhealthy. The island ik* 
greitly infested by snakes, and the water %}f ! 
alligators. Provisions, though abundant, Are tab** 
very cheap, a large hog or bullock costing ten 
dollars, a fowl or duck half a dollar, a turkey 
three quarters of a dollar, a thousand lemons a 
delta and *hfdf, 1144b. of rice five dtollars, ll4tb. 
©flWhcfcrt two dollars, 1 $2Ib. of coffee two dollar*, tom* 
bftl^bfirtitfthaSf a dollar. - -ul*H 

i( Fkmtim -of Nostra Senora Dfeseerco is ori that 
nattb#£sfr part of the channel that separates utiicM 
isftdid from the main, and which is but two hun- 
dred fathoms wide. The port is good, being shel- 
tered by some islands ; tKe fortifications are of little 

consideration. 



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consideration, The population <tf tb» idandi is 
six thousand Portuguese, and four . thousand aeg» 
*Jave«; tie naiMtaiy force one^tboustod jtegulirs, 
and tlutee thousand militia. . ( -■;-/ 1 

i vNtorth-fetet winds are the most prevailing herid. 
3Fh© flfrod tide comes from die north and the : rise 
is three feet, < 

The JRio Grande de St Pecteo forms a gdbd 
port, but of difficult access from shifting. s«kU 
b?i)fes, rand from a bar with but ten feet at |ow 
^jatygy on which the sea breaks violently in bad 
W£?th#n After passing the bar* the great lagoon 
qf Paftos is entered with deep water. The town 
i$ situated among sand-hills, and is defended by r 
m^ny forts, some of them on islands ; and a l&rge 
garrison is kept here, it being the principal fron- 
tier fortress of Brasil. The vast flocks of wUd 
cattle that over-run the plains of this province are 
killed for their hides and tallow, 300,000 of the 
former being exported annually, as well as horn* 
and horse hair, to Rio Janeiro ; a hundred coast* 
hpg vessels are thus employed. 

Lake Merin or Meni is a great *alt lagoon c*nK 
sonicating with that of Patos. r 

The trade between Brasil and Portugal is ck*** 
fi*e& to the ports of Grand Para* W^mmkWP} 
Bahia and Rio de Janeiro. The general reseda* 
haVe been given in the account of the commerce *>f 
Portugal;* it is therefore only aectsgary to nor 
^.fn> r ! ■•■•* * . '» -t- "»'■ ItWJifc 

•VqI. II. page 112.. , 



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JM MAfilCOfc (MM ■HIM. 

fee tfc* Hie ftottfaarn pwwnow aftrdnagad* 
taflee, MOM, Basil wood, indigo, u;p«dapH|* 
and drugs, ;*ftd the southern pwrcinca from ORifc 
Janeiro, hide*, tallow, and the precious stetataix/ 

■- nun £ io 

BtTENOS AYRES. v .'jqoanq 

The Spanish viceroyalty of Buenos ^ Asutt 
dotnmentes on the north at the limits of Basils 
#tt the south its extent is undefined, the Spamstd^ 
ekumiog the whole of the region afi Patagtokw 
while the other nations of Europe seem- t&-caoo 
sider this region as still unoccupied, andiheveti 
they usually limit the Spanish province to theila* 
fcrtude 08 9 near Cape St. Andre. This regiool 
was tint discovered by the Spaniard de Safari* 
1515, who sailed up the great river, to viricfrJiel 
gave his name; and in 1520, Sebastian Cabot*] 
then in the service of Spain, also visited this* 
river arid gave it the name of La Plata, from the 
rilver objects seen with the natives, which st*pf»i 
stded that of Salts. Cabot built a fort on tk% 
river Sarcana, one of its tributaries, andifil&Sdb 
Buenos Ayres was founded, but was again aba»o 
doned tor Conception, on the idea of the goUt 
mines boing in the vicinity of this latter $. bnt th» 
ditHcdltroi ascending the river caused Coneef*-' 
tfan to be abandoned in its tarn, and in 1481 that 
cokmtat* returned to Buenos Ayres. Ill 1661* 

th* 

• A fruh that has tb* aroAftik yialilic» tl the 



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BUSKO* Afftlf • i 43$ 

the territory was separated from the province of 

Paraguay, and formed into the government of Rio 

de la Plata ; and in 1777 it was erected into a 

vicrtoyalty, by. the name of Buenos Ayres. . [, 

The Rio de la Plata is formed by the junction 

of a number of great rivers, of which the two 

principal are the Paraguay and Parana. The Pa* 

raguay is in fact the grand stream, though the 

Ifeunna has usurped the pre-eminence ; the fefttier 

issues from a small lake in about latitude lQP r and 

jtmaes a oourse nearly south to its junction with 

the Parana in 27£. This latter river, though ite 

oourse is comparatively trifling, gives its name tar 

their combined waters from the junction to whflr* 

it ;.f alls into the great estuary named Rio de J* 

Pktay twenty .leagues above Buenos Ayres and 

jeventyMive leagues from the sea. The great river 

ifeaguayv which has . its source in the chain of 

ntotfaifcins that border the Atlantic, in about 27?* 

also' debouches at the head of the estuary. 

?*The Parana, after its junction with the Pa- 

mgmy, . overflows every year in June, on a 

greater scale than any of the rivers of the old 

continent, covering whole provinces with its .war, 

tenui* The navigation is unimpeded to Assumption 

ctak^he- Paraguay four hundred leagues from tha. 

whu ;T<fee Plata is fifty leagues wide at its entpanacri 

hqfswen/Cape Sta. Maria on the. north,. < and; iGaptfj 

StAuAj^hony in the, south j the country, far a<gmatr 

*totent from the banks of the river, is coropoetdj 

ofJevel plains with few streams of water. 

. The navigation of the Plata is dangerous from 

^ ' islands 



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f jfilaadft, atuLshoala. and aliok fioon*. 

f Y4#tea|. winds called P<w#ero$ : 

.flHfcii fjCiiesc wipds b^w« xi^itv iqfco <fltafc* 

por^^.tl^^«rthi>Mifc and render tb«n«KM^#r 

Aepe wpsafe. The winds also greatly ajfagtitfefcffee 

.^f tide, with, those- from S.E. to &W^ ti»#0fl» 

tiop ,t>eiBg sixteen feet, while with northertyjwwtfa 

it does not exceed four feet H ,it oj 

. In sailing up the Plata along the north <#ore, 

the first object noticed is Lobos (Sea-walvei) tfftiglr 

tijjtoe leagues S.W. of Cape Sta. Maria, awjflwith 

a fafe channel between them. Maldanadfr &&* 

a* bay formed by a neck of land, but exposee&#o 

tbe SAW winds. The Isle Goretta, off the buy, 

ia strongly fortified with four batteries momstijig 

twenty-four pounders,, which command the \0wJe 

hay and the ship channel on the east, betw«#n 

the island and neck of land. The popuj^tiowof 

Majidonado is two thousand; it was founded in 

1730. ; , t 

• Monte Video, founded in 1724, is twenty^ix 

Leagues from Cape Sta. Maria, ie built on a ppflpn- 

$ula strongly fortified both towards the sep, ^d 

; Imdj wijth a strong citadel T>e ty^^f^W^ 

. mm* «nd has fifteen to twenty thpusapci^^t- 

«fc&* The pprt is extensive, but opejp, L tf>^t£e 

/joutherly: winds; when these winds; W9tyt *ti$#g 

., the depth is eighteen feet at low w^r, «J^j^th 

o^nth^riy w ; *wk only eleven feefc, eo ^jfcftWg 01 

, ^tft>fw: yeasek of above nine or ten fe#. Qifcjhe- 

: west ,*<& Of tfye harbour is tJsp JiiUJroi© ¥&#Rflftjit 

. derives, its name, and <in which is a Ijghkbense. 

The 



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The neighbouring country 19 pleasantly diversified 
and well watered, but td : totaHy bare of 1 trees and 
without a trace of cukivatioHi. Thel- winter ftere 
is boisterous and cold, and the summer subject to 
"violent thunder storms and heavy rains/- A -con- 
siderable quantity of hides and tallow are exported 
r from Monte Video to Europe, and of jerked beef 
to the Havannah. * ft#^<*#e i: 

The colony of St Sacremeht is cm the same 
bank above Monte Video. 

Buenos Ayrec, on the sduth bank' of the Plata, 
received its name from its 'healthy situation.: It is 
fifty leagues from Cape St. Antonio, where the 
river is seven leagues wide ; it has no port, ships 
being obliged to anchor at three leagues distance 
and discharge their cargoes into lighters* who can 
ohly reach the town at high water through a creek. 
The town is built on a peninsula, the streets wide, 
the houses only one story with a garden to each. 
The population is variously estimated, from Q5 or 
30,000 by Helms, to 75,000 by Sir Home Popham, 
The number of European Spaniards, however, 
do not exceed 3000. Since thfe- trade of the 
-Spanish colonies ^atf liberated from the ancient 
restraints, that of Buenos Ayres has* been con- 
siderable. The exports are, wheat* and jerked 
beef to the Spanish West Indies and' Brasil. To 
Europe, gold, silver, hides, ♦ tallow, sugar, Vi- 
gonia wool, tobacco, cotton, bees'-wax and drugs. 
Buenos Ayres is the depot for a great part of the 
produce of Chili, Peru and Potosi. The route to 
rot. iv. > i the 



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3& MAJUTJOW (SKQQ*MtHY. 

the provihcpf on the grand ocean i&pecfemed ift 
carts acres* the plains called Pitmpes, to McntStei 1 
afc«be fob* of the Andes, one month ; from Mfetv 
doza die maintains are crossed by mutes to^StP 
Jego in Chili, and from St. Jago to Valparai^i^f 
carts, ifteen days. This route is, however,, only 
prattkaWe in siimmer, the Andes being covered 
with snow fot a great part of the year. . 

The commerce of Buenos Ayres has increased 
in proportion to the freedom that lias b^eu ac- 
corded it Between 1714 and 1739, during the 
period of galleons, the average annual export 

was ... . V. ...• 2,125,000 doIL 

From 1748 to 1778, the period of : 

register ships 4,260,479, 

From 1785 to 1794, free trade, \ 6,686,000 , 

The detail of the commerce of 1796 is a& 
follows: 

Ships entered from Ship ttifed for 

Cadiz 35, .......... . 26 

Barcelona, Malaga and 

Alfaquea ..22.... 10 

.Conrana . . . . . 9 11 

-St. Andero 5. . . : . 4 

Vigo.. 1 

G^n... 1 , ' - 1 

Havanoah. ./. . 3. ........ . . . 14 ^ J 

Lima.. ......... ♦ .... 2.....^.../' I : ' 

' : " V 77 '66 -?k 

bailee'! 



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G^;.,^^vl,m000' ( Foreign^ : di i : 

sflyg* mwh^ - 3,556,000 . (% -;iIih» ^;r l a48,efi© 



v 5,057,000 . ...;._ 8/85^000- 

Exportt of Produce. „,-„». ■-,* f .,.* „-*.. . t 

874,000 ox hides, ' 

44,000 horse hides; " ' 

240,000 fine skins, / v L V 

4^0;d66 bulls hottis, f ' ; f i' ^ ^ 

/ 'ttf arobas Vigoilia wool/ ' ^ r 

'.'»91 — — wool of theGuanaco, • ; , . \* 
2,549 dressed hides, 

222 dozen prepared sheep skins, • 

£,128 quintals of Beef, 

&40 arobas of horse hair, 
3,000 quintals of copper, 

40 quintals df tin, [ 

47,000 arobas of soap and tallow. 

In I80S, the exports of Buenos Ayres jiacl in, 

creased to twelve millions of dollars, of which 

four millions in produce and eight ip gold and 

silver. 

In June 1806, an English force from the Cape 
of Good Hope entered the Plata and took pos- . 
session of Buenos Ayres ; the manner of its being 
again lost id too well known to require our enter* 
ingmtdthe particulars. Since then, a harassing 
\)\A indecisive civil, war has existed between tbs 
people of Buenos Ayres and Monte Video, the 
latter adhering to the mother country, while the 

z 2 former 



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£4? MAUIXW» M9MAPHY. 

former soak to emancipate thateefot* «nd&ve 
recently succeeded in gaining possesion of Monte 

Video*' V • '.;no 

. It does nat appear that Spain ha* any esiakfait 
writs on the Atlantic Coast south of the montkdf 
Rio de la Plata. •>** 

- \Y 

PATAGONIA. " "* 

The region at the extremity of South Apm 
named Patagonia, and by the Spaniards. M*ta&- 
lanica, appears, as we have already said, to be 
considered by Spain as of right belonging, to hov 
while the other nations of Europe seem to consider 
the non-occupancy as a bat to this clais^ aad 
therefore look upon this region as oped Jto 
enterprizes. Upon this idea the English 
menced an establishment at . Falkland's Islarirfa, 
which nearly produced a war with Sp^in. f . /.I 

The region of Patagonia is inhabited* hy * 
number of savage tribes, of which tfiatuwaefl 
lehuels seem to be the celebrated PaU^niyw rf 
European voyagers, who have magnified ifcaq 
into giants. , It is, however, certaiiv thaf p* a 
race, they exceed all others in. stature^ fh& amo* 
mon / he^t being ax and a hql£ fy ^e^mfte^ 
and the tallest seven feet pqe, in^Et and ^gp^tdd 
They are erratic .hunte^ ai^ w^JWOTt ex^ewe^ 
^jfpert in the manag^jwet o^iheVWrac^iwlw% 
haying Jxjeu intrqdnce^ b%jfre J^^^^fM 
Qjjgituns So»|h America in # wild 'jtet^iJ uh *-i 

/ The 



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urork'flian a sterile non»a*fatSHfli ? of ''%^?£ft 
capes. The principal bays are, St. Matlitafc, 
jfaftfad on the ' south bf the peninsula of l St 
£o&ph. PortlSt Antonio in at the 1iead of tf& 
bay. - ^ */. ' ^o--' 

The gulf of St George is the next contfdeiu 
able hay to the moth, to which suqeeeds Port 
Desire. , . .V- > 

Port St Julian is described as sarrauuled by a 
amatory * of a sniphwou^ nteotw s^l, abbui^lin^ 
*rith hftftilaktt, and destitute «f tree, sfcrtfc, to* 
£fedl water, wd frequented only by seals an* 
aesibmk." 

i -jHkm >celetaated Strait of Magellan separates 
fbiagwi* firom the Terra del Fuegd, its entrance 
between Virgin's Cape, on tile north, (a 
white cliff; resembling our South Foreland,) 
arid:/ Gape Eqriritu Santo, (Queen Charlotte** 
Island of the old English charts,) on the south, 
*ight Leagues distant from each other. Though 
the stafit possesses many harbours affording vrood; $ 
•atw, and fish, the heavy galfes of Ayind that 
preeaQ hi it, and the strength of the currents, 
have touted it to be entirely abandoned, as a 
route between the two oceans, ships finding it 
both more expeditious and safer to double Cape 
Hom:> the navigation round which, formerly the 
toarorof seamen, is not, ratify, mbre difficult or 
dangwow than thift routul the Cape of Oood 
Ho^ oltfost^ wk^ prevailing 

in the strait^ ^tiiio the current usmfly seta firom 
Ml i x 3 the 



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3 42 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

the Atlantic \ At the east entrance of the strait 
the tide rises thirty feet. M 

_ 

According to the Spanish charts, the country 
of Terra del Fuego consists of eleven islands, 
separated by navigable channels ; but the only 
one of which any thing is accurately known, is 
that of St. Sebastian, whose direction is feast and 
west The whole of this land presents the most 
dreary appearance of craggy mountains, ap- 
parently doomed to an eternal winter. Here 
science had nearly lost one of its noblest pro- 
tectors in Sir Joseph Banks, who, with his 
companion Dr. Solander^ nearly met a ter- 
rible death from the intensity of the cold. Many 
of the mountains are volcanoes, which vomit 
flames and pumice stone, the latter of which is 
often found floating on the sea. 

Amidst this general scene of desolation are, 
however, found vallies with verdure, and the 
trees on the sides of the hills prove, that or- 
ganized existence is not quite extinct. The na- 
tives of this region appear to resemble the Es- 
quimaux at the opposite extremity of the con- 
tinent, being of low stature, with broad flat faces 
and cheeks, and flat noses. Their cloathing is 
composed of the skins of seals ; and their dwel- 
lings are miserable conical huts. If not habitually 
cannibals, it would appear that the eating human 
flesh has no horror for them, for of seventeen of 

the 



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PATAGONIA. $4^ 

g$ £r%w,of L'Hermites ship killed by t^^ip^thev 
were seen to devour two. Their rommon food, 
like that of die New Hollanders, is the shell fish 
they collect on the beaches, 

The island named Staten Land by the Dutch 
&sc$¥erc$s, is separated from Terra del Fuego 
t>y §ljrait le Maire, which is about five leagues 
fctfpg «ad nearly the same breadth* The tides 
set through this channel with great rapidity, but 
it has no dangers. On both shores are seme good 
ports wtutoe wood, water, fish, seals, and sea birds 
joaay be procured in abundance. The best of the& 
ports is that of Good Success, on the Terra del 
JFuego shore. 

Cape;Hokn is a point of .land at the south 
extremity of an island forming one of a group, 
called Hermit's Islands. 

*//Tbe Falkland Islands have received various 
nainet from the navigators who have visited them. 
The most ancient seem to be those of Sebaldes 
Wert,, and the New Island of St Louis. They 
are. also supposed to be the Pepys Land of 
Cowley (1584,) and* in 1594 Sir Richard Haw- 
kins qamed them Virginia and Maiden Land, in 
honour of Queen Elizabeth. In 1639 Captain 
Strong gave the name of Falkland Channel to the 
4tout between the two largest islands, and this 
name .has been extended to the whole group by 
the English. In 1706 they were visited by some 
French ftom'St. Maloes, whence the name of 
jtfq/^Mfflfj and. Maimnas y given, them by the 
JWfih and, Spaniards. In 1721 Roggewein 
h - z4 . named 



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m 

named thfcm South Belgia. Their barren and ixu 
hospitable wastes offering no inducement to co- 
lonization, they were entirely neglected until 
178$ wHeiT, th* Ften* eovenittftt MnaitoiM 
their occupation, Bougainville, aiterwards known 
for his voyage of discovery, assisted by some of 
his friends, fitted out two ships at St. Malo, and at 
their private expense conveyed to these islands 
eighty Acadians, obliged to quit that colony on 
its surrender to England. Wood was procured 
from the Strait of Magellan to construct dwel- 
lings, and a fort of clay was erected. European 
grains were sown and found to succeed } and no 
doubt was entertained of the multiplication of 
cattle. The court of Spain, however, claiming 
the islands, the French establishment, after it had 
existed two years and amounted to 150 indi- 
viduals, was withdrawn, Spain refunding the ex- 
penses of the speculators. Jn 17G1 the English 
also took possession of these islands, and formed 
a settlement at Port Egmont, which was con- 
tinued at the risk of a war until 177^> when 
being found totally useless, the islands were aban- 
doned to Spain, who we believe has made no use 
of them, although, according to Alcedo, she 
sends convicts thither. 

These islands are lOQleaguesdistantfrom the coast 
of Patagonia, between the latitudes 51 v and 524° 
S. There are three considerable islands and nu- 
merous rodcy islets, all equally bleak and desolate, 
ptfesenting barren shores and naked limestone 
mountains, with no other vegetation than heath 

and 



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and grass. In the low grounds, a skin of peat, 
two feet deep, cavers a bed /tf stone or slate. 
Two berries were the only fruits met with, one 
the size of the mulberry, and the other of the cur- 
rant, both growing on creeping; plants. 

Wolves and foxes are the only quadrupeds, and 
the former have the peculiar habitude of earthing 
themselves like the latter. Sods and sea birch* 
are innumerable. 

The few advantages of these iahwda ?fe uiftff 
*umerey*e*cQilaat harbours, a climate tempq- 
*at» and beakhy, the running waters, which are 
abundant,* newer freezing, and the maw poly 
laying on the summits of the hilts for two month*. 
Though the islands have no wood, there is no 
want of fuel, the peat affording it hi abundance; 
md besides, lasge quantities of drift wood, are 
kfxmghtto the coasts, suppoaed from the Strait of 
fMlifelUa. 

i i^f She ides, <tf Diego Ramhrea ate a group of 
-geeat barren -rocks, »ten leagues sonth of Cape 
idiom* The channel between is perfectly atfk 
-niua ; • 

Ofiii Oil ' .. ■ - * , • :'* ■ ' < "H I • 

*>d< ,0.' :.•'• 

Having doubled Cape Uom^ andiwewdingtbe 
T*eat toot of Amerkm, we^tmfettbeChi^ 
*m SomHi of Cook* of the ^«lf of €hrirtw« 
-#tf tbe*ptaiafdft> ift wfcieh k the excellent Jn<ri><»r 
/*rf©e^6tarl^a0b*a^ Qpye 

j&saoktibn* itefthgr north, itodket* byiU name* 
iltf.-iri »h: that 



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346 MARiTiarg omioiafhy. 

that the two extremities of the continent are 
equally dreary and barren.* Passing the entrance 
of the Strait of Magellan, of which Cape Pillar is 
the south point and Cape Victory the north, we 
find a coast lined with islands grouped into nu- 
merous archipelagos, all rocky and inhospitable : 
the most considerable are the Madre de Dios and 
Campana, between which is the entrance of the 
Gulf of the Holy Trinity, in which is the good 
port of St. Barbara. 

The Gulf of Penas is between Campana Island 
on the south, and the peninsula of Ties Montes 
on the north. Near the island of Ayantan, iu 
47° 42 5 the Wager one of Admiral Anson's squa- 
dron was run in shore to prevent her foundering. 

The Gulf of Chonos is between the peninsula 
of Tres Montes and the Great Isle of Chiloe. The 
main land is here broken, rugged, and apparently 
unsusceptible of cultivation. The Anna Pink 
harbour, named after one of Anson's victuallers, 
m,a secure port for the largest ships. . • ,; - 

':'--' J >'i *,' #•'.. >.♦! 

*■ . 

*. 

PROVJtfCB OF CHILOE. 
; - ""•'■■■ * ... ^rtc 

^JTJfmJaxtopffoigp .of ..Ghiloi* and the #$£&• 
bottriflg, coasts qf. the coqJwieat,: fo^rna prpyj^p 
undttlihe ;3p«9isbL j&ot&utfiQp,. extendjpg op ^he 
sea coast from Point Capitangs, , on the, cpfltiqqnfc 

fittteislan4»48*^ ... . ,m 



• Cape Desolation of Greenland. 



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• > v €*tto«* : toft 

* lf TKf rtlimfa of 'this archipelago are upwards of 
*rt f, huti«red i» number, bt* >tfe* Great Isle of 
6hBoe is afeme of any considerable date; and twenty 
iuAy ire inhabited. The whole appear to have been 
fohned by eonvulaoii* of nature, which havd 
broken the continent to pieces, being generally 
kigged masaes of rock, separated by narrow and 
deep- channels, the navigation of winch is ren- 
dered dangerous by sunken rocks arid violent 
currents. Most of the islands rise perpendicularly 
from the water, and are so rocky that the pro- 
portion of soil eagfable of cultivation is very small; 
and this little, wring to the unfavourable climate,* 
but still more to the idleness of the inhabitants 
and their very imperfect agriculture, is not culti- 
vated to the greatest advantage. Hence the 
quantities raised of wheat, oats, French beans, and 
potatoes, which constitute the permanent vegetable 
food, are not sufficient for the' consumption. 
r The only cultivated fruits arfe several varieties 
of the apple, and strawberries. The most commoa 
trees and with which the hills are 4 in general co- 
vered, are the cedar, oak, walnut, plumb, cypress, 
cinnamon, laurel, orange, the pelu, zenui, meter, 
an&meU. A kind of rattan grows spontaneously, 
o£nrtrich the natives make their cordage, and 
itftiich is also employed in Voofiog their habita- 
tions. The archipelago has neither beast of 
•prey nor venemous reptiles. * '..-•'- 

' The climate is humid and stormy; but not un- 
" \ ., -■*■ . heahhy. 

• 

• The heavy rains in amuron render it necessary to cut the corn before 
;t isVipe, and dry it in the sun or by the fire. 



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34<8 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

healthy. The winter is not .sufficiently cold to 
permit the snow to lay on the gronnd, but this 
season is extremely wet, with heavy gales from 
N.N.E. and N.N.W. ; southerly winds on the con- 
trary are accompanied with fair weather. Tkia 
traversia is a short storm from the east* The 
Aurora Australis is occasionally seen here. In 
midsummer the heat is great, but the sensation is 
moderated by sea breezes which blow pretty regu- 
larly from ten to three o'clock, J m t , * MJ 
The population of the province does not exceed 
15,000 Creole Spaniards, and 11,000 Indians, dis- 
tributed in three towns and fifty-one villages, none 
of the latter containing more than twenty-five fa- 
milies, and many only four or five. The Creole 
Spaniards and the Indians form the only two 
classes, there being no mixed breed* The former 
are ignorant, lazy, and wretchedly poor, yet so 
proud, that though very few are able to purchase 
shoes and stockings, they consider the Indiana 
with the utmost contempt, and instead of endea- 
vouring to meliorate their situation by their as* 
sistance, they prefer cultivating with their owu 
hands a spot of ground barely sufficient to feed 
their families. Th* Indians are equally idle, but 
without any haughtiness. Their greatest riches 
does not exceed a small plantation, thirty to torty 
sheep, and as many hogs. The men, besides their 
agricultural labour, and the procuring cedar planks 
to pay their tribute, are employed in fishing, the 
sea affording them the greatest part of their daily 
food, and the overplus is dried Whales oftea 

run 



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CHILOE. S49 

ntn aground in the channels of the island, in pur* 
suit of the shoals of sardines, and their blubber is 
converted into oil. The women's employments 
are making mats and coarse linen, and woollen 
cloths. 

The exports from the province are, first, timber, 
and chiefly cedar planks, in which the Indians pay 
their tribute of four planks a head. These are 
mostly procured from the continent, at the foot of 
the Cordillieres, and as they are split instead of 
being sawed, a vast waste of timber must take 
place to procure the 50 to 60,000 which are sent 
to Lima annually; they are obliged to be four 
■vans long, seven to ten inches broad, and half an 
inch thick. Some walnut wood for ships" planks 
and boats' oars, is also sent to Lima. The second 
object of export is cured hams, the archipelago 
abounding in hogs. The whole trade occupies 
only three or four small vessels, which arrive once 
a year from Lima, at San Carlos, and on their 
arrival a fair is held, at which the Indians barter 
their merchandize for the objects they want, for 
there is no money in circulation except what is 
paid to the officers of government and the regular 
troops. These latter consist of only fifty-three 
dragoons, fifty-three infantry, and thirty-three ar- 
tillery, stationed in the forts of St Carloe, Chacao, 
Calbuco, and Aqui. A militia of the Spanish 
inhabitants, amounting to 1569 individuals, com- 
pletes the armed force of the province. J W 

The great isle of Chiloe is about forty leagues 
long, N. and S., and from ten to thirteen leagues 

broad. 



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S50 MARITIME BWfcKAPHY. 

broad* It is separated from the continent OH tlW 
N. by the Boca de Chiloe, or channel of Chacao; 
only one league wide at its entrance. On the 
south it has the Gulf of Chonos, and on the west, 
between it and the main, it forms several gulfs. 

The west coast of the island is straight, having 
no indentation of any consequence, and only a few 
insignificant rivers. The east coast which faces 
the continent is more irregular, and nearly in the 
middle forms a deep gulf. The island contains 
two towns and thirty-eight villages, principally on 
the north and east sides, there being but one vil- 
lage on the west coast; and the interior is so 
mountainous and barren that it is entirely unin- 
habited. 

Until 1768, the Port of Chacao on the NE. end 
of the island, was the principal place, but the dif- 
ficulty of the navigation to it caused it to be de- 
serted for the port of St. Carlos, on the Bahia de 
Reye, on the NW. end, the access to which is 
safe, and it is now the only port visited by the 
annual vessels from Peru. The city of San 
Carlos is the chief place, and contains about two 
hundred wooden houses of the Spaniards, and 
some Indian huts, scattered without regularity. 
The town named St. Antonio de Chacao, now 
ponsists only of. the church, a missionary house, 
and some Indian huts. 

Castro, on the east side of the island, had a good 
port, but from the difficult navigation is never 
visited. . t ' : 

The other Islands ate insignificant With respect 

to 



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to size, when compared with the Great Island* 
The largest are Achao, or Quinchau, and Lemui. 
None of the others are more than from one to 
three leagues in circumference. Of the villages 
on .these islands, that of Calbuco is the most con- 
siderable, consisting of twenty straw houses, inha- 
bited by Spaniards, and defended by a fort. The 
village of St. Maria of Achao has eighteen "straw 
houses, of Spaniards. All the others are of still 
less consequence. 

There are three villages on the main, viz. 1. Ca- 
relmapu, on the N. shore of the BocadeChiloe, 
which formerly had a good port, but is now so 
filled up, as to admit only canoes. 2. Maullin, on 
an arm of the sea, called the Boca de Mettemor, 
north of the Boca de Chiloe„ It has a fort with 
four guns, fourteen straw houses, and a church of 
.the same material. 3. Astillero, on the north 
.shore of the Boca de Chiloe, and nearly surround- 
ed by water, contains 200 houses, of wood and 
straw; but which are only inhabited for a short 
-time at Easter, and at the Feast of St. James, the 
patron of the Indians. During the rest of the year 
both Spaniards and Indians live in their fishing 
huts. The church, of Astillero, though of wood, 
is. the handsomest of the province. 

' *v<Ju»" .'. . -v i < ■.;•'. • < <•' .11. <- J Ji -•--£-»' 
' . f : • . ' .. ~ ; :. '. ;• . : .:r::c b? ^ 

.The Jkingdom of Chili extends from the Arctuj^ : 
lago of Cfriloe' to the desert of Atacama, or |jyyji 

•EW ri , '""' latitude 

- o< 



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55* MABITOIK 

lawn* 41° to t6°, fcrmifag**ascowaBp 
the Asides and the sea, bo *riw£ above frrtyftr e 
leagues broad. \ >•-."> v: " 

This country w» first visited by* Di ag» M i n s g io, 
the companion of PSzarro, afttr Ae nu o qu a rt trf 
Peru; and in 1541 Baldma, tits fesft clip* "MM 
founded. The Spaniards, k>wevatv baw* awia* 
been able to conquer the whole efl Anaregioar it 
though the attempt has cost them mare bloaiirl 
treasure than all the rest of Amerioayand the^hset 
finally been obliged to leave th* Indiana is pos- 
session of all the tract from the BioWo river to tthe 
south, with the exception of the fehreisjaf Jfchb- 
via. By the recent revolution? Chili has/ttttirtiy 
thrown off the dominion of th^ mother country, 
and is now governed by Creole magistrates. 

The rivulets which descend from; the Andes rati 
through fine vallies, ia Which thb'ditnate Kwmblhs 
that c£ Spain, and where are produced the fnrits 
of Europe, as well as of the tropics* - Tiro hills are 
covered with the finest timber ttkm 9 msti are <infa»- 
bited fay deer and vicunas. The livers aboood 
with trout and eels. Fish is alsa extremely abun- 
dant on the coast, the commonest kinds being eon- 
gers, soles, cod, smaller but more delicious. tfcan 
that of Newfoundland. Tunny iish abo arrwflipe- 
tiodically. Ambergris is frequently found on the 
shores. The wind is generally from the S.W. 
while the sun is in the southern tropic, and is cold 
and dry. The north and north-west winds, which 
prevail in the opposite season, bring heat 'and 
jain. 

The 



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r*u^,4iy f *espqtta -tf (^oQptipp, ifp^r^^ 
and Coquimbo. To Peru are espoc^d t l50^jta 
,n*9fcMM>>^^ 126*000 

l^qtMnteb of -teltowv jerked bed£ wii^ r raising al- 
^j»oods> atti* walnuts $ he»p^ . horses* timber* apd 
ttjoaaie cftfip^r^ ^Xha imports ar# cloths, ,augfu; f . qa-t 
• c W jke^ mdt*dU Valdi via Jiaviqg nofchjpg . to 
L«jwrty w«a Ibrmeriy 4»ly visited by, two* ^bipa a . 
<% 3Btbt^ one -from Valparaiso, with provisions f^jt^e 
^riiiodo,. and the other from Callao, wi^b fc^flay 
Of (the tipops. It has latteriy been declared a free 
) .pott Titrate with Peru is ia favour ot.Ch.i4i, and 
v (employs twenty to thirty ships of 50ft to GOO tqi^ 
. Ghili was long debarred all direct coram unication 
withQkhSpain, theRegister ships being obliged to 
precfced to Peru, from whence Chili procured the 
9. rtanu&cttwr e$ of Europe : latterly she h*s received 
r them; direct, ftom Spain, and gives in return silver, 
t copper* \flgopia wool, and tanned leather. 
. : Tie tfepogfaphy of the coasts of Chili is little ip- 
htet^bting^ it having but few ports, and still feujer 
-fitrtms; (tBftWiviai, or Valdivia, on the .Mapocha, 
ift ^SOfrTted 40,000 inhabitants. Its bay jjt.jg^U 
r /sheltered by two points of land, anil the river ad- 

**dt rMtoha Island is high* three or four lej^gj^es 
Vlo^g^iand^ inhabited by Indians, . wjio cu^iv^e 
h[^h#jaJ>aii)dian;Corfl, and fruit* Lavapie JjSp^is 
rf~4fcelt#ed jon tbe *|Fert by the islandTof St, Afjpy j 
hbut*i&4psn:fe9 the-, mirth andjuortb-west ; t7y * 

Bio-bio River, one of the most considerable^ 
- Tvol.iv. 2 a Chili, 



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4A4 KARITOfB GffCRAPHY. 

Chili, bai several Spwish forte 09 it# fenfe *<* 
keep, the Indians in check j it* haplt* MbnifflA 
with cedar for building. , n: 

The city of Conception, formerly the capital of 
Chili, founded by Valdivia, in 1550, is a mean 
place, but with a good port, within an island, 
forming two channels, both safe, 

Valparaizo (the Valley of Paradise) is. a^ Umn of 
low houses, built thus on account of tfce frequent 
earthquakes. Its bay is s^fe in summer, whe&soptb'r 
erly winds prevail; but in winter the northerly, \WDii* 
blow into it, being open from N.N.W. to N Jtf,E> 
The anchorage for ships is in ten or twelve frthoiag* 
one quarter of a mile from the town ; but smft 
vessels make fast to rings fixed in. piles, ilffse to 
the shore, where there ia eight fathQma depth, Ita 
only trade is with Lima. 

The port of Quintero is skeltered ofi thft Wjttife 
but open to the north. 

Coquimbo la Serena, in a beautify}, valley, four 
miles from the sea, is inhabited by about 5Q0 
Spanish families f Its streets age d&^yp in. sight 
lines, and the houses separated by lwge ganje^fr 
In the vicinity is a rich copper mine, the ppodyca 
of which, as well a? wine, oil, liides, 2yr. ai# s^rt 
to Lima by about five ships, a yeac. Thjft b?y of 
Coquimbo is sheltered] on the south by tl)$ I?**a- 
ros, or Bird Islands, three or four in r>ug*b$r, 1)$* 
tween which and the point of the main ip ^ sg& 
channel for ships. Another group of roqfcy isfeii4^> 
seven or eight leagues N»% of Cequimfep* %£*, 
also called) Paxarog, 

Cape 



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HHMtui " 9Si 

(JapeTres Montes is the extremity of Lottie high 
tetiiinfoins, terminating art the coast in thtfee hun>- 
HWchaw Salada Bay is exposed to the north, and 
i* only visited by ccfceters for salt , 



tmv. 



During ike operations against the Mexicans, 
the Spaniards learned the existence of the empire 
of Peru ; and the fame of its wealth rousing their 
unquenched cupidity, three private individuals, 
with no other resources than their own meaas* 
commenced its conquest in 1530. The chief of 
this triumvirate was Francis Pizarro, the second Al- 
magro, and the third was a priest named Lucques. 
The forces they were able to raise for the conquest 
of this populous empire amounted to no more than 
thirty-six cavalry and 144 infantry; but, unlike the 
Mexicans, the Peruvians were a timid and un- 
warlike race, which together with their civil dis- 
sensions, made them an easy conquest, and in ten 
years their country was divided between the fol- 
lowers of Piaarro* In 1543, the first Spanish vice* 
roy appeared in Peru. 

The kingdom of Peru has for limits on the south 
» desert tract which separates it from Chili, and 
on the north the river Guayaquil id the boundary. 
The name of Peru is said to be either from Beru, 
one of its rivers, or Pekt, one of its promontories, A 
ridge of hills lines the coast at the distance of twenty 
five to thirty leagues, whose ramifications stretch 

2a2 , quite 



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$56 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

quite to the sea, forming between, generally sterile 
vallies and plains, except where they are fertilizedby 
rivers, which are however few and inconsiderable. 
On the coast, between 5° and 15° S- rain is almost 
unknown, but there are frequent dense fogs and 
heavy dews, which, together with the rivulets that 
descend through the ravines, named quebradas, 
nourish vegetation. Thunder and storms are near- 
ly as seldom experienced as rain, arid the winds 
blow constantly from the south. 

The whole coast of Peru has not a single har- 
bour in the strict sense of the word, the anchorage 
being all in bays or roads more or less open and 
insecure. 

The southern province of Atacama has no other 
establishment than some Indian villages of fisher- 
men, who take the species of cod called tolla, and 
salt it for the markets of the interior. The prin- 
cipal of these fishing stations are Atacama and 
Copija, the latter, containing fifty Indian families, 
is on the most barren part of the coast, but is the 
nearest place of embarkation to Potosi. 

The Loa river, the most considerable of the 
coast, separates the provinces of Atacama and 
Arica. This latter province is mountainous j its 
only river of any consideration is the Locumba, 
which, after forming a lake, issues from it with a 
rapid stream. Pica bay, six leagues north of Iquaina 
island, is an open road, but with good anchorage, 
near a little river. Tarapaca is five leagues far- 
ther north, and before it is Pavilion Island, named 

from 



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PERU. 857 

from its resemblance to a tent ; on the main within 
;t is a rivulet where ships may water. 

Arica, the chief establishment of the province, 
is in a pleasant valley, and was formerly a consi- 
derable place, but was ruined by an earthquake in 
1605, and sacked* by the English Buccaneers in 
1680, since when it has been neglected. Its port 
or road is visited by coasters. Quiaca road is 
ten leagues north of Aripa. Ylo or Hilo is a road 
fit only for small vessels. 

The province of Arequipo has but one indifferent 
port and two creeks for boats j the former at the 
mouth of Tamba River is named Port of Yerba- 
Buena, (fine grass) this river running through a 
pleasant valley. Chili River issues from a cavity 
in a great rock. The province exports some wine. 
The province of Camana has only some fishing 
establishments, viz* Quilca, on a creek with an 
island before it ; the volcano of, Arequipo bears 
N.E. from it. Camana, the chief place, is a Spanish 
establishment on the Majes, two leagues from the 
sea, and beautifully situated ; it has 1,500 inhabi- 
tants. Ocona, a fishing village at the mouth of a 
river of the same name. 

Yea province has the road of Masca, with good 
anchorage, but neither wood or water. St. Gero- 
nymo d* Yea, the principal place, has 6,000 inhabi- 
tants ; it has some glass manufactures, and exports 
wine to Callao and Panama. The coast of this pro- 
vince is very barren. Palfa is an insignificant road 
before the mouth of the Rio Grande, and Quemada, 
though a good anchorage, is difficult of access with 

2 a 8 the 



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$66 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

the prevailing winds, and, besides, it affords neithe# 
wood nor water. N.W. of the road is Lobos Island, 
with anchorage under its lee. Pisca Bay is the 
best road in this province, being sheltered from 
the prevailing south winds by the Island Balfotta. 
The insignificant town of Pisca is half a mile froni 
the beach. 

The province of Canete has no port, and only 
some Indian fishing villages. 

Callao, the port of Lima, is at the mouth of the 
river of this latter ; it is built on a low flat point 
tend, is strongly fortified, and its road, which 
is the best of Peru, is protected by several batte- 
ries. The frequency of earthquakes, and rain being 
unknown, have caused the houses to be built of the 
slightest materials. The earthquake of 17*6, which 
destroyed three-fourths of Lima, was still more fatal 
at Callao ; of a population of 3,000, one man alone 
being left alive. The road of Callao affords good 
anchorage all over it, and is sheltered by many 
desert islands. 

Arnedo, or Chan9ay, one of the largest coast 
towns of Peru, is situated in a fine valley a league 
and a half north of the river Passamayo ; it con- 
- tains 300 houses of brick and reeds, and exports 
corn and cattle. Huaura, on a tolerably large 
river, has 200 houses ; off it are many desert islands,- 
the resort of innumerable sea-birds, Whose dung 
is sought for as a manure. There are also many 
natural salt pans on this part of the coast, which 
give name to Salinas road, tolerably sheltered, but 
affording neither wood nor water. * 

Tha 



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< 3T!i* [Jfovhtee of Santa has the tdwh bF Baran- 
ca, of sixty houses, at the mouth of a river ; in the 
vicinity, and a league from the sea, on a hill, are 
the ruins of a Peruvian fortification, consisting of 
an oblong square, enclosed by three mud walls 
within £ach other, the outer walls being 300 yards 
long and 200 broad. 

The port of Santa is on the river of the sdme 
name, which empties itself by five mouths, all of 
sufficient depth to admit sea-vessels ; the current 
runs but four miles an hour- The village of Santa 
Maria de Padilla, at the moutli of the river, has not 
above fifty families of Indians and Mulattoes ; it 
is hevertheless the chief place of the province. 
Jt was s&cked in 1085 by the English Buccaneers. 
The province of Truxillo is one of the most fer- 
tile of Peru. Its chief town, of the same name, is 
built on a sandy Soil half a league from the shore. 
Its houses of brick have but one story in conse- 
quence of the earthquakes, but are well built, ^ith 
porticoes and balconies ; its population 19 10,000. 
Thfe rbad H called the bay of GuAnchaco, and is 
known by being under the highest peaks of the 
ridge of mountains that lines the coast. The rrter 
Mocho empties itself a league from the town. 

In the province of Sana, the only places of any 
consideration are the Bays of Malebrigo and Che*, 
xeppe, tfoth fciposed to the prevailing S.W, winds. 
St. J&go de IVftraflores, or Sava, the chief place, is 
at the mouth of a little river, and is only inhabited 
by a few beggarly nobles, having been deserted 
since it was almost ruitied in 1728 by an inunda- 

2 a 4 tfob* 



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360- MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

tton, r tftoich*the inhabitants considered as * judg- 
ment for having sold the bones of one of their 
archbishops to the monks of Lima ! 

The isles of Lobos de Mar, or Barlevento (wind- 
ward sea wolves) are two great rocks, separated by 
a boat channel, frequented by seals, sixteen leagues 
from the main. Between them is a little road where 
a ship may refit. Lobos de Terre, or Sotovento, 
(leeward) is near the main, and two leagues in cir- 
cuit 

The province of Piura is the northernmost of 
Peru. Its principal places are Sechura, a league 
from the sea, consisting of 200 houses of reeds, 
inhabited solely by Indian fishermen. The Bay 
of Sechura runs in eleven leagues, and is limited 
on the south by Cape Aguja, or Needle Cape. 

Paita is the best road of this province, and here 
.ships from the north bound to Callao usually touch 
to land their passengers, who prefer the journey 
by land to the tedious passage by sea, in conse- 
quence of the constant southerly winds. The 
town of Paita is built on a barren sand, without fresh 
water, which is brought from Colan on the north. 
It has a small castle on an elevation j itwas burned 
by Anson in 1741. 

Near Amostape, on this coast, is a well of mine- 
ral pitch. 

The Gulf of Guayaquil is the only considerable 
indentation on the west coast of America from 
the Archipelago of Chiioe. Its south limit is Cape 
Blanco, and its north point St. Helena, distant 
from jeach other forty-five leagues. 

The commerce of Peru has greatly increased 

since 



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tiaee tbe suppression of the galleons ; duriqg whose 
existence the trade was carried on by, a few great 
capitalists, who regulated the markets at pleasure. 
Under the system of free trade with Old Spain, 
commerce being divided into a number of small 
branches, employs a greater number of merchants, 
and though the profits are not so exorbitant as for- 
merly, they are more widely disseminated. 

Of the productions of Peru Proper, besides the 
precious metals, the exports are sugar, Vigonia 
wool, Peruvian bark ; besides which, it re-exports 
the objects procured from Chili, and from the 
north. The trade with Chili and the Archipelago 
of Chiloe has been already noticed. To the ports 
of Guayaquil and Panama, Peru exports the wines, 
leather,* and brandy of Chili j and imports cacao, 
coffee, and other produce. 

The ports of Realexo, Sansonate, and Guati- 
mala, are the only ones of Mexico visited by the 
trading vessels of Peru. The imports are cacao, 
cochineal, indigo, pimento, &c. 

The following are the general results, in pias- 
tres, of the trade of Peru, exclusive of Europe, in 
1790. 

Imports from. Exports to. Balance against 

Hero. 

Chiloe .... 30,000.... 51,200 21,200 

Chili 458,317 629,800 171,483 

& U Snfa} 128 > 295 ' • • • 284,460. . . . 156,165 

Sa^pnat^ } 28 ' 35(X ' • ' 124 ' 500 ' ' ' ' 96 ' 150 

644,962 1,089,960 345,998 

This 



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. TW$ iinfevourable balance is htwfe?<»s tt&t% 
thjaa compensated by the trade, by had with * 
Buenos Ayres, to which thg exports From Peru are 

2,034,980 piastres, 
tuad the imports only 864,790 



1,170,190 favourable balance, 



The port of Callao is the grand emporium of 
the trade of Peru, and almost the only one that 
has any merchant vessels, the tonnage in 1780 
being 16,375 ; of which eight galleons of frota 
1,800 to 750 tons each, in all 7,450 tottfc ; twelve 
government packets of 400 to 125 tons, in all 
3,025 ; eleven merchant ships of 650 tb 300, ih all 
5,000 tons j small craft, 900 tons. Vessels ard 
sailed at a cheap rate in Peru, but naval science 
is at a very low ebb, deriving no assistance from 
astronomy. 

The fishery on the coast of Peru is solely car* 
ried on by the Indians, who having neither in* 
dustjy, boats, or nets to carry it to any eKtebt, 
it is consequently confined to what can be taken 
close to the shore, and chiefly with hook and 
line. The two species most commonly cured with 
s$t for internal consumption are the tollo y a species ' 
of sma^l cod, and the manta, or ?loak fish. 



THE KINGDOM OF NEW GRANADA. 

Oi the side of the Grand Ocean, the kingdom 
of Quito, the province of Popayan, and others 



are 



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Itfe Indued in the New Kingdom of Cfth&la, 
the River Turabez being the boundary betwteett 
Peru ami Quito, 

Guayaquil River is formed by several streams 
from the Andes, and is navigable twenty-eight 
leagues to Caracol, where it forms a large island j 
but being incumbered by shifting banks, it re- 
quires a pilot, and vessels of burden usually leave 
their guns at the isle of Puna, before its mouth. 
Its banks are generally covered with mangrove. 
The city of St. Jago de Guayaquil is built en- 
tirely of wood* and has 22,000 inhabitants j its 
streets are filthy and swarming with reptiles. It 
has a building place where line of battle shipsf 
have been constructed, timber abounding in th6 
neighbourhood. It is protected by two insignifi- 
cant forts. Its principal export is cacao, of 
which it sends 600,000 fanegas to Lima and 
Panama, Plata Island is four leagues S.S.W. of 
Cape St. Lorenzo ; it is five miles long, is inac- 
cessible on the west, but on the east has a good 
road and fresh water. Here Sir Francis Drake 
divided the dollars taken from the Spaniards, and 
hence it received the name of Plata. 

Tacamas Bay has good anchorage within a 
rock, and fresh water. St Matteo, on a river, 
has a tolerable port, and is visited by coasters fbr 
cacao. Mira River empties itself by nine mouths* 
north of the island of Tamaco, which latter is 
one mile and a half off sHote, surrounded by j 
isle(t% amd forming a good port on the east for 
small vessels^ 

The 



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864 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

The Bay of Chocho, in the province of Popa* 
|fan t is only remarkable for having a communica- 
tion by water with the Caribbean Sea. The Ri- 
ypr St Juan, . which falls into the bay, has its 
source in the same ravine as the Atrato, which 
debouches in the Gulf of Darien ; and in 1788 the 
Spanish curate oi the parish employed his parish- 
ioners to unite these two fivers by a small canal, 
$9 that, in the rainy season, canoes loaded with 
cacao pass from sea to sea, the distance being se- 
venty-five leagues. v 

Malpelo Island is a high barren rock, visible 
twenty leagues, surrounded by islets ; the whole 
occupying a space of eight or nine miles north 
and south. 

Gorgona Island, two leagues long and one wide, 
is . surrounded by other islands. The currents on 
this part of the coast run with great violence, 
giving name to Cape Corientes. From this cape 
to Port Quemada, a distance of thirty leagues, 
there is neither port nor river, and the shore is 
lined with islands and rocks. 

The Gulf of Panama is limited by Point Fran- 
cisco Solano on the east, and Point Mala on the 
west. On the east shore is the Bay of St. Mi- 
guel, which receives the River St Mary, one of 
the healthiest positions in the gulf. Panama is 
an irregular built town at the foot of a high hill, 
with some poor fortifications. The port is formed 
by some islands two leagues and a half from the 
town. The principal island in the gulf is Tobago, 
six leagues south of the city, four miles long and 

two 



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WfcW GRANADA. 86$ 

two broad, mountainous, btit covered With fhiit 
trees, and well watered. On the S.E. is a good 
harbour. The Pearl Islands are a cluster of \trt 
woody islands, with many good anchorages, for- 
merly the rendezvous of the Buccaneers, and 
named from the productive pearl banks round 
them. 

The tides in the gulf are said to ebb and flow 
every three hours, and to rise very high. 



NEW SPAIN., * 

The provinces of Veragua and Costa Rica ou 
the Pacific, have few establishments. Off the 
former are the islands of Quibo and Quicaras. 
The first is a beautiful island of moderate elevation, 
covered with cedar and chesnut trees, well wa- 
tered, and extremely fertile. It has deer, mon- 
keys, and other animals. On the N.E. a rivulet 
forms a picturesque cascade, forty yards broad 
and 150 feet fall. It has a port named Bueno 
Canal, six miles long with five fathoms depth, 
and the rise of tide is twelve feet. Quicaras, S. W. 
of Qaibo, are two islands, the largest six or seven 
miles long ; they afford cocoa-nuts. Many other 
islands lay along shore to the north ; that named 
Mentuoso is covered with cocoa-palms, and is five 
miles in circuit ; its shores are in general rocky, 
but on the S.E. is a sandy cove where boats may 
land easily. 

The Gulf of Nicoya, or Salines, is in the pro- 
vince of Costa Rica j in it are many islands and 

banks 



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06$ MARITIME eEOORlPItY* 

bwAs on which fine pe^rk a« ftjhed* 'l&tffciitf 
tbe entrance of the Coparso, haa- a gopcb port, apd 
many ships are built here. 

The Gulf of Papagay o, in the province 0f NP 
carfagua, is under the volcano of Bembacheo, new 
the city of Granada, on the Lake Nicaragua; the 
Volcano is cleft from top to bottom* St* Jua* <!# 
|iieai*gua is- at pdrt en the g«l£ 

Realejo. is a &msi\ town surrounded by a cbtetH 
an island before it forms two passages to its port, 
the S.E. being the broadest, but obstructed by 
shoals; that on the^N.W. is free from danger* 
and has. four fathoms depth at low water. The 
town is on the east bank of a river, three leagues 
above the island, and ten leagues N.W. of New 
Leon, with which it almost communicates by a 
creek. Reatqjo exports pitch, tar* and cordage* 
and builds vessels* The volcano named Del Vqd 
lays N.E. of the town. 

Several parts of the coasts of New Spain are 
subject to violent storms. On the coasts of 
Nicaragua and Guatimala, S.W. gales are frequent 
m August and September ; they are accompanied 
by thunder and excessive rains, and hence arc* 
named tapay aguas* These same gales blowing in 
July and August on the coast of Mexico, rende* 
the ports of Acpulco and St Bias of dangerous 
access. On these coasts, in the fine season from 
October to May, strong gales from N*E. and 
N.N.E. are common, accompanied with clear dry 
feather, 

Jil the province of Guatimal* is St« Salvador* 

a town 



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Mown<tfl5,QfK) inhabitants, twelve aUft **»•« 
rfafgr). &4 Q*y of Sanwnfttft or Tristful* im 
* small estaWifthmwt. The city of St J#go dft 
Guatknala is built at the foot of a volcano* wfeich 
ka%f$ftP5e<l i* to be several times destroyed by 
earthquake tk§ la$t of whiqh in 1775 tq&$ky an* 
tyhiktej & The River Vaceas runs through- it : 
tb# <&P«o of its territory is celebrated*, and ithfr 
sides exports cochineal. 

• Xke provide of Oaxa^a* succeeds to Qujat^ 
qtfa. Jt is one of th$ n\QRt healthy «*d 'itg^ 
p¥QK84 tr^fcs of New Spain. Its southern *pwt 
W wh&i by the Gulf of Tebwwtepeo* &anrcd 
ftom a tow» coi^posed of thr^e Ind&a villages* on 
& aed^,i crossed by a bar. 

I# Mexico PrQper, the chief places are Ac a* 
«*?ICQ, celebrated during tlie epoch of the gai« 
leons. It is now a wretched place inhabited by $ 
dozen Spanish, and about forty families of Chi- 
x#m> mulattos, and negroes. It is defended by 
tke castle of St. Diego, on a point of land, mount** 
ing several* twenty-four pounders. Its port is tha 
only one tibat deserves the name of harbour oa 
this, coast, being a beautiful basin ten miles, long! 
and three broad* surrounded by volcanic mown 
tains, and having the appearance of being formed 
by an earthquake. An island before it forms two 
channels. The high shores preventing the circu* 

latiow 
, * » 

* This province is considered as the most southerly of the viceroyalty of 
JfOfc Spain, on the Grand Ocean ; the province of Guatimala, including 
Veragua and Costa Rica, being governed by a captain-general, subject, 
however, in certain respects, to the viceroy of New Spain* 



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$6$ MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

lation of the air, render it very unhealthy. The 
chief trade is still with Manilla by the annual gal- 
leon, of which we have already given a detailed 
account.* 

Between Acapulco and Cape Corientes there is 
no port or establishment worthy of notice. 

The River Zacatulo, which bounds the inten- 
dancy of Mexico on the north, is of considerable 
size. 

The only place of any note in the intendancy 
of Guadalaxara is St. Bias, at the mouth of the 
St. Jago, a large river affording an extended inland 
navigation, but its mouth crossed by a bar with 
twelve feet only at high water springs. At St. 
Bias is the principal administration of marine of 
the vice-royalty of New Spain, on the Grand 
Ocean. A battery of fifteen guns defends the 
port. 

North of St. Bias are the Three Maria Islands. 
The middle, named St. George, is nine miles long, 
and has good anchorage on the east ; St. John's, 
the northernmost, is thirteen miles long. These 
islands are elevated, covered with wood, particu- 
larly lignum-vifce. Between them and the main 
are some small islands named Isabellas. 



The Gulf of California, Sea of Cortes, or 
Vermilion Sea, formed by the peninsula of Cali- 
fornia, 

* Vol. III. page 406*. 



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mw sfjuk. 369 

fbrntaou the west,aod the continent on the east, is 
300 leagues long and fifty to twenty broad. The 
only knowledge we have of it is, that the east coast 
is fined by shoals, and is high and broken to the 
latitude «7§°* The only places on this coast 
(the Intendancc of Sonoro) are the port of GuU 
tivas, at the mouth of the considerable Hirer 
Mayo ; and that of Guayma at the mouth of the 
Yaquk This last port is surrounded by elevated 
hills, and before the entrance is Pelican Island, 
which is left on the right hand in entering. Ships 
anchor in five fitthoms. The small Spanish vil- 
lage is ten miles up the river. 

The Colorado, a considerable river, falls into 
the head of the Gulf of California. 

The peninsula of California, or Old GaUfoiu 
kia, is 500 leagues long and from ten to forty 
broad. It is traversed longitudinally by a ridge 
of mountains, some of which appear to be volca* 
sic, and have an elevation of 5,000 feet. Thfese 
mountains are in general stony, but abound with 
wijd aninak of the deer, and other species. The 
woA in the lower ground is sandy and barren, be* 
iog very scantily watered and rain very unfrequent* 
The coasts are abundant in fish, and whales of the 
spermaceti kind frequently chase vast shoals of 
pilchards on the shore. The most beautiful shells 
are washed up on the west coast, and it has also 
many rich pearl banks, the fishing of which was 
formerly a source of riches, but from the avidity 
mad bad management of the Spaniards, Indians 

vol. w. Sb can 



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&J0 MARITIME GEOOfcAPHT. 

can no longer be found to fish. The ffcaiiMirfr«f 

a fine water and size, but 31 shaped* ' -*- *"* 
Cape St* Lacar, the sooth point 6f the petta* 
sola, is a lofty promontory, terminating the Alert 
ra that runs through it, and may be seen tm t My 
leagues. ■ * 

On the east coast, the only Spanish establish- 
ments are the presidios* of Lotetto, Santa Altai, 
and St. Joseph. On the west coast there is yet 
no European settlement 

The province of New California extends 
from the Bay of Todos Santos ift SB° toGipe 
Mendocino. The coasts appear to be fertile and 
well watered, with a temperate climate, be^stfe- 
ject to fogs. Vines and olives are cultivated to 
. the latitude 9J°. The Spaniards first began to 
form settlements on this coast in 1768, but theft 
system of colonization being confined to preach^ 
ing the gospel to the Indians, this extensive re-t 
gion has hitherto been of no other value than 
providing for a few lazy Monks, whose snpers& 
tions are scarcely more reasonable than the 1 pa- 
ganism of the Indians, and have not the &kne 
excuse of untaught savageness. In the year 1808* 
the missions and presidios amounted to •eighteen 
in the following succession from south to north* 
San Louis Rey, 600 Indians ; San Juanj 1,000* 
Indians; San Gabriel, 1,050 Indiana j SatfiFttU 
nando, 600 Indians; San Btieftaventutfe* it$0Q^ 
Indians; Santa Barbara, 1,100 Indiana *j Cd** 



• An auMUhment of a few soldlm and i&ree of few toniC^' 



f JKl_*^»fin 



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XBV IPAIN. 871 

oeptio*, fcOOO, Indians ; San JUlis Oftflbo, 700 
Indians; San Miguel, 600 Indiana; Soledad, 
570 Indiana j San Antonio, 1,050 Indians j San 
Carlo* de Monterey, the capital of California; 
Sap Juan Baptist^, 960 Indians; Santa Cruz, 
440 Indians ; Santa Clara, 1,300 Indians j San 
Jose, 690 Indians ; San Francisco, 620 Indians. 

The total number of whites and mulattoes in 
these eighteen establishments does not exceed 
1,300. 

The bay of Monterey, the best on this coast, is 
very, indifferent ; it is limited by Point Finos (fir 
tree) on the south, and Point Anno Nueva on 
the north, distant seven leagues. The whole bay 
is bowjered by a sandy beach, but is entirely ex- 
posed, except round Point Finos, where is a cove, 
in which a few ships may lay, with the two points 
of, the bay interlocking to within three-quarters 
of a point, and this cove is, properly, the famous 
port qf Monterey. The river of this name is 
an insignificant stream, four leagues N,E. of 
th* owe* 

The JRretidio of St Carlos is two leagues from 
Capftl&BQS, on, .a sandy plain, at the edge of a 
i^arphj, jt comprises an Area of 300 yards by 
^p,,§UfT9)uo4ed by a mud- wall, against the . in- 
«d©c?f ^tofhjthe building* are erected. Of these 
1fattmVptf#,bfW* is the beat, and consists of 
fg^rj&ugpw^^ 

btt^tliMiili^ps^io j^ie Mfjpdftws. . There is* bitfj 
qptUgfrgmce to the presidio for horses and car- 
riage^ Jgtf f^ot , passengers are admitted by se- 
'^.bJ veral 



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veral small gates. At each angle is a block- 
house overlooking the wall, calculated for the 
mouoting swivels. The other fortification 
1796, were a battery of four niue^pounders, and 
three three-pounders, before the principal gate 
facing the port, and a fort en berbette, of eleven 
twelve-pounders. , rrcn 

Monterey is the residence of the governor of 
the two Californias. The garrison consists of 
100 regular troops, who, together with the mis- 
sionaries, are the only whife inhabitants. 

San Francisco r tie northern establishment of 
fibe Spaniards, is an excellent port, entered be* 
tweeufcwo low points, within which it/tasptibd* 
into a large basin, with many harbours. iQn^ahe 
south rf*>re i» the presidio, eaacdy aiattlar tovWt 
smaller than that of Monterey, the arttUary in 
17d6 being only two threeNpomtder3, aaioTthl 
garrison a lieotepaiit and thirty-foe mfcnt* (/Hm 
three Missionaries of this presidio seam t&ubmn 
made little progress in introducing th&uttHMiaat* 
amongst their proselyte Indians, the maku^grttf 
coarse blanket stuff for their clothing bfeiag tfaa 
extent of <tbcir awnuiacturing industry* _> - eq ; 

Four leagues north nf Sort San FfmcjftQtbtt4Stn 
Tranci* Drake's JBay, <open to. the Sv^amtf.SJfe 
but afibwiing good ancliorage on ^e>*ift»thifore* 
The bay recedes a riveij bet wJioft^f*KnithiFito 
crossed by a bar, * with a? sattf *hitf*4wtfe»^«Hk 
trance d»ngeroua eirei* Cor fep^tnl, !fc i^ ^nit ^fi « 

Port Ue^ U Bodega is, eevwiewguite afcrthirrfi 
Sic Francift Dice's £*y*i Gape> MtffdM&febBafe 

i r j: promontory, 



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878 

&Mm**f r 4kb t*M» etafefed' 'ittlriil*<H*i tattes 
atOHier/ tw • southernmost resembling Xlkiifnose* v 
Wi the Isle of Wight. Twenty leagutt ' ftrttoer 
^»ttbfeiF*rt!±naiaaa, aa open cove*? iJitt *toich 
ttteim 4 rfar that may be etitefed / by boats* 
^dWodd and water arrahuttdant. €bpfcBfamcot 
mraed-Cbpe Orford by Vancouver, is *kfr point; 
tettfWte* tffth wbod t* tie water's ed£& J 

*b lip aNMtnpWEae Coast df Awmma may he 
10 coeimeaetag at Cape Orfofd at 
a*d extends to the Icy Cape* This vas| 
extent of coast was almost entirely unknown to 
Stupe uiilil< the third voyage of Cook, since 
wfrJern it has: been; minutely explored to the pe- 
Bttlside oS > Alaska* by theSpaaiards o» the soutf* 
byr«ba Russiae* on the eorth, by the English and 
Amwieatt navigators, who hav* visited it for furs, 
and SaaHy by Captain Vancouver, i* search of 
a passage into the Atlantic. The result of these 
reeeafdhcs toff been to prove, that the mountains 
*p]fooa4fedose to the sea, that there is no rivei 
rfiei^r consequence except the Columbia* and 
tftati ^Kheentmuce of the Gutf of Georgia, 
there je^riab an^aoasideraWe inlet, and the coast 
is free from island*; but ftom that jpilf to the 
flenftifiufo tS Afaiska; ato uaMrterfuptodotiain of 
Maaabpiliae^ <t& cofttii forming seveial archipe- 
•YioJnoa ) » 2 B 3 lagos f 



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97^ MARITIME GEOOEAPHT. 

, lago* within which the continent is penetrated by 
innumerable inlets, ending generally in small 
streams of fresh water. 

The subdivisional denominations of this region 
given by the English navigators seem to be ge- 
netjdly adopted into recent maps* They are 
New Albion, by which Drake designated all the 
coast examined by him, . from the bay that bears 
bis name, to beyond Cape Blanco, and which 
name is . now extended to the Columbia river. 
From this river the following names were given 
by Captain Vancouver : Nep Georgia, to Jervia 
'Canal } New Hanover, from this canal, to 5S|° ; 
New < QomwaU, to 57° j and New Norfolk, to 
Behring's Bay. From this latter, to the Frozen 
Ocean, is now usually denominated Russian 
Americas 

The north-west coast of America is inhabited 
by savages, who subsist by hunting and fishing. 
Those of the south and north appear to be dif- 
ferent races, the latter resembling the Esquimaux, 
which, in fact seems to be the aboriginal race of 
tiiis continent, between the latitude of 60° and 
the Frozen Ocean. 

The natives of Nootka Sound, as describe^ by 
Cook, are generally below the middle size, but 
full and plump, though not muscular,; the face 
round and full ; nose round at the point, with 
wide nostrils ; eyes small and black. In general 
they are without beards, but this is not from the 
natural want of them, but from plucking them 
put, for some of the old men have long ones, as 

well 



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NORTH-WEST AMERICA. SJS 

well as bushy mustachios. The hair of the head 
fi long/ black, and thick. Their complexion, 
when cleaned 6f grease and dirt, is nearly as fair 
as that of Europeans. The general cast of their 
countenances is without expression, dull, and 
phlegmatic* *Fheir language is neither harsh no? 
gutteral, farther than proceeds frottf' their pro. 
bouncing the K and H too forcibly: many of the 
worcls, however, have a terminating sound or syl* 
lable, which no combination of our letters can 
give exactly, but which, according to Captain 
Cook, lszthl y comes nearest to. 

The only appearance of religious idea observed 
amongst them is, their having in their houses some 
rude images, or rather trunks of trees, With a head 
carved oh them, and the arms and hands cat in 
'their sides. From their bringing the skulls and 
^various parts of human bodies half-roasted for sale, 
it appears too probable that they are cannibals. 

Their, music, which has considerable modulation, 
is of the grave or pathetic kind, and their songs 
slow and solemn. The only musical instruments 
seen by Captain Cook were a rattle like that of 
'ctifldren, and a whistle an inch long, with but one 
hole. 

They cover their bodies with red paint, and their 
faces with fclack, white, and red. Their ears are 
perforated both on the lobe and outer edge ; and 
in these they wear bits of bone, quills, small shells, 
tits of copper or leather tassels. The cartilage of 
the nose is also bored, and a cord drawn through 
itl u TWy wear bracelets of white beads, shells, lea- 
^^ ! • 2B4 ther 



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37* vAxntm* omuum ** 

ther tassels, &c. and leather thongs, or the sinews 
of animals twisted round their legs above the aa- 
cles. On some occasions, they put on masks re- 
presenting the heads of animals and birds. 

Their common drees is a flaxen garment, which 
passes under the left arm and over the right shout 
der, reaching below the knees, and fastened round 
the waist with a girdle. Over this is worn a round 
cloak, in shape resembling a dish cover, with a^hole 
in the middle to receive the head, and covering 
the upper part of the body all round to the waist. 
On their heads they wear a cap of fine matting, 
shaped like a flower-pot, and fastened under the 
chin with a string. Over this general dress, which 
is common to both sexes, the men frequently throw 
the skins of bears, wolves, or sea otters, and itt 
rainy weather they cover their shoulders with a 
coarse mat. Their hair is commonly worn loose* 
or sometimes, wheu they wear no cap, tied in a 
band on the crown of the head. 

They live in villages, the houses being placed 
with regularity, and constructed of long broad 
planks resting on the edges of each other, and 
fastened by wy thies of pine bark. m The perpendi* 
cular supports are slender poles outside, to which 
the planks are also tied, and withinside are other 
poles placed slanting. The height of the front 
of these habitations is seven feet, and the back a 
little more, so that the roof has a declivity* It is 
formed of planks laid on loose, so as to be closed to 
exclude the rain,. or separate in fair weather to ad- 
mit the Ught and air. The door is a bole in the 

side, 



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m 

nbfifaDdrt other |pkr serw ^i^MWir»j3'<Stovtttl 
fiunitifc* mribHr^e^irftlj^ 

anfyieparations are pieces of plank running alright 
angles from the skies* so that they may be cora- 
Jteedrtof large stables with a double range of stalls ; 
close to the side, in each of these partitions, is a 
bench raised five or six inches, and covered 
Mats, on which the respective families sit and 
sleep* The middle space seems to be common to all 
the families, and here the fire is placed on the bam 
fleoivsnd the smoke escapes through the roof and 



The femitur© consists of a number of boxes of 
sixes, containing their spare clothes, skins, 
K&c. square or oblong pails or buckets to 
JttUkttater, round wooden bowls and cups, and 
frafcllv shallow wooden troughs, which serve as 
.and plates, baskets of twigs, and bags of 
The nastiness of their houses is oey onq. 
that of hogsties, for they clean and smoke their 
jfisifcSn j them, and the intestines and other filth 
: tfirown in the middle, and never removed* 
an intolerable stench* 
iLXhpsehief employments of the men are fishing, 
.&Ntiua>ting land and sea animals for their food and 
-cttthiog. The women make the flaxen garment^ 
citato tikfahjaiKlcoi^ 7 

* mthptUtia* flesh nd fct of the ytajptbtp ttii 
aUipG«fec*v*br«th Jwm tfaens fay^ putting piM 

VmtoMwfaamfy drea^A The diof thsipn^ 

'-pi r'j oio:l ;, -.: -i.\5"' ■.•'.'? *m *■ r *<«.:/i ■ 



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979 MABrruw obogeafht. 

poise, and other sea animals, is used in great quan- 
tities, either alone or as sauce to their other food. 

As the spring produces vegetables they become 
successively a part of their food, eating several roots 
in their raw state, and without even shaking off 
the soil that adheres to them. 

Their weapons are bows and arrows, slings, 
spears, short clubs of bone, and a small stone ax% 
something resembling the tomahawk. 

Their manufacturing and mechanic arts are 
wore advanced than might be expected from the 
little progress of civilization in other respects. 
The cloth for their garments is made of the 
bark of the pine-tree, beaten into a hempy sub- 
stance. The progress of weaving it, after it is 
thus prepared, is spreading it on a horizontal stick* 
which is fastened to two upright ones, making a 
Irind; of frame, before which the woman sits on her 
knee* and knots the substance across with small 
platted threads. Their woollen garments, though 
probably manufactured in the same manner, have 
the resemblance of being wove, and have different 
degrees of fineness to that of the finest blankets* 
The materials seem to be the fur of the fox and 
brown lynx. They also work different figures into 
their cloths* 

The carving which covers all their wooden im- 
f^ements and utensils, shews also considerable in- 
genuity. Their masks are very exact resemblances 
4>f the animals they are intended to represent ; and 
the whole process of their whale-fishing is some* 
times, painted in colours on their caps. 

Their 



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XORTH-WEST AMEEICJU SfyQ 

Their canoes are formed of a single tree ; the 
largest forty feet by seven broad, and three deep, 
and will carry twenty persons; item the middle 
Rewards each end they decrease w breadth, the 
item terminating in a perpendicular, but the prow 
projects forward and curves upwards. They have 
no seats, are very light, and sufficiently stiff in the 
riianner they are worked, which is by paddles* 
(having no sails) five feet long, with an oblong oval 
blade. 

' Their hunting and fishing implements are neatly 
finished, and are nets, hooks and lines, harpoons, 
gigs, and an instrument shaped like an oar, the 
edges of the blade being stuck full of sharp teeth 
of bone two inches long. The use of it is to stick 
it into the middle of the shoals of sardines and 
herrings, when each tooth brings up a fish. Their 
hooks. are of bone and wood. The harpoon is com* 
posed of a piece of bone cut Into barbs, in which 
is fixed an oval shell of the inuscl?. This is loose- 
ly fixed to a staff twelve to fifteen feet long, and 
& line of two or three feet is attached to both. The 
harpoon separates from the staff when it is stuck into 
the animal, and the shaft remains as a buoy on the 
Water. . Their lines are of leather thongs and the 
sinews of animals, or of the same substance as their 
garments. 

"When first visited by Captain Cobk they were 
ignorant of fire-arms, but were in possession of 
iroh tools, which they probably received from some 
tradd-s 'to tHe East* who themselves received them 
from Hudson's Bay or Canada. 

The 



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389 MJUCmME 0MQ*AKHY. 

The nathrqi pf Erince , Wil&arf* fcuad* and 
Coot's Inlet, differ in boom parti nihim" 
those of Nootka. They only print their* : 
Tfcieir faesa, which is the same for both 
is k close frock of skins, reaching neatly Jfe 
the ancles, with a hole ia the upper part Jko 
admit the head, and sleeves that rtacb la: the 
wriits; over this, in bad weather, ike f mem 
another frock of the intestines of the whale, 
which draws tight round the neck and wrists, so 
that no water can enter it. They have also a kind 
of gloves or mittens, made of the skin of the bear's 
paws. Many of both sexes have the under lip 
slit horizontally, a little below the swelling part ; 
this incision is often two inches long, and re- 
sembles a second mouth, through which the tongue 
is sometimes protruded. In it they stick a flat 
piece of solid shell or bone, channelled on the 
edges to receive the edges of the slit. Others 
have only the lip perforated with several distinct 
v holes, in each of which is stuck a shell. 

Their baidars are of two sorts, one small and 
covered, the other large and open ; the latter will 
contain twenty persons, and is formed of a framing 
of slender ribs covered with skins of seals. The 
small ones are nearly similar to the canoe of the 
Esquimaux. Their weapons and fishing instru- 
ments are also similar to those of these people. 
They have a kind of armour or jacket made of 
small pieces of wood, sewed together with the 
sinews of animals, which are as pliable as cloth, 

ana 



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W*l»rfete*fltoWveiKVo^^ 
j>pnetnrtei H l . ' ! f " 

$bflte people art more dewfty both in tbqir 
fes*>»* aad feeding than the jxcdtka {n£gns$ 
4beirJaB(gu)^ei«aiso entire^ different, and kasiUi 
flctffc tff pronunciation to unaccustomed orgsoAf r 
» Iflte and beads were found amongst them iragp 
frtf'vitffedbfCook. , p 

3lhe hitetfxtante of Kodkk arid the cWn if 
jrtinto extettdmg to the peninsula of Alask^, ( ap» 
flftntutety described by the Russian voyagei^^ 
3?fc**r htiJbttilfoffs are partly under ground, the fire- 
ffeee to the middle, and directly over it a hole JW 
let <Wt the smoak, and benches all round to a^ 
and lie on. To each habitation is attached % 
amU apartment, where they take vapour b^th|| 
b^r throwing water on red hot stones 

IMr dress consists of a frock of bird skins, the 
feathers sometimes outside and sometimes in* close 
pantaloons of leather, boots of the windpipe of 
the sea lion, dnd the soles of its hide*. } 

: Thai* arms ai* bows and arrows, darts and 
spears pointed with stone, and often poisoned with 
a < dttMttfon of aconite, which gives a deadly 
iwmuuL Th^i* sole employments are fishing and 
lwmtillgwirpjjibious animals, and collecting birds ^ 
egg* Ih the ^iriands to the west the seal hunting 
eaStfttehoesin February, and the w,hale fishery '^ 
Jen*;- 1 Diirib^ the summer they ako gather ber^ 
riesi im Viffi*t& atodc of tfte'; sara^ ^tf^; 
whttdfc t . l^&fkfaftig ahd blurting Season is over * 
air October, when they return to their habitation* 

on 



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8& MARITIME OBOGRlMT. 

cm Kodiak; and the month of November is 
in making visits and rejoicing. Dancings ami* 
kind of masquerades, are their chief amusements j 
the former consists in twirling rapidly round* with 
a knife or cane in one hand and a rattle in the 
other; sometimes in mask, at others with their 
faces ridiculously painted. The dance of the 
women consists in hopping backward and forward 
on one* leg, and holding a blown bladder in their 
hand, which they throw to the women they chuae 

to take their places when tired. 

The first ceremony to a visitor is the presenting 
him with a cop of water, after which dffiereqfc 
kinds of provisions, such as whale and sea tion'a 
flesh, fruit, berries preserved in oil, the sarana 
root boiled in oil, &c. are set before him* and it ie> 
considered a want of politeness not to devour ttaO 
whole ; but if the visitor cannot accomplish it he 
must take the remainder with him when be retires. 
/While at this repast a vapour bath is prepared, tQ 
which, when, over, he is conducted, and at the 
same time presented with a vessel of seals' oil for 
drink. 

They believe in a Supreme Being, and in betfe** 
ficent and maleficent spirits, to the lqjter of whom 
they sometimes offer human sacrifices, when slav e s j 
are always the victims. When a chief dies betfe 
disembowelled, stuffed with moss, and intertask bis 
favourite slaves massacred, and binied witibhin^j 
together with his arrows and some provision* uno? 
$ Polygamy is practised to an unlimited estqn$pt 
and the only marriage cetemooy is the cottdeclmgu 

the 



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NORTH-WEST AMERICA. 588 

the parties to a vapour bath by the parents of the 
female, where they are left together. In case of 
barrenness, or even of change of inclination, the 
husband usually allows the wife to chuse another 
partner. The most prolific woman is the most 
honoured ; and they are so fond of their children 
that they often breed their boys with the effe- 
minacy of girls, that they may escape the dangers 
pf hunting and war ; in these cases they wear the 
female habit, are employed in female occupations, 
and serve the unnatural pleasures of the men. 

War amongst the different tribes is perpetual; 
fhe prisoners are made slaves, the men being em- 
ployed in labour, and the women sold backwards 
and forwards for beads and other trifles, as caprice 
<lr inclination suggest, and are very cruelly treated. 
Orphan children also become the slaves of those 
who chuse to bring diem up. 

The greatest man is himmost successful in war, 
and the second the most expert hunter ; for the 
former acquires* booty and prisoners, and the latter 
is enriched by the produce of the cbace. 
. Previous to the arrival of the Russians, each 
considerable family had a baidar capable of hold- 
ing forty to fifty persons ; but the Russian pur* 
ehattld (them all, and confined them to the posses* 
ston o&small ones for two or three persons. 
"tTfafejRassians have introduced, or rather forced 
jotfttheft), habits of industry with which they were: 
formeriyaHiaoquainted, particularly in th$ collect-*: 
isgqpfaviiiom &c winter. They seem to be le- 
^goctttAtolheiJestrai»tsi»pofed oathtm by thbir^ 
3xir 



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£84 MARITIME GXOGfcAT&T* 

aew masters, afd sorte have rren been b a ffi jad T fr 
Mid a Russian officer, in VJ$S f ina «kmedn*i * 
native woman, by whom he had several i dfttim. 
The Russians hive ako established a scbAbHsfttte 
native children are taught to read and vrptt the 
2tu*^ lang&kge. - >.»;<r, -u 

On the-ftrtt arrival of the Russian*, thd ^ aftffUft 
opposed their establishment, but the fiwtner &*vi»g 
surprised their women, while collecting 1 Mrties, 
seized and kept them as hostages, for thefortrtcr. 
ance of the! men: The wives were aft****** 
exchanged far the daughters of the cittefi; <ifcd ?A 
1793, 300 of these females were detained hi 
Russian quarters, but were allowed •to visit' 
frienda occasionally . -■.*.**; 

The Russians in 1788 had e^bt eettthfishttttiHa 
ontheooajt between the latitudes d8 Q atod$9* 
composed of sixteen to twenty femifies eatih; ftrmt 
mg in the whole 46« Russians and ti(X) subjected 
Americans 

In 1790, the Russian establishment at Kodhdt 
was composed of fifty individuals, inhabiting 
five houses, besides magazines, workshops^ fee. 
They had two eighty ton galliots, mourite* *kh 
cannon, and employed 600 baidars, tetft %dttt- 
ned by two or three natives, and dividMfc kftm 
three divisions, each under tht dfreatlo**J*tf * 
single Russian. The Reunites had samerbtftbesr 
wives with them, had cultivated tjafcbftgoNfMl 
potatoes, and were preparing to tryWkhiPikfNftb 
establishments they were the* folrtfeg ou O fc Ui' s 
inlet i they had four co#s and twelve go**/ a* 

that 



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NORra-WEST AMERICA. 3^5 

that their establishments had all the appparapcj;^ 
a regular intention to colonize. k T - . ft 

The Russians supply the natives with tobacofe 
beads, linen, and nankeen cloths, yx return $fr 
the furs they procure. Provisions and ae#l skins 
are considered as general property,., r .the. lat^r 
being entirely employed in the cons^pi&tipiii ftid 
repair of the baidars. % n^h'-v- • 

The Russians of the establishment,^ ^Jiin^thtf 
.service of a company, from whom th^jf i^otyig^d 
to purchase all the articles they want, atyfn ex- 
orbitant rate ; and as they are not allowed to col- 
lect furs on their own account, although their 
wages are nominally very high, their situation is by- 
no means lucrative. 

r TJae third voyage of Captain Cook gave the 
fptt idea of the profits that might be derived from 
Atfadefor furs to the N.W. coast of Axnerica; 
£*# .tbftt navigator apprehending, this coast to 
be too remote from Great Britain to render any 
speculation from thence, sufficiently beneficial to 
induce private adventurers to engage in it, hence 
the first attempts were made from China and the 
East-Indies; and the first vessel thus employed. 
was a brig of only sixty tons, sent from Canton 
in 1785. This enterprise proving extremely pro- 
fitable, the fur trade became a temporary r^ge^ 
?und between 1785 and 1788, six vessels .wpr£ 
equipped from India, one from Ostend, an4 fjMjyr 
from London* , . ukj 

These voyages had different degrees ol^ppgjg^ 

VOL. IV. 8c y^j \&fo 

«4j 



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0$$ tfciftrara aaomuaax. 

both on tile coast and art China* seaae pgonnAy 
a large cargo of furs, while others found the he* 
tires exhausted by preceding vessels j and again 
the prices greatly varying at Canton, according 
fb the plenty or scarcity at the .moment, from 
thirty to 100 delta* for & prime sea otter akin.* 

The skins collected by the Russians are sea* t* 
jOkotsk/ and from thence through Sifarria by 
Xakutsh and Irkootak to Kiachta, where they are 
jkircfcased by the Chinese. 

In the year 1786 the Spaniards first began to 
collect sea otter skins at their settlements ol> 
Monterey and San Francisco, which they sent to 
Acapulco ; from whence they were conveyed .by 
the galleon to Alan ilia, and thence to China* Be- 
sides sea otter skins, the north-west coaat aflords 
beaver, martin, zibelline, river otter, ermine, 
foxes red and black, wolves, grey, white, and 
jred, wolf deer, squirrel, marmotte, bear, moun- 
tain sheep, racoon, moose deer, stag, and brown 
lynx. 

The best articles for barter with the Indians are 

coarse 



* The sea otter is the most valuable of amphibious animals, from the 
beautiful fur with which it is cloathed. The greatest length is five fee*. 
When yo*ug y the far it coarse and of no value, bat the (Mb ft *M* 
equal to that of a sucking pig. The fur on those arrived at naifzty i» 
black with a few white hairs, thick, soft, and two inr hes long, ana un- 
like that of other animals, sticks out from the body; TfcisanmW teeh» 
to be peculiar to the N.W. coast of America, Ktweeo the latito4*»<ef?#i* 
and 609, and to the Aleutian Islands, and the opposite coast of Asia. Th* 
unmerciful war that has been waged against them since the* arrival of Eu- 
ropeans on these coasts, has greatly diminished their number* m*fn toast 
of America and on the islands, and has entire' y extirpated them from 
-Kamtschatka. 



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coarsfc WoatiefcS o*btaftiket#tuflJ iron, copper, tin, 
glass bedSs; Mid otlWf itifles* 



From Cape Blaiicato the Riv^r Columbia, *hd 
eoa*t is moderately elevated' and* Well ctaathed 
with timber. Hie Columbia is thtf aettoad, if not 
the greatest, river that fails into the Grand Oe^a^ 
from Cape Horn to the Nbrtb Gape. It* teoutit 
between point Adam and Cape Dwapptointtnenl 
k fbtrr miles wide, bat is crossed by a bar, Witfe 
four fethoms at high water. At low witter Aero 
i* tat one narrow channel through the bar* apd 
when' the tides, which are very strong* aire op- 
posed by the wind, the sea br&ah* on the bar qpkM 
across 

The Columbia is formed by two rivers. On** 
which has properly this name, is called by the 
natives T*eootcJte~Te$se, and flows from north to 
south, receiving several streams frofti the western 
side of the chain of Stony Mountains. The second 
is flamed the Great River, and has its source in 
this chain > it first flows west and then N.W. till 
it unites with the Columbia. Towards the sea 
the tmited waters serpentize through a channel 
from* three to one mile and a quarter in breadth, 
the tatter about 100 miles from its mouth, the 
c&ttettCg ascended by Captain Vancouver's offi- 
cers, to which distance it has depth for vessels of 
400 tofts, though it has many islands atid banks, 

2 c 2 and 



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3& mfarm* qeooeaphtv 

and its mouth being filUd with shoals* dndb e*i 
tirely exposed, is a great obttack to its qtfliijr ifbr 
navigation.'.' ' ~n " j irrnoi 

The following are the jHwftfensiagabh^oc^ 
muaicatioHp /that aaay be exriouted between the 
two ooefen* by the Ccknnbiaj 1. Fjxrtn Hudson's 
Bay, iby the ClutniHl fiiver, which is rtheughfctb 
iauevfromitke Lakt Bufiafae* *hkh/fedeivasi4hb 
Athapeaeou ft'tver* wfaose souaeeds art ihebppaate 
sifc* rf «be atony ridge to thftt of {he C«Jt#*fe**v 
Hid by the threw Nelson and Severb, Avhiehri*. 
siie fr^m Lake Wtnipeg ; thia lattcp 3*&itfiftgitte 
fivers Saakashawan and AsatnifeoiK whpaerwiiweff 
approach close to those of several of the^etfpftwt* 
avtrs of Columbia, g. By the Missouri witfc Jhe 
Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. The mmctihi£ 
the Missouri are only separated from ttmegf thfe 
Grand Rher and other tributaries of tixeiCotomr 
bta by the* summits of the Stony Mountains. - ri^-t 
Between the Columbia and Gulf of Ge«!gi$;£hfc 
only port is Grey's Harbour, an£ k is >»c©nYfcti 
nient. :^3- * vr 

Vancouver and Quadra Idlaod is the: so*tk*fiv 
most of the chain that lines the oo*st* fcfcie $6pa** 
rated from, the continent by th* Gulf.of (&wgiv 
whose south entrance is probably the celebrated 
Strait of John de Fuca, of which Cape Flattery, 
of Cook, is the south point. Qn th* a?$ati -roast 
of thte isteini are several go6&«pdt1Xi ^ di&ftWfertfd 
ly.0»,fiir4tradei»4 such , .4W^ttii^Vi£BMH^ < 
3brth«)?^ayoqiM (*ort OojAparid^Ke H-ek* 4 

'''•.■;:; .,- •.■ : ' ;-'. .; : r J .r /r/W* 



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hrated&ootka* (ItetrLarenm of the -Spaniard* 
and King George the Thirds Soun^ xrf Co6fc), 
formed by an island separated from the- guest is- 
land bjr a narrow strait . ''*r r ,^t 

Thet entrance is between two rocky points, feur 
miles' asinder, within wkkb the«Qttad«^mm>a 
large basin running four leagues to the iKMth, ojH 
ctesive of several branches and trdeka iamfahi <ifta 
head* Ibhas aba several ishrads /farming- <iB4r$ 
good ports. The shwes are genertJIy ^stte^p hflk 
coveted with vaHous species «f tfce pihe^f fax» 
cept in a few spots] where the nafcfed *odk «ppfe&*f 
Numerous rivulets of exc$llfent water emlpt/ thornf 
selves into the coves. ' of 

Thte climate of the Sound is temperate, the 
thermometer in April rising to 60°* in the ck^ 
afld ftlhng only to 42° in the night. N.W> 
winds usually bring fair weather, and S-W. rahkJ 
fish is abundant, the most common species hfert 
ririgv pilchards, atid bream, the sCulprn, frost 
fish, a small species of cdd, a variety of the hake, 
the elephant fish, rays, and sharks ; the shell fbh 
arettibs, sea-ears, wiHcs, cockles, limpits, chsnut, 
trwhi and tiwrrx. The reptiles are brown and 
nob venetafcus snakes, and water *i±ard* The 
j«>;n-' • & c S • -land 

/-vein;. ] < . ■ . < .* : '- 

l*itt*oiiteg*> rortdt teyafteri the natHe word* YW**4 whkh Capfeia 
Conk*. ikaoA an imattiifltaMac-ia emjtAknm tk* aaifatt niftaiiariaiiiia lufii 
formed to Nootka. 

^^HleeMiadhir j*oe, tile whHecyJ*e«, the wWpiw, *#; theatre of* 
fcgfj^iy. 3 foe t%r Teyta»kj oboa rrc*^ Onyt. Coa* w#«iaift£ t HaeJi 
alders, current, gooseberry, raspberry, and rose busbee j strawberry 
pfiw^kd leek, water-cresses, and abundance of androsneda. 



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310 MMttTqac osoojurnr. 

land binlf a*« crowi, jpavtps, 
eagles^ h^wks, herons the Canadian tbrash, fcnga- 
fiqfrer, woodpecker, finches, wrens, and -J 
birds j die aquatic, quebrantahpeflQas, gulls* i 
cormorant^ wijd. duekfe divers saoiUafia, 
pipe*, &* 

Captain Vancouver daggflibea upwards of twoa* 
ty t porta in the Quif of Georgia, gf ^bkfe die 
easiest of apeeas is Poqt dq. )qf* Aoy^;. or ?<** 
Discovery, oq the south shore- In the Gulf area 
piunber of island*, ip general leas ruggpj) and bv 
no than the main land, which for the moat part 
is exti>emely desolate, the najt^d rocky mounfripa 
rising abruptly from the shores, and vasttopeat* 
from the melted snows tumbling ^own their aijyr 

The principal groups of islands between Nootfca 
aqd Alaska are Qiieea Charlotte's Island, of qobu 
ahterahlf siae, separated from the continent by a 
gulf eighteen leagues wide. . This island risqp {root 
the sea to high mountains in the centre, the sim*» 
mits of which are alone naked,, the sides J>emg 
covered with pipes, birches, willows, qqd lizzies. 
This island was first seen ty L^JPerouse, fl#d ita 
south, point named Cope i£ector r jit y^ >nbs» 
4p§antly spited by CWptain Qi*Qn,. who gave it 
fh^ rtame of Queen Charlotte, and to the south 
point Cape St. James. On the west coast are 
inaj^rg^pd ports visited by the for t$ad*fv this 
idtoba abOttiitHt^sr wTth sea uttfffti '•■ClGflfc to the 
Continent witfui* Queen Chark>t*^s Island » the 
» > rii ipd a^ ^ftwcc8#R^ 

The ftfoce of Waters Islands ar? a group se* 

parated 



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flWHtadHfcom^ DfexonkSeund. 

,B^ JfyK* aratti, ,«£ ttfc©; Spaniards, is me a£ >ttt 
Wiwds >befcme* 4bem, ;htvuig eleren. good hac 
<bttm», of Mlfcfch that of Santa£r»z is described <as 
rone of Hbe^iKKtped^ in dbe «orld. ., -■ /in 
King George the Thiad's Archipelago succeeds 
to #w»oe of Wales'*, and extends /to , £g§fi, ^afaece 
this long cli^in terminates. Port /Batiks* aeac tbe 
dftoirth efi^l of jthe varirbij^lagp, is a g«id hafihour, 
m is .Sitk^ (Guadeloupe, of the Spaniards* aod 
Np$ft>lk §ound, pf D&xqn), whoee &W point is 
£*pe dql iiBgpno, of the S jw nw n A^ and iCape 
Jidgeoumbe* qi Cook ; the volcanic mountain oat 
£he westtaide pf the sound is named rby the former 
Mount Sf.. Jacistfha, ,*ad by the /Utter Mount 
Edgecumbe. The high mountains; that surround 
•ibe port ^re topped .with eternal ftawtf,; but their 
side*, ace wpocled. The Russians haw here a^fet* 
tlement*tfiamed New Acsbangel, near ytfrich is a 
bet sulpbwftwsispring. 

, Fflom Grpse Spimd of Cook (the north en- 
*mn& ttfithe gulf tbftt separate King Georges 
4sla**4 froo*, the main) the coast .is ifaeef froaa 
island^, and the feet of it3 k%, mountains m 
.washed ty,thp ;*«*«> ^iwng the j&est elevated 
^ummite . ase n the Mount Ifeir Wtather ,of Cook, 
(14,98? feftt^rand the JWwrot $UEUaa of Behring, 
#7*8£ftJM, ,theuktter,beipg<rau^ forty leagues 
jfcse^, *pd > about *pa rtaaguea intend* In a 
Attest fe^iHDimwtfaiflft* aidge ia J3ehring^ Baj^ 
^ow»^ fifty of JH*<tot -Jtooo*t-m£> *h* -aa- 

. ;> j 8 c 4 Tachugat* 



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392 MAitmti&tttirtgXm. 

Tschugatskish Bay (Prince William's Sound of 
Cook) runs in seventeen leagues, forming several 
good harbours. There are some islands before 
the sound, of which Montague (Tchukli of the 
natives) is the most considerable, being eighteen 
leagues long and four broad. It is covered with 
large pines, small alders, rasberry and other bushes. 
Ginseng and snake root are also found here. 

Cook's Inlet, (Kenagskish of the natives) is 
formed by a peninsula on the east, and runs in 
forty leagues to the N.E., with a breadth of forty 
leagues to four, and depth of forty to seven 
fathoms : it terminates in a small run of fresh 
water. On the west shore is a volcand; The 
tide in the entrance runs four miles an hour, sod 
rises eight feet 

From Cook's Inlet the coast is lilted *ith 
inlands to the peninsula of Alaska, the principal 
jof which, and only one demanding Aotio4, is 
Kikhtak (Kodiak and Kadiak of Europeans), on 
which the Russians have their principal establish- 
ments. It is separated from the continently 
a channel five miles broad. The west coast is 
mountainous, but it is covered with pines of a 
large size, small willows, poplars, birches, and a 
variety of berry bushes, as rasberries, gooseber- 
ries, &c. The Russian* have attempted the cul- 
tivation of kitchen vegetables with indifferent 
success, the cloudy and rainy wiathet-Whteh'oc- 
cupes almost the whole year, being imfevtomible 
toWfictfituire. - Horned battle, gttfts, ^^rarid 
ht$£s, and cats, ha\ne ateb bfeea flftroducftd'by4h* 

x r Russians. 



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viBedf <Sf*& ^ad, the ^outh point i&<^peXri- 
nity. Qw IfctfWst $td$, ia the Jt>ay of.Cbiniatskqy^ 
h the Rmn a tn chief ^UbJUAhmeHt pf Kreck 
Svatitirfy (l&ree Saints.) The : ; /fcwp <qkSfc P^l 
oonriatft *£ eew»i good dweHiug ^aam^^fi^^ 
a gena$i ba*rock> church, apd m^^ziw, ^ tl^ 
«iepo»t>*f alL&e <J^ collected/ ta be^hipj^d for 

The islands west of Kikhtak are barren im% 
inhabited rooks of granite, the unpronowxcabk 
names of which we doubt jnot oui? readers will 
thank us for sparing them. Such are Sckouyoutch, 
AmayatchtaUA, Sutehtidocky &c. &c* -These islands 
are visited by the natives of Kikhtak, to hunt 
seals atod collect sea birds' eggs. - > 

The peninsula of Alaska, from the accounts of 
the Kikhtak natives, would appear to be nearly an 
island, for they say, that they draw their -canoes 
across a *a&ow neck of land into a Jake, and 
that ftora this latter, a river flows into Bristol 
Bay. The penipsola is composed of several vol- 
cams in a state of eruption. 



• ALEUTIAN ISLANDS- 



A siagul^ly regular circular chain of grajiitic 
andvotatwe islands **temla from the peiun#4* 
of • Mwk* ^awards, Cape Kai^techatka, i» the 
penin$iUa 4>f ti»t jiAm^ haying .all the apr 

pearance 



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39* MAMWftifc asoenttKY* 

pearance of being tfce tettMPftr^f a.f*£nMN6lfc 
ridge of bills, that onee united the *Wfc*cnrtMidttte, 
and which we may be^alknred/;4o>.4»iJpo*v*^flft 
broken into islands, by •: sudden %i^qMw of the 
Frozen Ocean, that at the same time, biirtt through 
the isthmus that joined the two ^continent*, and 
formed Behring's Bteait, Thia abate hm the 
general name of Aleutian Is&akds* from seme 
tribes of its inhabitant* who awe themselves 
Aleuts. The Russians divide them into jtbe Fox 
Islands, the islands , Atukreanoffskk mkd the Aleuts 
proper. The principal of the ehai*>are UnftMak, 
separated from the promontory of.AWka by a 
narrow strait ; it has three cortical volcano of 
great height Cook, found the ,tide running 
eight miles an hour between thier island and 
Oonalashka. 

Oonakahka, proemmfced by the Datives Na- 
gun-alaska, and named by the Rwaiato TcJwMere 
8opQ*chnoh is the most considerable m$ best 
known of the Fox Islands. It, i* ^vopty^ftuc 
miles long and twenty broad, TbdiWbtfte isbad 
is composed . of asountaina, many <4*f which .are 
extinct volcanos, and whose <$Ummjfe present a 
totally naked rock. The island has several fresh 
water lakes, and numerous rivulets abounding in 
salmon. The coasts sure indented by deep bays, 
penetrating so far into the land, as in some in- 
stances nearly to unite, and dividing the island 
into several peninsulas. • » . ■ .* v::u, io. 

The southern coast is bounded by higkjtocky 
clifls j the northern oae isiessielevated^aod in.aome 

places 



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plaqea, dfmnde yirtwujty totb&ttfe The vailiea 
a? well as the declivities t>f some of tliejnvwaUrins 
half way ijg, produce ; grasses and ' other plants, 
among which, are 1 dwarf willows' and aiders the 
epilaUum aagustffi^imh whose jteim are three 
feet high,; the $rbw&is> the leaves of \vhich are a 
pow^dJLd diuretic, apd the berries used in dying, 
Thfve,$re al$d r^ber/j#s of a Very large aize f but 
v&tgty and insipid. The 40pm and sarana roots 
serve for fo^d^ The otber- common plants are 
those usually found in cold, motet* and barren 
countries, such as wild aqgelice, scurvy*gras6, 
cresses, wjld scneva, &c. • 

3}he onjy qua4rupeds *re different * coloured 
fo&fa *nd xnj^f wjpich biurow in the earth. The 
seals awLsea ottqrs which formerly reported to this 
i^Jwt have ;»liaost eatircly abandoned it^ for the 
less irequented* pnes. The only land bird that 
deserves nofcipe^s, the wpftdcoctw The. sea; birds 
axe those comg*?** fc the jtprthem seas* ; 

l^q cp^p^Wl Ash are, cod, roach, nays and 
ludlifyik flwwdfir* &cv The shell fish, ccabs, 
P$arl oyster. #1$ fliwele, coekldv fteu^ 

IJhe south side o£ tj*e island is alone inhabited, 
WkI the dwellings pf the natives are, ail on the 
sjjifo^ea of the b*j». Of these habitations they 
Only coupt fyurteea, each composed of two off 
thfg^ bwek, called jurts* formed of drift wood 
?M# pmd* t^ laqgest of tliem being generally 
fi% fe*t long wd eighteen b*>*h The. floors an 
«i^k t^^»)^ Wirt^e of the ground, and the 
WAf fs «f thrift vood, itoverad with moes add graks; 

The 



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396 Mjuaxro mogiuphy. 

The light is adari tt ed throogivai^all ppwiogs » 
the rooC which also tenre for do^libe stent 
and descent being bj notched plank* rAbant 
seven feet within the outer wall sfetbe* Jne 4moi 
all round, which, while they partly tupppr* fhe 
roof, serve as partitions for the dwcttMg place of 
each family, for several families usually oecapy 
one habitation. The spaces enclosed by these 
partitions are covered whh mats to sleep atii sit 
on. Every female of a family occupies a distract 
division of these apartments. 

The center of the habitation setfve* aa agdnerid 
receptacle of the dirt, and each apartment has 
its reservoir to receive the mine, which they 
use in dying, and to wash tie grease off their 
bands. They procure fee by striking two flints 
over the down of birds, sprinkled with sulphur, 
and light and heat their habitations with train 
oil, in stone lamps, moss serving as wicks. *« 

Their furniture consists of copper and ken 
pots which they get from the Russians, and in 
which they boil the flesh of sea annals aad fish y 
except the cod, which they eat raw, to prevent, as 
they say, a disease produced by worms contained 
in that fish. Their water they preserve m Tats 
of split plank, and their dry provisions in baskets^ 
or sacks of matting. Their tools are kimes and > 
axes, which they procure from : the Russians* 
Their weapons are darts and spetfrs of various. 
sizes, and pointed with lava or bone, as, they rare 
intended to be used against different animate ibr 
birds. They are throwa by mtfaw $f a piece 

of 



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AfcEOTIAtt TSLANdfei 897 

of board, one fo6t and a tizifJ&tigy one end <j( 
whreh is shaped itito a handle,' and in the otlier is 
&&&/* bone Kke a nail, on \Mioh the dart is 
placed to be thrown. 

The constructing their baidars is the most te- 
dious employment of the men, it sometimes re- 
quiring a year to Collect drift wood proper for 
their keels, which is the principal part, and 
usually consists of three pieces scarfed together, 
the whole length about twenty-orie^feet To 
this keel they affix with fibres of whalebone, jibs 
ofwiHowand alder branches, the distance asun- 
der of the upper extremities not being above 
eighteen inches, and the whole is covered in with 
another frame, or kind of deck, which binds the 
baidar together, and in which there is only left 
one: opr .more holes, in which the rowers sit Both 
the bottom and top are covered with the skins 
of sea animals; and when complete, the whole 
does not* weigh above thirty pounds. The pad* 
dies, have a shovel-like blade at each end, and 
the rower paddles at each side alternately. They 
move with great velocity, overtaking, it is said, 
a vessel going twelve knots. If a baidar upsets, 
th» 'persons in her are inevitably drowned, unless 
aafrtfaer baidar cocoes to their assistance. Although 
ektoemely expert in the management of these 
boads, arid continually on the water, the Aleutians 
areo said t to fee unacquainted with the art of 
swimfuikg, nor do they ever bathe. 

i<HII*fMfthM* *>f the Fox Islands are'of thV' 
middle side, witb a brown complexion, round" 

visage, 



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$98 MAtVttMB GEOGRAPHY. 

Visage, small nose, black eyes, long 1 , bWkamf 
coarse hair, and little or rto trtiartfe on tftfechitr, 
but thick mustachios. 

The dress of the men and women dHfer but 
little; and is very nearly the same astfcfct *<£ ttote 
natives of the neighbouring continent; tfie men 
wearing a garment resembling a wagg&lier'sftoek* 
with a high round collar, the whole ' of deer or 
birds' skins, neatly ornamented with go&tif hitfy, 
and bordered with a strip of seal skirt, and ! a 
pantaloon of white skin. When they go on ttoe 
water they draw over this common dress another 
€»f the entrails of animals sevted together, and 
then also put on trowsers artd boots, made of the 
skin of the sea Mob's neck, together with a kind of 
wooden helmet, ornamented with the hair of the 
sea lion, beads, &c. 

The dress of the women, though nearly si* 
milar in shape, is much more ornamented than 
that of the men, being trimmed with beads and 
coral, birds' beaks, &c. Their stomachers are made 
of the skin of a bird's neck, stretched and pre^ 
pared for the purpose, and highly embroidered 
with goats, deer, and horse hair. 

The men leave their faces as nature made thett* 
but the women ornament, or rather cKsfigure thfcm, 
in several mannef s ; of which one is tatowing 
in Kne^ from the nostrils to the ears, and from 
the lip to the chin. They pierce the cartiiege of 
the nose, and wear in it long pendants of amber* 
coral, and enamel : the latter of which they re- 
ceive from the. Russians, and the amber froto the 

inhabitants 



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AUUTlAtf ISLANDS. 899 

inhabitants of the continent. They also pierce 
two botes in the lower lip> in which they wear long 
thin bones; and round the edges of their ears 
they i fee oeortnJcsrts , of blue and white enamel. 
The women wear no coveting on the feet or head. 

The occupations of the females are principally 
making mats* sacks^ and baskets, of long grass 
dried, which are most delicately plaited > and in 
sewing their garments* which is done with the 
fibres of animals' sinews, the needle being the 
bones of fish* 

The occupations of the men are fishing and 
hunting amphibious animals, which latter begins 
towards the end of October, and lasts all November. 
They hunt in parties, and each receives a share Gf 
the produce, according to his success or dexterity. 

The favorite food of these people is the flesh of 
sea ajrimab, and when this is all consumed, they 
subsist on shell fish, roots, and sea wort Their 
winter provisions consist of dried salmon, cod, 
and haUibut, and roots and berries, which they 
collect in the autumn. 

The Aleutians 1 are governed by chiefs, called 
dogoks* and the rest of the natives are named 
shataty or vassals. 

' The aiatirttfl of Oanalashka, add the islands 
habitually frequented by the Russians, have by 
this intercourse became much more civilized than 
thet othee islawtera* Stfme oft there speak good, 
Russian, and many ctf them have been baptized |, 
but this ceremony is almost all they know -of 
the Christian TdHgion, for they have asyetre^ 

ceived 



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400 MARITIME GEOGEAPBT. 

ceived no missionaries, and Russian hunter* are 
little calculated to instruct then, either by precept 
or example* The Aleutian females, abo, often 
intermarry with the Russians, aad their offspring 
have perfectly European complexions and fea- 
tures, and red hair. 

In the islands not frequented by the Russians, 
the natives are still entirely savages; acknow- 
ledging an omnipotent and beneficent being, in- 
deed, but paying him no kind of worship, under the 
idea, that he knows what is good for them better 
than themselves, and will grant it without their 
request. 

Misfortunes and diseases they consider as the 
effect of malevolent spirits, and on these occasions 
have recourse to their shamans or priests, to exor- 
cise the evil one, by singing, or beating on a drum. 
Polygamy is general, and there are no marriage 
ceremonies. The wives are purchased from their 
parents, and if the husband is dissatisfied with ius 
partner, he can send her away, but has no right to 
demand his presents back. But if, on the other 
hand, the woman refuseg to live with him, ha is en- 
titled to the return of all the articles given for hen 

No man is allowed to sell his wife without h*r 
own consent, but he can transfer her to another, 
either for a specified time, or m tolo, which it 
pot unfrequent It never happens that a woman 
grants her favours to another, without the consent 
6f her husband, these kind of transfers being 
mere matters of profit As in this system of man- 
ners, the man cannot always claim die children as 

hia 



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ALtiUflAK ISLAKfcg. 401 

b%n, 6d hid power on them is much more limited 
fh&nthat df the mother, or even than that of the 
ttrifcle hy the mother's side. The children of one 
ftther, by different mothers, are not considered as 
brothers and" sisters, and are permitted to marry; 
but the case is reversed with respect to thoeetbjr 
one mothfer and different fkthers. The distrlbu 
tio* of property on the death of the father is rfe- 
gulated by the relations, who usually leave the 
greatest part to the widows and childcea, aadtake 
the rest to themselves. 

* It is said that, formerly, it was the custom to 
bury one of his servants with a chief, but this aacri* 
fice is not now practised, his baidars, darts, and 
other weapons only being put into the grave. The 
corpse is embowelled and stuffed with hay ; and 
those of mean persons are put into the ground or 
*c*vity of a rock without any ceremony ; but the 
riclr are laid ia wooden sepulchres, into which some 
earth is first shaken, over which are laid grass, 
mats, and skins, and on these the body is pre- 
served- in the position in which they usually sit in 
the baidar, by leather thongs* Another mat is 
then bid over, and covered with* another layer 
o£ eartfct" If the wives have an affection, for 
him* 4faey *cut the hair off the crown of the head, 
and mourn forehim for 'several days : and some* 
times* aifbatiert is caitied so far, as to keep the 
Gtmfm-irhikQJvrJ, until the putrefaction renders ij 
^nJb*#r*We^ * - The ^tomen also preserve the bod'ty* 
of$$hW'€hi]dien iu tliis manner, uutii r auqt4er 
»w*, into -the* ; world to supply its fllacs, agd 
♦vol. iv. 2 d the 



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402 maiwihz gzogkap&x. 

the coffins in which they are kept are ornamented 

with beaks of birds, beads, &c. 

With respect to the capacities of the Aleutians* 
they are represented by the Russian voyagers as 
{assessing considerable talents and a quick com- 
prehension, learning with facility to play at cards 
and even chess. Among themselves they are 
peaceful and quiet, hospitable to strangers, free 
from the vice of thieving, but indolent acid un- 
grateful Their principal characteristic seems to 
be the total absence of passion or any vehement 
emotion, their countenances never indicating 
either vexation, melancholy, or joy, on any occa- 
sion whatever. 

Their amusements are confined to a kind of 
masquerade dances, performed by men, women, 
and children, to the sound of a drum, which is 
their only musical instrument 

The population of this archipelago was, when 
first discovered, considerable, but is now reduced 
to a very insignificant remnant, not exceeding 
1,100 males, including children, in the whok 
chain. 

The other islands worthy of mention are Um* 
nak, separated from Oonal&ska by a strait two 
miles wide ; its S.E. side presents lofty volcanic 
mountains covered with snow. Amochtais also a 
volcano* 

Among the Andreoffski Islands, which form the 
middle of the chain, the principal are Tanaga, oo 
which is a stupendous mass of volcanic mountains 
emiting smoke. The east of the island is level, 

and 



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KOBTrt-WEST AMERICA. 40S 

and has many fresh water lakes. Kanaga island 
has a hot sulphurous spring, issuing from the foot 
of an extinct volcano. Gorelloi is also a vast vol- 
cano. Amgatka, or Amtshatka, is twenty leagues 
long, barren and dreary. 

The group of Aleuts Proper, is the western- 
most of the chain ; Buldyr, Agatton, and Atton, 
are the principal, and are all great masses of 
rocky mountains. 

In Behriftg's Basin are a few scattered islands 
resembling those of the Aleutian chain, being 
mountainous and volcanic ; their names are St* 
George, St Paul, Transfiguration, Gore's Island, 
of Cook, St. Mathras, of the Russians, abounds 
with foxfes. It. is without trees, but the vallies 
produce grass and small plants. 

North of the peninsula of Alaska is the Bristol 
Bay, of Cook; Kanischateka, of the Russians, 
which receives Bristol River, according to disco- 
veries of the Russians, issuing from a large lake. 
Cape Newenham is the north point of the bay, 
from whence the coast lays north, and is lined 
with shoals to Cape Stevens. Norton Sound, of 
Cdok, Kooinegack, of the natives, is a deep inlet, 
but without any good harbour j the night tides 
were obienred to rise two fe£t, but those of the 
iky were scarcely perceptible. Cape Prince of 
Wales, KygrmU of the natives, is the west point 
of America ; on its south is a deep bay, which ac- 
cording to the account of the natives receives a 
large river. Cape Mulgrave and Cape Lisbura 
succeed to Cape Prince of Wales j and, finally,* 

2d 2 the 



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404 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

the Icy Cape, of Cook, is still the boundary of our 
knowledge of the American continent. From thu 
cape to the point arrived at by M'Kenzie, the dis- 
tance is 85 degrees of longitude, which on the 
parallel of 70°, makes 240 leagues. 



Near the west coast of America some scattered 
islands are claimed by the Spaniards : the most 
celebrated and southernmost are Juan Fernandez 
and Massafuero; the former is described in Anson's 
Voyage with nearly as great exaggeration as Tihian. 
By the Spaniards it is named Tierra, but was over- 
looked by them, and was a rendezvous of the Buc- 
caneers until I766 of 1767> when it received a 
Spanish establishment. It is twelve leagues in 
circuit, and presents an agreeable appearance of 
verdant hills and vallies. In addition to the goats 
left on the island by the first Spanish discover* 
ers, and which multiplied and grew wild, thiey 
have since introduced horned cattle and sheep. 
They have also introduced the fruits and vegeta- 
bles of Chili. 

The town or village is on the N.E. on the Great 
or Cumberland Bay, which is sheltered from K. 
to N.W. by W., but in which the depth is forty 
fathoms half a cable's length offshore. In 179* 
the village consisted of forty houses, pleasantly 
situated in a fine valley, between two lofty; kills. 
The defences were a battery of loose stones, breast 
high, mounting five guns> within the West point 
of the bay, which it commands; and on the l6il 
gf the town another battery of maso&fy, wdth two 

. . faces, 



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NORTH-WEST AMERICA. 405 

faces, one commanding the village and the other 
the anchorage, and fourteen embrasures in each, but 
having only six guns mounted. The military force 
at this time consisted only of six soldiers and forty 
militia. 

Besides the town, there are several habitations 
scattered over the island. 

On the west side there is neither anchorage nor 
landing place, the cliffs rising perpendicularly from 
the sea. 

We need scarcely tell our readers that Juan 
Fernandez is supposed to be the island of Robin- 
son Crusoe, whose story is generally thought 
to be founded on that of Alexander Selkirk, 
a seaman, left on this island by a Buccaneer 
ship. 

Massafuera forms a triangle of seven or eight 
leagues in circumference ; it is very mountainous, 
and geherally covered with wood, and well water- 
ed. It has also anchorage all round, but no shel- 
ter, the shores being composed of large rocks, on 
which the surf breaks with such violence, parti- 
cularly on the north and east sides, that landing 
and watering are difficult. The east side has the 
most pleasant appearance, having many verdant 
vallies, with each its rivulet, and some cascades 
falling into the sea. On this side is a small bay, 
called Enderby's Cove, where landing is safe with 
the wind from S.W. to W.N.W. but the S.E. 
blows right in. This is also the only spot of the 
island where a boat can be hauled on shore with- 
out risk. As the island is .uninhabited, the only 
2 d 3 refresh? 



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406 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

refreshment it affords are wild goats, fish, and 
sea birds. The shores are covered with seals. 

The isles of St. Ambrose and St. Felix, 200 
leagues from the coast of Chili, are each five or 
six miles in circuit, and one league and a half 
from each other. St. Ambrose is a broken rock, 
with no other soil than a thin layer of sand, pro- 
ducing only a plant resembling the nettle, 
without fresh water, and beaten by a surf that 
renders landing difficult. Volcanic appearances 
are observed on it. St. Felix is entirely inacces- 
sible. The only animals ^xe seals and sea birds. 
Latitude of St. Ambrose 2G° 1? S. 79° 9' W. 

Clipperton Island is a great rock in 10° 27' N. 
109° 18' W. 

Cocos Island is about twelve miles in circuit, 
elevated and of a broken appearance, but en- 
tirely covered with wood ; the cocoa-palm being 
predominant, has given its name to the island* 
The cotton tree is also found here, and the man* 
grove covers the shores. Many streams of water 
fall in cascades over precipices into the sea. Fish is 
in great abundance as well as the land crab. The 
rise of tide is sixteen to eighteen feet, and the 
ebb runs four or five miles an hour to the east. 

On the north end is Wafer Harbour, nearly 
land locked, and which receives a fine stream issu- 
ing from a lake a mile from the shore and running 
through a pleasant vallqy. Lat. 5° 27' N. 87° 
48' W. 

The Galapagos Islands are a group of thirteeq 
or fourteen, 120 leagues distant from the coast of 

Quito. 



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NORTH-WEST AMERICA. 407 

Quito. Nine of them are of considerable size, 
the largest, named by the English Albemarle Island, 
being twenty leagues long and fifteen broad. They 
are generally well wooded and have a good soil, but 
are- nearly devoid of fresh water, the greatest quan- 
tity being on the island named James, and is not 
more than sufficient to supply the wants of a single 
ship. The principal tree is the prickly pear, 
which grows to the height of fifty feet and three 
feet girth. In the sands of the island are found 
small topazes, and volcanic appearances are ob- 
served. The climate is considered fine. Among 
the birds are great numbers of teal. 

Opposite thfe coast of Mexico are some islands to 
which Captain Colnett gave the general name of 
Hevillagigedo, after a viceroy of Mexico j their 
names are Santa Rosa, Soccoro, St. Berto, and 
Rocca Partida. 

Soccoro, the most considerable, is ninety leagues 
1 W.S. W. of Cape Corientes ; it is eight leagues long 
and three broad, forming a vast mountain, visi- 
ble thirty leagues. No running water was found 
on it, but it abounds in antiscorbutic plants, par- 
ticularly the prickly pear, which Captain Colnett 
recommends to be bruised and applied to the parts 
affected by the scurvy. Lat. 18° 48' N. 110° 
lC W. 

Tlje other islands have nothing worthy of notice. 



2d4 



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( 408 ) 



ISLANDS IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN, 



The Ferrje Islands are a cluster of twenty-two, 
between the latitudes 61° 15', and 62° 21' N., 
one hundred and twenty-seven leagues from the 
coast of Norway, and sixty-seven leagues from the 
Zetland Isles. They occupy a space of sixty-seveu 
miles north and soutl?, and forty-five miles east 
and west. Tfyeir name is thought to be derived 
either from Jeer, a slieep, and ce, an island, frond 
the number of t{ie?e animals found on them by 
the first settlers, and which had been introduced 
by the Norwegian pirates, who first discovered thei 
islands and made them their rendezvous ; or from 
Jier, feathers, the feathers of sea birds forming a, ■ 
staple article of their riches ; or finally from Jker 9 
for distant, as relative to their position with respect 
to Norway, 

These islands are all vast mountains of rock, 
generally rising in conical or angular summits of 
one to two thousand feet elevation, and the coasts 
presenting perpendicular rocky cliffs of two to 
tlyree hundred feet height. The grand formation 
is trap, with feltspar, glimmer, and grains of 
zeolite: the only volcanic appearances are in 
basaltic columns, which cover considerable spaces, 
]^anv confined heaps of loose stones* an4 vas$ 



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ISLANDS IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN. 409 

masses of rock, scattered on the sides of the hills, 
seem to .denote some great convulsion, by which" 
also it would appear that many of the islands have 
been torn to pieces. The shores offer numerous 
deep caverns, the resort of seals* The mountains 
are only separated by very narrow glens, through 
which run rivulets and brooks, many of which 
form cascades,, and are useful in turning corn 
mills. There are also some fresh water lakes, in 
which are trout and eels ; and some warm springs* 

The quantity of arable land is very small, the 
soil over the bed of rock being in general not 
more than a foot or two deep. Barley and rye 
are the only cultivated grains, and carrots and 
potatoes the only vegetables. The islands have 
no trees, though from the veins of soil they pos- 
sess, and from the trunks of juniper trees found 
in the soil, it would appear that they were not 
formerly without wood. Copper ore has been 
fbund, with particles of gold, but too poor to pay 
the expense of working. , 

The climate, though very foggy, is not un- 
healthy. The summers are generally wet; the 
winters stormy but not cold, the lakes or brooks 
seldom freezing to any thickness, but snow falls 
in vast quantity. The aurora bore^lis is common 
in winter, and is even seen sometimes in August. 
The shores are tremendously beaten by the At- 
lantic waves, and the currents rush through the 
sounds and straits with great violence, forming 
whirlpools almost equal to those of the coast of 
$or\f ay, one of which has the name of Maelstrom. 

The 



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410 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

The islands are deeply indented by inlets form- 
ing eight good harbours in winter, and they have 
besides many roads named summer harbours. 

The wild animals are only rats and mice ; the 
domestic ones horned cattle, sheep, horses, and a 
few hogs, dogs, and cats. The amphibious animals 
are the walrus, and several species of the seal. 
Among the aquatic birds are many kinds of ducks, 
particularly the eider ; the auk, the puffin, penguin, 
diver, fulmer, sheer-watei, gannet, gulls, petrel, &c. 
The only land birds of any consideratipn are the 
quail and wild pigeon. Domestic fowls are com- 
mon, but there are no turkies. 

The population in 1782 was 4409 souls. The 
principal industrial pursuits are, cutting turf for 
fuel, agriculture, rearing cattle and sheep, manufac- 
turing the wool of the latter into coarse cloths or 
knit jackets and stockings, to dye which they make 
use of lichens, with which the islands abound. 
They are also employed in catching sea birds both 
for their flesh and feathers, the former formirig a 
good portion of their food, fresh or dried ; and in 
hunting the seal for its skin and oil. The -fishery, 
which was formerly considerable, is now reduced 
to barely sufficient for the consumption of the in- 
habitants, the fish having forsaken these coasts j 
the principal kinds are hollibut, cod, haddock, 
and sey (gadus virensj. Shoals of small whales, of 
100 to 1000, arrive periodically, and a great num- 
ber are killed for their oil as well as for food. The 
nett revenue from the islands paid to Denmark, is 

8172 



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ISLANDS IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN. 41 1 

3172 rixdollars. For the commerce, see vol. i. 
page 365. 

The seventeen inhabited islands are ; 

1. FugUs (Bird Island), north-eastern, is eight 
flijles in circuit, has some 3pots of ground pro. 
during corn, and two villages. 

2. Swince (Hog Island), larger than Fuglce, is 
composed of two hills, and nearly divided by a 
great bay on the east, and another on the wist ; 
one village, 

S. Videroe, three leagues long and one broad ; 
on the east side is a cavern penetrating quite 
through the island, three hundred feet long, and 
by which a boat may pass as under the arch of a 
bridge ; two villages. 

4. Bordoe is four leagues long and three broad, 
is intersected by two inlets dividing it into four 
peninsulas; it has a good winter port named 
Klaksund, on the north-west, and seven villages. 

5. Kunoe, eight miles long and two broad, is 
one steep conical hill ; three villages. 

6. Kelsce, nine miles long, and one broad ; four 
villages. 

7. Ostsroe, twenty miles long and ten broad, 
has the highest hills among the group, ia indented 
by five sounds, and has the good winter harbour 
of Kongshaven on the south-west ; it has two small 
fresh-wtfter lakes and many basaltic columns. It 
contains seven churches and twenty villages or 
farms. Two singular rocking stones are seen 
in the , sea n$ar the island. Their length is 
twenty-four feet and breadth eighteen, even 

when 



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41* MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

when the sea is perfectly calm, they have a sensi- 
ble vibratory motion, and in storms move back- 
wards and forwards several inches with a creaking 
noise : this effect is probably produced by their 
remaining suspended on the summits of other 
rocks after the clay on which they formerly rested 
had been washed away. 

8. Stromoe, the largest of the islands, is twenty- 
seven miles long and seven broad. It has ono 
town and twenty villages and farms. The former, 
named Thorshaven, is the only one of the islands, 
and is on the south-east side of the island. It is 
the seat of government and the centre of trade. 
It consists of one hundred wooden houses, with 
the same number of families, of whcfin one half 
are fishermen, servants, or paupers. There is a 
latin school, and a wooden church covered with 
slate. The defences are a small fort, and garrison 
of thirty-six men/ At Kirkeboe, a village on the 
south end of the island, is the only stone church ; 
and here was the ancient seat of the popish 
bishops. Westmanhamen, on the west side of the 
island, is the best harbour of the group. 

9. Nolsoe (Needle Island) has its name from a 
perforated hill resembling th£ eye of a needle. It 
is five miles and a half long and one mile broad, 
contains copper ore mixed with gold, one vil- 
lage. 

10, — 11. Hestoe, and Kolter, are little islands, 
with a single farm each. 

J2. Vaagoe, has two lakes of fresh water, one of 

which 



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ISLANDS IN TUB ATLANTIC OCEAN. 413 

which is three miles long and half a mile broad ; 
they abound in large trout ; three villages. 

13. Mygenoes, the western island, is small and 
of difficult access, so that it is only visited twice 
a year by the clergyman; one village. West 
of this island is a great rock of basaltic columns, 
the only resort amongst the islands of the Soland 
goose. It pastures sheep and oxen, whose flesh is 
the most esteemed of the islands. 

14. Sandoe, is thirteen miles long and one mile 
and a half broad ; it has three lakes, and five vil- 
lages. It is one of the most fertile, producing ex- 
cellent potatoes. 

15. Skuce, a small island, is celebrated in the 
annals of the islands for containing the tomb of 
their hero Sigismund Bristesen. 

: 1 6. The Great Dimon is almost entirely inac- 
cessible, and its inhabitants of one family, having 
no place to haul up a boat, have no communication 
with the other islands, unless when the. people of 
tfre latter visit them ; and the clergyman who visits 
the island only every summer, is obliged to be 
hoisted up by a rope. This island, as well as its 
neighbour the Little Dimon, is the grand resort of 
sea fowls. 

17, Suderoe, the southernmost of the group, is 
seventeen miles long and five miles broad ; has six 
churches and ten villages. It lias many spaces 
cpvered with basaltic columns. This island ha* 
two good winter harbours. 

Thp. Monk is, a great lump of rock south of Su- 
deroe, 



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414 MARITIME GEOGftAPttt. 

deroe, surrounded by sunken rocks, amorig whicfc 
the currents are violent and dangerous* 



DETACHED SOCKS, I8LANDS, AN1> SHOALS, IN 
THE NOKTH-ATLANTIC. 

Rockal, N. W. of Ireland* resembles a haycock, 
lat 57° 89' i long. 13° 301 W. 

Lio#'s Bank, 56° 40' ; 17° 45' W. 

Atom's Rock, 55° 15' 5 11° 15 W. 

St Paul de Pinedo, or St. Pedro, a* heap of 
rugge4 focfcs, without verdure, and whitetied by 
birds' dung, without either good anchorage or 
landing, lat. 0° 55 \ W. ; 29° 14' W. 

A ledge of rocks sometimes mistakes for the 
Bermudas, lat 32° 35' } 57° 38'. 

The Bermudas Isbrids were first discovered by 
John Bermuda*, a Spaniard, in 1557, but were 
neglected until 1609, when Sir George Sommers 
was wrecked on them, whence they are sometimes 
called the Sommer or Summer Islands. They con- 
sist of four principal islands, occupying a space of 
seven leagues from east to west, and three id 
breadth, containing about 20,000 acres o£ land ; 
they are surrounded by reefs, which make them of 
dangerous approach, particularly on the N. W. 
where the reefs run off some leagues. 

The climate is that of perpetual spring, but hur-» 
ricanes are also frequently experienced* whence 
Shakspeare gives them the title of the " vexed." 

The 



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ISLANDS IN Tto ATLANTIC OCEAtf. 415 

The soil is not fertile, but is covered with ce- 
dar trees, proper for the construction of sloops of 
war ; the only cultivation is a small quantity of 
cotton, the inhabitants chiefly gaining a livelihood 
by the sea, and particularly by going to Turka 
Islands, Bahamas, to collect salt. The main 
Island is thirty-six miles long, and one to two broad, 
shaped like a fish-hook. 

On St. George's Island is the chief settle- 
ment, containing 500 houses built of a soft stone, 
which is sawed like timber, but when washed with 
lime becomes hard. These stones are sent to the 
West Indies for filtering water. The harbour of 
St. George can only receive twenty-gun ships ; the 
rise of tide is six feet. 

St. David's Island supplies St. George with pro- 
visions. The fourth island of any size is named 
Somerset, besides which, there are reckoned near 
400 spots of sand and rocks. 

Murray's Anchorage, though exposed from N.E. 
to N. W. is the only port that admits a line-of-battle 
ship through a dangerous and narrow channel in 
the reef. Ships of war are watered from a cistern 
-which receives the rain water in Tobacco Bay. 

A considerable number of sloops and schooners 
are built here of the cedar of the islands, and em- 
ployed in the trade between the West Indies and 
North America. The population is about 5,000 
whites, and nearly the same number of blacks. 

The custom-house returns of imports from this 
island to England, and exports, were, — 

Imports. 



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4& MARlffME Gfi06RA*rft: ' *' 

■ -I . »• ' Imports. • Esfr^fci&ljL^* 

1809, i?ll,648.. ...... «£34>279 3 

\ 1810 1,137...... 36,6^ , iiJt; 

The only export of the island produce is cotton j 
in 1809, 21,656 lbs. \ and in 1810, 9,000 lbs. .* , 
. The government is similar to the West Jgjji* 
Islands. ''>-*• n 

AZORES. t:i '' 

The Azores, or Western Islands, are nine m 
number, and derive the former general name from 
thenumber of falcons observed on them by ttie 
first discoverers. They are situated between the 
latitude 39° 30 and 37° 0' N., and long. 05° & 
and 31° SO' W. and distant 257 leagues from 
Cape St. Vincent, Portugal, These islands rise 
from the ocean in rugged precipices, which appa- 
rently owe their origin to volcanic eruptions. Tne 
acclivities, in proportion to their distance from the 
sea, increase in magnitude and elevation, and ip 
many instances rise in enormous piles, covered 
With naked cliffs, except where the sides are f spa- 
ringly shagged with stunted trees and brushwood. 

Their climate is temperate and healthy, t though 
storms and heavy rains are frequent ; but it never 
freezes j and the summit of Pico alone retains xne 
snow in winter. In the vallies and plains the raaxi- 
mum. of the thermometer is 80°. and the nuni- 

mum 50°. * *-* Aittaoto 

The general productions of the islands Te xof- 

fee, tobacco, corn, vPme, fruits, and most European 

vegetables. 



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ISLAND* IN. tHS ATLANTIC OCEAN. ilfif 

vegetables. The woods and high lands abound in 
birds of various kinds, and the coasts are -well sup* 
plied with fish. They have no venomous reptiles. 

These islands were discovered by the Portu- 
guese in .1431, in which year Gonzales Velho 
Cabral visited St. Mary's and formed a colony on 
it the next year. The other islands were discovered 
successively till 1450. They are governed by a 
commandant-general, whose office lasts-but three 
years, and whose seat of government is at Angnu 
Each island is subordinately governed by a caption 
mar f and a judge. The clergy have at their head 
Che Bishop of Angra, the only one in the islands. 

St Michael and Tercera possess the principal 
commerce of the islands, eighty to a hundred vessels 
sailing from them annually to Lisbon and Madeira 
with corn. St George and Gratiosa also export; 
some cheese and butter ; and most of the islands 
afford wine to English and North American vessels. 
The imports are manufactures from Great Britain 
to the value of ,£80,000. From the United States, 
rice, pitch, tar, lumber, staves, iron, fish, and East 
India goods, in return for wine. A vessel also oc- 
casionally takes a cargo of wine to Russia, and 
brings back flax and iron. 

Corvo, the N.W. and smallest, being four 
leagues in circuit, has its name from the number 
of crows observed on it by the first discoverers. It 
produces some wheat but no wine, and its only ex- 
port is small quantities of salt pork. Many of the 
geographers of the sixteenth century drew their 
vol. iv. 2 b first 



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t»mi^,c^pajsji^i no vaqaAioo h^re. r.' ., ;,".. .',\ 
. Flings, w.n^edfromHs idtwuDdij^ii^flopawij 
when d^cf>y^d» exports some wheat and ,.?a}t f 
j^, has^iwine. It is thirty miles long an^nin^ 
Woad^the chief place is Santa Cr*z. , . ^ _., 
\$AJ^ t nfpty r &tm. the plant ' Mipm x ^a^ 
growing on, it,iin great abundance, is. ninfr,|yigy 
%&apft four leagues broad; it is moun^w^^ 
and near; the centre, is a volcano., Tk^^ff^ff^ 

te ^ Villa Horta on thft SwW- aide* and ^n^e 
of Pyerto Sierra, iuwhioh one or tevo yesfl^ 
may find good shelter, and small veaseh^c^ 
qan^e&nes hoye down here. There is a cackle 
on, each point of the bay, united by a atoqefflfjaU, , i 
both of which command the road and town* \ t ^e* 
garrison, in.1775, consisted of a hundred fmen^..^ 

. .The island does not in reality produce, w^ne; 
enpughibr its own consumption, bntt the r waifle,j$. 
Pico being brought to Vflht de Horta io, t hcf,^K> 
Rortedk receives the name ©t'Fayal wine* , ^ y. 
This island was given by Alphonao,. Kjagjjfjfj 
Portugal to his sister the Duchess Gf.Bufgufldjv. 
who in 1460 transferred it to Job. Ym^m*^ 
and Martin Behem, who.firafc colow>sed,i* Jw&jMr 
fe,w mmiliesfrom the Lorn Countries*/ $^qk;^ 
<i«, old charts, the whole groupirece^ve^fth^rfttme, 
<#$*.Wmuh Elands.. .-,.. ./ „.'.' .;• flfJ , ^ orf 

,-$frrdj»w* ftom tlw^aid^f ^afaj.jd^s 
HWWv>;We vast wou«>ii^ i 4h^y u(T ^ J ^ip K 

rugged, and it terminates in a small copc^sflf^, 

a 3 gutar> 



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ISLANDS W Ttife AtLAirtlC 0&EAN. «*f 

gfohuV as toliave lh^^pektund^6f feing^^Mf, 
Its elevation is 2, fJ 700 ^ards. It prodWcb rib dorft, 
biff ffonV sixteen 1 to 24,000 pipe* of wine an- 
niiblly^ most of tfhifch is exported j to the West In- 
dies hnd' North America. In 177# the pipe Sold' 
fbr 4 to £5. Villa de L&gunais the prirtfcijE>&] plaice, 
artd dn the^N.E. sidfe is the town t)f St. Sebaafia'n. 

* *r. George, N.E. of Fayal, iahigh, terifeagrielr 
kfag and two broad, produces a good deal 6t corn 
and some wine, and has very large cedar trees. 

^ratIosa, N.E. of St George, ten miles long anil 
eight broad, also producing com ana wine. V8ta 
dfe ^r&ya chief place. 

■ TfcacfiRA, so called from being the third island 
in* order of discovery by the Portuguese, is the 
seddnd largest of the group, being sixteen leagues in 
circuit. : Its principal production ia wheat, or which 
it Exports a considerable quantity to Lisbon, besides 
atoout ten to 15,000 boxes of oranges and leinons. 
'Onihtf S.E. is the towti of Angra, the residence 
of the Governor and Bishop of the Azores ; it is 
Bmlt on a bay formed by two promontories pro- 
jeittngitito the sea, like the horns of a half moon, on 
e^Tfcttf Which is & castle whose fires cross, and on the 
tfe&fefh promontory are two hills called the Brasils, 
Which cause it to make like an island, coming from 
aSti'Thfe bay is open from south to east by the 
north, and is an unsafe anchorage. The town 
ctffitirtiife* io,O0O inhabitants in 177*- Tercera 
hiii *Wwfie* foWns; r viz. St Sebastian and Villa 
ftityiJjJ '&e fetter, situate on a fine bay, \wiSi<X& 
iiffifefcftairti: ' 
,ili( SbS St. 



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*flO MARITIME GEOGRAPHY* 

t$r. Michael, eighteen leagues long, and two 
to five leagues broad, though covered with tnouii- 
tams, is one of the most fertile of the group, 
ffratfuefttg cHiefly wheat and flax. It has a vol- 
cano- and many mineral springs. - It exports a 
considerable quantity of wheat to* Lisbon and 
Madeira, besides about 80,000 boxes of orariges 
And lemons. It is the property of a Portuguese 
rt&bteman, to whom it is said to afford 40,000 
*ft*zadoes df rent* 

Punta^delGadaj on the S.E., is the chief town, 
containing 12,000 inhabitants. It is built on the. 
shore of a cove, behind which rise conical hills. 
It is protected by the castle of St. Bias, the prin- 
cipal fortification of the island, which mounts; 
twenty-four old iron gtins. The other towns are 
Valla Franca, on the north, and Ribeira Grande, 
also on' the north, with 10,000 inhabitants. Its. 
road is very bad, being filled with shoals, but east 
of it is the little secure port of Formosa. The 
military force of the, island is 200 regulars, and* 
five or 6,000 peasant militia. 

St. Mary, the S.E. island, is twelve miles in 
circumference. It is so surrounded with rocks 
as to be nearly inaccessible. It produces a con- 
siderable quantity of wheat. " L 
- The Formtgas, or Ants, a ledge of rocks, ^.E. 
by Bi fifteen leagues from Punta del Gfcda, th 8i. 
Michael's, so named from the continual rtiotiqlh of 
the 'tea round them, which produces extreme nigh . 
foedkers. One mile N;W. is afa<>th& dtt#& tit 



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ISLANDS IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN. *01 

rocks, and a third eight leagues further wfefrt- 
ward. v 

The population of the Azores is variously 
estimated. In 1778, the Due de Chatelet gay* 
it as follows : Corvo, 500 ; Hores, 2,500 ; Fayal> 
4,000 j Pfe*' 28,000; St. Geoige, 30,000; Gra- 
tiosa, 4,000; St. Michael, 40,000; St. Maiy, 
6,000. In 1775, Capt Cook gave the population 
of Terceira 20,000. Recent accounts, however, 
make the population of St Michael 80,000, apd 
the total population of the islands 210,000. 



MADEIRAS. 

The Madeira islands are two in number, Ma- 
deira Proper, and P^rto Santo. They are situated 
between lat. 32° 22' aad 33° lO' N. and Ion. 
17° 30'' and 16° 20 / W. and 150 leagues from 
Cape Blanco in Africa. 

Madeira is sixty miles long and twenty broad, 
containing 407 square miles or 260,480 square 
acres. It is one immense mountain, at the sum* 
mit of which is an excavation, supposed to be the 
crater of an ancient volcano, but which is now 
covered with grass. The quantity of lava and 
oth^r volcanic matters found on the island are, 
however, a sufficient proof of the former existence 
pf sub^gjrauean fires. 

? Th^,yariQU5 branches of this great mountain 
rfe s^pa^ated by narrow glens, the sides of which 
arj ^ r y thinly covered with soil, but are never- 
2e3 thel 



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il^& %H^ diWyitedi -Mariy tf^m^»W 
ii6at f Plages and 1 hamlets, and all possess riffakitfe 
<?f Aire waiter- * • ' : - •; ; ;1 * cI 'V 

The climate is mild and temperate, aid **£% 
^ecomtiietided to pMmcmafy -patients* ^ Tife* &f- 
ijprfept el^atktowf, however, affbtti *y«fy Vatf«y 
of temp^ratuw; firom'the AforcHing^lkilil ^ttw 
torrid seme, to the moderite ttiA <*f ltttddfe 
£ii*rope. In Jaouaiyite sumtait*f the*ofil£ 
iain istiaiaiy cotferi&d with snow, ^feik?afc*\ifllshi4 
thtetherawm^erisatsixty-fo^ TheWifiitttiifi<il 
not ldwet- thin fifty-flve ; the maxitnum ^icept 
with a S.E. Wind, when it rises at times to nitttty* 
five) does not exceed seVenty-six. 

The riches of Madeira consist solely fe its 
vhSeyards, whidi are enclosed with ted^fts^ the 
♦prickly pear, w2d rose liushes, myrtle, artdptfoe* 
grtnate. The White grape is the most geiHftdfy 
cultivated, but there is also a retd gnpewbfidh 
gives a white wine, called battirdd, and ittmdMv 
Whit^ grape Which produces a reddish 4m*J *c*k 
led tinto, known in the English market fcyqtbe 
name Of London particular. ' -*° > 

The quantity of wine produced Artmw&yvfJfc 
estimated at an average of 25,000 pipeijiff 196 
gallons feach, of which 15,000 are '&tpota&i«tri*. 
to England 4,500 : to tiie East Itwlte* Sitktiwb 
the West Indies 3,000: to the ISirtte* S*fefc*^fre. 
2,000. The remaining 10,000 fty& <*Mf tibrt&ried 
jn the island. About 50& pipes of* a sftfefet^ne, 
balled malmsey, is also made. The price of wioe 
on the ial^ad haa been gn*o«l}y tooreaang for 

several 



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ISLANDS Of TH* ATLAMMC OCEAN. 44$ 

se**tfal f ywv In: 1790. the first <pulity of. tbs 

«£45. In the former year a pipe of paaji^sey 

-tifThe vegetable productions of the island, be? 
qictas srups, are the eddoe root, on which the 
poor dies ahiefly subsist, and the leaves of which 
MB givefe as food to the hogs. Sweet potatoes 
a*£ r^othnr article of common food, as well as 
tbWWlpr which are planted in the high parts of 
theadand, , unfit for vines. Wheat and barley arc 
•pwviUJthfi .vineyards, where tlie vipes are. nearly 
WWB Ottt; hut the whole produce of these grains 
does not exceed three months consumption, the 
defifpyenpy t>emg made up from the Azores, and 
Ifcrtsfe and South America. Sugar cane is also 
jQflHforttfrt oa the island, from whence it was first 
Oftfjfped to America. The island also produces the 
HM/ltdficpceef and other gums, together with the 
tJttitjBMHOB, cedar, &c. The gardens produce most 
iftlStyp European fruits, as well as some of the 
tihpktrWGk as the plantain, guaya, &<v 

Common domestic anijoalf ace in suffiq^tt 

abwdawe; but the only wild animal is the fab* 

&ft $fvd tbs only xeptile . die lizard* ll*e £WfW 

^t|ii^gthe Jic^intot^e woods tit geel; thpif 

ivodpohgi pwfoced** half wild bjeed, which \ w& 

}^prim±&&* si . .., < .; >-v<'/ -r 

ho/^i«Pi¥rf»tiau **f tha isl^n4 is ftfpp 8Q$flO* , 

.tftflft^* r% w^twy,%(^ in 170Q ?> fiansJ^ 

onhv "to ewq ?rfT .*&&#( >.;,< . ., >■-. , f # ••.,, i^|r i: <P 



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♦34 • UAXOTUDL GEOmXBB!*. 

H>f 160 infantry of the line, 150 ai^lety, $J3») 
veguiaf militia, doathed, armfed; a&dttnriQtted, 
mid 10^000 irregular miUtnu The island ifi><di- 
rvided into two captaineries, named Machia>ia¥i 
Futtchal. . i i f < 

The English have twenty cbmmetctal /hotrios 
9t Madeira, ? whose reunion forms the British fac- 
*oty, and who almoat monopolize the trade of the 
iriahd.' The exports, besides wine, are in*jgoifc» 
emit, consisting of some wood, masiie^ and 
other gums, honey, wax, and orchilbt, The 
Whole value of exports is estimated at -£60(^00^ 
*f Which England and her colonies take ,£^00^00^ 
the United States .£90,000, and Portugal only 

j£*o,ooo. 

4 The imports are from England, manufactures 
for ,£300,000 j from the United States,,, tarter, 
corn, &o< fcfr .£100,000; and about the same 
value from Portugal, the Brasils, axal Azotes, 
so that the imports and exports beJaotje ^eaok 
Other. . ; 

The revenue consists of one-tenth of the p*o* 
duce of the vineyards, and a duty ofrrtea per 
cent, on imports, and eleven per cent, on exports; 
producing together about «£100,060, the manual 
^fpenses being about ,£70,000 fH^nett Revenue 
eonsequerrtly remains to the crown <rf> ^80,000, 
but sofcte years this sum is said ^to be reduced' to 
erie4hir& ' f : ,— :;! \t,w.M 

- Ttttfchal, theonly town of thb iskhd;iis fekuate4 
on ] the : south coast, on a large open bay, which 

•v' 1 * extremely 



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ISLANDS IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN. 49ff 

^efctftraety d&ngerous in the winter; when "heavy 
tfeato from the S. W. are common. The befach is 
ttuftpotoed of large burnt stones, rounded by the 
*GtiftAo£ the sea, and has often a surf on it that 
renders landing impossible, yet it is the moat at <r 
XJessiblo part of the island. - 

The* town extends three-quarters of a mile 'dloqg 
ihfe beafth, and about half a mile inland; its strecte 
ire Barrow and crooked, paved with the stoned from 
Ihe beach, or with large masses of tugged lava, 
disagreeable to the feet. Several smaJi stueama 
descending from the mountains run through the 
town into the bay, but as the inhabitants throw 
all their ordure into them, they add little to the 
cleanliness of the streets. The population is from 
twelve to 15,000. 

JXmchal is defended by four forts, viz. 1. Sfc 
Jago, at the east extremity of the bay, immedi- 
ately under a steep hill ; 2. St. Lorenzo, in which 
is the government-house ; 3. Peak Castle, on a 
hill N.W. of the town, half a mile from the shore, 
and of difficult access on the south, but command- 
ed by another hill j this is, however, the chief 
fortification, the walls being very high, but with- 
out a ditch, and not mounting above twelve guns j 
4. the Loo Rock, on which is a fort with Hume* 
rous cannon, en barbette, and surrounded by a 
weak parapet. This rock, the name of which is 
properly Uheo, the Bland, is distant from a cocky 
point iof the bay 120 fathoms, and this narrow 
channel is 768 fethoms deep ; the small craft belong- 
ing to the island, in winter lay under this rock, with 

a rope 



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4*fr •;• umksxmm gto«u*h**v -^ 
fcjrope &ftt to it, bwt;w the iutet jppeai»c6r.4| 
^>ad washer the people quit thai and k*W 
tb^m ^tii^ir firte. Twa handrediptoes iwpt^of 
th^town is aiyerk one huniiredpaceabHig^tk 
three tmftU basbkms and a reflbufat totfatdt 
the sea, washed by tl*e wumu The bewttk it 
^defended by a }o^ fe*p w»H m\k\itVOHm 

^fitia (preventing the landing o£$roop% didomt 
tba |urf asf^t i^ ;— ; i> i^rjjjju 

, Bwde$ JFyqcjhal, the only landing p|ace*>q*'Jl& 
ki^n4 a^re S^nta Cruz, on the* S*&, aftd Mtfhtfifli 
on the N.W., at both of which .small cjfe&Uoftd 
wine. 

The chief headlands of the island are Point 
Lorenzo, N.E.; off it are several rocks above yrsi+ 
ter ; Point Parga, S.W. ; Pojnt de SoJ> three 
l^ag|^ ; and a half west of FunchaJ,, gaoled from 
its being painted with beautiful rainbows in wes- 
terly gales and stormy weather : it is a majestic 
perpendicular cliff. 

Porto Santo, the lesser of the Madeira islands, 
forms in several peaked hills, and is fifteen miles in 
circuity its distance from Madeira is fourteen leagues 
N.E. On the S.W. is a bay sheltered from all 
winds but S.W. to W. f and within it is a harbour 
landlocked. Water is procured at this island with 
Jess difficulty than at Madeira, and provisions are 
plenty. Population, 5 or 6,000. It exports soma 
dragons* blood, honey, wax, and silk. 

The Dezertas are three small rocky isleflg^ 
seven leagues S, by E. from the N.E. point {$ 

Madeira. 






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ISLAK0S w nor ATLonrac ocean. 4*7 

Madeira. Tlie rfiannel betwe«ti theie ifllatiAi stni 
Jfodei a ia ctau*, and has tbtoyte forty 'fi^oim* 
4ftcept on a^fipill bank near the middle, *m<whteh 
ir but eight fetfuKns. There are «too clear <*h*n- 
Abb between the different islands of the Dezertas. 
•* The Salvages are a group of rocky islands be- 
iween Madeira and Ae Canaries. The northern- 
jftesti leaned Isle Orando, is high and barren, with 
#ome irees tit -each end. It is about one mile 
in circumference. The S. W. rocks are catted thti 
©rt*t and Little Piton* and are three teagoettligL 
iaatfrort* hie Grande, bat * *ocky bank* eolieft 
4be Ledge, unites thetn. f 



CANARIES. 

--''Tlie'^AtfAtrtr 'Idbudb are eleven in numbfe?, 
#even 6f *rhidi only are of any size. The clmiatfe 
•k tert^erate and healthy, bttt difrefrs in the tiiffei*- 
^nt islands according to their elevation and sittf- 
stftwi With respect t6 the prevailing wiftds, fchick 
ire north and N.E. The rains sometimes begii 
ffctfrards tfie ek& 3f Ntfvbtfiber, birt generally later, 
ittd last' till March. This Season is called wmtet 
t^-tte^attdert, dSfKougf* it Very seldom fteezed, 
**ltf 'fsktiw ofcfy fifllfc &ti Hit mountains : oh tffe 
RW dfYfert^ifl^ittemiftlsunthkwea frothNovetnl 
WPito Jhh6. The rains often <&uitegrfcat dami^ 1 
descending rrr't&i^nts^ctai flife hi6untains- M iheiy 
<S^ T wtth' «he^ f i r teof«WeraHfe part of ^he Vefee. 
^mthtait ii^^rtDfteirs^s.' N&^*M, 
rtI)flJA without 



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428 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY* 

Without these rains, the islands would be totally 
sterile, fop few of them have any constant streams. 
•In the plains, the maximum of the thermometer 
is generally 80°, and the minimum 60°. The 
general productions of the island are barley, rye, 
Indian com, potatoes, calavances, peas, for the 
consumption of the inhabitants; lupins, peas, 
lentils, beans, and a Kttle oats, for the cattle. 
The frnits are figs, olives, dates, and grapes. In 
the gardens, oranges, lemons, peaches, almonds, 
bananas, papas, apples, pears, cherries, prunes, 
quinces, apricots, and pomegranates. The cottoft 
trees of the islands are superb, but neglected by 
the inhabitants. The sugar-cane also thrives ex- 
ceedingly, but is little attended to, and the pro- 
duce is consumed in the islands. The culinary 
vegetables cultivated are sweet potatoes; yams, 
cauliflowers, onions, of which a quantity is ex- 
ported to America, calabashes, wat^r melons, 
spinach, strawberries, lettuces, chicory, ra- 
dishes, turnips, beet-root, carrots, cresses, pirn- 
pernella, artichokes, pimenta, absynth, parsley, 
and celery. K 

The wild animals found on the islands are de& 
of different species, hares, rabbits, rats and mice, 
wild goats and cats ; formerly they had WikTasses 
aod dogs, but their races are extinct. Hie 'dp- 
n^esiic animals are horses, asses, mules, bl6tt,~ 
hog*, sheep, goats, dogs, and cats. 

The birds amount to sixty-four species, amongst 
which are the pheasant, bustard, woodcock, sni^o, : 
red legged partridge, qujul* pigeon, dove, tev-^ * 

Th« 



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k 



ISLANDS IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN. 42$ 

' The fishery on the coasts of the islands 1b by 
no means productive. In spring, however, mack- 
arel arrive in large shoals, when a profitable fishery 
is carried on. 

The Canaries were first occupied by European* 
in 1402, when John Bethincourt, a Norman* 
made himself master of Lancerote, and the othef 
islands were successively conquered from the n£ 
tives, Teneriffe being the last, which was subdued 
in 1496. \ 

The population of the islands seems to increasp 
in the usual proportion of civilized people, as the 
following table shews. 

1678.. ...... 105,637 

1745 136,192 

1768 156,000 

1794 174,000* 

The islands are governed by a commandant- 
general,who usually resides at Sta. Cruz, Teneriffe. 
He is judge in all military affairs, but an appeal 
lies from his decision to Madrid ; his salary is 
9,000 piastres. The chief officers under him are 
an auditor, a king's lieutenant, a town major, and 
commissary of war. Civil justice is administered 
by the alcades of the Cantons, with an appeal to 
t\\e superior audience at the Grand Canary. The 
affairs of religion are directed by a bishop, who 

ako 



• According to Monsieur LeDru. 169,500 according to Loi*ftteaftat? ;> 
tit tlie Atst appears the most correct. In 1 803, St Viacent estimatft theqfc 
m only IS7,<9f . The population of each Island will be found in the par- " 
tkalar description 



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400- •- fOftiMMB oeofcHArtrrf 1 "^ 
abo««a«*do*itt «laod> wb€tte"b *i /; offl«c of 
mqnutton. lie. wbno* aro^e»ntfdel^W$hU f 
mediately dependent <nvthe pf^hefcof AftiSk-i 
liuttt. Th<*o of Canary, Tenerifle, and WfifraV 
an reputed foya* domains ; the property i# fflef 
otfaetshaattten^attenoted. -' : - i: ' u 

< >tBb*prict of pftftisioB* in ailHKe i&rias ' jb 3 ^ 
pitted) aoawalty by ooinmi&sionert', tNefolloWfr^ 
*aalhe4artftorl794L< ,j: • :, ./ J ': :i 

(#iv» oil, par bottle 1 8 Sajt pork..pcf U)./Oj4. 
Qandlea, . . per lb. t>, White bread, . . . . <0f 

Veruucelli 7£ Salt cod . -.a 4*' 

Bice, .....OS Salt herrings, 4for0 If 

Cheeae,homomadeO 5\ Applea. ... per lb. 1 

Butttr H Oranges, 5 for .. Of 

Ham 06 Beef & mutton 3§to4£ 

Salt beef 3| 

T^e chief food of the common class is potatoes 
aad other vegetable*, and aah fish, the produdb 
of the fishery carried on by the Canarians on die 
opposite coasts of Africa. This fishery employ* 
twenty-five to thirty brigantines of about tfcfrijr 
tone each, chiefly from the Grand Canaiy, "wfcir 
make seven or e%ht tripe a year, each trip prt)tf 
uVemg 1& to 90,000 Iba, ef h^ which at aaquafci 
tew the lb. of *9 oa. amounts to 1,090 piastb& 
To the constant use of this fish, which is badly 1 
cored, is ascribed the cntaaeoos disorder to wbJfefr 
the Caaariane at* subject. *-"" 

The productions of the island) lor contmefctf 

are> 



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ISUAKDS W THE, ATI ANISC GORAN* 48t > 

flf$ lat; Wine,x>f which it is estimated- that about 
40,000 pipes are made annually, that is, 30,000. 
pipes in the island of Teueriffe, and an equaL 
quantity in the other inlands collectively : of this l 
quantity, 20,000 are usually exported, either in ♦ 
its original state, or made into brandy. This 
wine,. named iti the islands Vidonia, is dry add 
strong, but much} inferior to the wine of Madftiife, : 
and its price is also much less, being in 177^ 
«£l2, and in 1804, .£20 the pipe. A very rich 
wine was formerly made here, called by the jFrencft 
Yin de Malvoisie, (corrupted by the English to 
Mfchbsey), from Napoli de Malvasia, a towri of 
the Morea, celebrated for its luscious wines. There 
is little or none of this wine now made. The 
brandy is chiefly exported to the Spanish Wetft- 
Ladies j it takes Ave pipes of wine to make one of 
brandy. 

* The island of Teneriffe possesses the principal 
commerce of the Canaries, and its ports are al- 
most the only ones frequented by foreign vessels, 
tp? f , English, American, French, Danes, Ham- 
burgers, and Dutch ; but the English possess by 
far the greatest share of the trade, and have the 
iHpSt extensive commercial connections in the is- 
land! England sends to the island woollen and 
cottop mafiufactuj-jes, hardware, hats, leather; soap 
ajjqL candles; Prance,, ca#iblets, lawns, a^lks, and 
sqip^winej th^ North of Europe, iro», her*; 
rings, and fish oil } the United States, wheat, 
wax, salt beet and sta^ The import? .from 

Spain 



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49t uaxttvu 

Spain art confined to some nwil dHH'hst* 
and olive oil. ** ; *•* 

Orchilla, used in dying iiolet» is t fl e c W ft a 
the rocks, particularly of TenerBe; it w* ft i ifcfly 
a considerable branch of export, and is cotldeted 
on account of the king, who pays about feftn 
piastres and a half the 100 cwt. and f o e meriy tfr 
sold it for eighth-eight, when peeled arid dried. 
But the English, who chiefly made use of rt, hiv- 
ing found cheaper substitutes, its price liar de- 
creased the half. 

The other exports are a small quantity of figs, 
raisins, oranges, and calavances, some szDc stock- 
ings and gloves manufactured at Tenerifle, soda 
from Fortaventura and Lancerota, a little cotton, 
sugar, honey, and wax. 

The islands of Teneriffe, Palma, and the Grand 
Canary are the only ones permitted to trade direct 
with the American colonies. 

In 1788, the exports to these colonies were 
Produce of the islands. ... £ 23,800 
Foreign merchandize 14,500 



88,009- 
Returns 30,900 ^ 



The aet revenue derived from the i&JaJtyfc > t 1p 
the crown* (after paying all expenses) doe& 00t£*> 

c^dX6ftOoa r r ; 1 ;>} 



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ISLANDS If*. T^E AVLAX£I£ OCEAN. »<<$& 

f ^ i:j( pTj(wu|iFFB, the^firetof the Canarieaupi conse- 
quence, though not in size, is nearly of a trian- 
>i&9te* shape, beipg seventy miles long N.N.E, and 
^j&JS.W. and twenty-two broad E. and W., contain- 
ing 1540 square miles, or 985,600, acres. Its name 
. is a corruption of the word tkenariffe, which, in the 
. Jaqguage of the ancient natives of the island, sig- 
nified white mountain, from its peak being capped 
. ,with snow the greatest part of the year, and for 
jkhe same reason it received the name of Nivaria 
from the ancients. 

. The climate of Tenerifle is healthy; on the east 
fide land and sea breezes are tolerably regular; 
. but on the south-west side, calms and light south- 
west winds are frequent. 

The south-west side of the island is in general 
barren and thinly inhabited, while the north and 
east coasts are fertile and well peopled. The soil 
of the whole island is entirely composed of vol- 
canic substances, in large masses of scoria, in the 
interstices of which grow tufts of aromatic and 
milky plants of the genera of cactus, euphorbia, &c. 
The whole island is furrowed with ravines called 
barancas, winch, in the rains, become the channels 
of torrents* and form numerous picturesque cas- 
cades. Near the middle of the island is the cele- 
brated peak, anciently called the Peak of Teyde % 
Tmt which name: fe alrfiost out of \ise. It rises in 
the shape -of a sbgar-loaf, from a base of five 
leagues in circumference to the height of between 
IS and 14,090 feet, and may be seen forty-three 
% vol* rv. "^ f leagues 



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434 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

leagues at sea. The summit of die peak is a 
volcano, which generally emits smoke, but has 
not erupted since 1706 ; but the Mount Cahorn^ 
one of the inferior peaks which surround the main 
one, threw out flames in 1798. 

The Dutch formerly drew their first meridian 
throiigh the peak, it being then supposed the 
highest elevation of the globe. 

Besides the vegetable productions common to. 
all the islands, Teneriffe produces the tcee that 
gives the gum-dragon, and the mountains are co- 
vered with a species of pine, cypress, cedar, and 
laurels. The only wild animals are deer and goats. 

The population of the island, according to Lord 
Macartney, was in 1790, 100,000; but a later 
writer makes it only 67,399 in 1803> exclusive of 
3,000 monks. 

Laguna, the chief town, properly St. Chris- 
topher de Laguna, is on the east side of the 
island, and four miles from the sea. It is situated 
near a small lake, from which it receives its name, ^ 
but which becomes a marsh in the dry fe^on. 
Though the situation of Laguna is low with re- 
spect to the surrounding mountains, it is so nwwh 
elevated above the sea as to Tender the clirn^W, 
extremely different from that of the coast. Ifh* 
Plain of Laguna is the most fertile and best e^ . 
tivated tract of the island. The population fc 
8,000 j and here most of the landed prqpri^tof* . 
and persons of independent fortune reside. ' 

Santa Cruz, the most considerable towh «f t$* 

• ■ id*nd> 



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ISLANDS Itf THE ATLANTIC bCEAft 435 

island, and the residence of tfoe governor, is si* 
ttiated on the east side, five leagues from Laguna* 
It is built on a sandy track of land, at the foot of 
a chain of mountains extending from N.E. tb S. W* 
It contains four principal streets, large, clean, and 
strait, from north to south, and ten lesser ones 
cutting them at fight anrrles, with & or 900 houses* 
moitly of stone, whitewashed, and two stories high) 
the windows furnished with jealousies, instead of 
gl&ss. The population is estimated tit 8,000, ex- 
clusive of the garrison and clergy; the former 
consisting of a regiment of the line of 500 men* 
and a company of artillery of 100 men, are dis- 
tributed in thirteen forts and batteries, which form 
a chain the whole length of the bay, within gun- 
shot of each other. The principal of these works 
fa Fort St. Philip 6n the south, arid Passo Alto oa 
the north, which is situated at the foot of a moun- 
tain that in some places overhangs it j beyond it 
to the south, is a deep ravine running inland, 
which serves as a natural foss6, and must render 
the approach of an enemy very difficult, if not 
impossible. 

The bay is sheltered by the land, from N.N.TL to 
W.N. W., but with the wind from the south it is by 
nd means a secure anchorage ; and besides, th6 
bottom is generally rocky ; so that it is necessary 
to'bdby up the cables, to prevent their Tieing cut. 
Itffedter H6 irend'er landihg more easy, ti tnblfe hrf 
been constructed from a projecting rocky point, 
ftTt!lWan$<S of VMch art steps to ascind by* 

^ *f* Thit 



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This mole is defended by a battery of six heav? 
guns on its extremity, which commands tbe wlvric 
bay, and the water for shipping is conveyed tb it 
by pipes. : . • • •■> 

N. S. de Candelaria, four leagues south of.Sahtt 
Cruz, on a sandy bay, is a considerable visage, i*> 
habited chiefly by fishermen. * i 

Guimor, a large village, two leagues amd* Jwtf 
south of Candelaria, and one league from the sp* 
, Val de St Andr£, a small tillage of 4Qft in- 
habitants. . ,-,-iw 

Orotavo, the third town of the island, is sifeiata} 
pn the north coast, one league from the $ea ; fa 
population is about 5,000, chiefly landed- ipmt 
prietors; the country round it is fertile aq4 **M 
watered, rj -* 

>The port of Orotavo, properly Puerto 4# la 
Cruz, or de la Paz, is, next to Santa Qmz> $# 
most commercial place of the island, and cpatak* 
5,000 inhabitants. The road is entirely^ops? to 
the north and north-west j and as the t^rme^-i* 
the most common wind, it throws a heayy swell ^ 
tliat renders landing very difficult and disagteeafelpfr 
and the only method of embarking the :pipf$ef 
wine is by rafting tbem oft It is ueyert^e^ > 
tolerably safe road, from M^y to October^ Jp£ in 
the other months, when north-west wipefe aifcjtffl 
unfrequent, it is e?$r«mely d$ngeroup j ai*d m$& 
first appearance of their coining on, ships .$tpptfc 
puttose^,, .< , , : ;» t oX 

La Ramala, or St. J^ 4el* Ramblfe* vflfigfi 
.:..- . ; ivt ti . » . cq n t»tfiti g 



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ISLANDS IN THE ATLANTIC feCEAN. ls^ 

Cfttrttfming 1^5Q0 inhabitants. *' Here was Formerly 
tnade thfe ftimous Malmsey wine.- ; - *'■ r *"•-? 
i Realejo, one league north of Ofotavo, is afiHugfc 
on the slope of a hill, amidst vineyards. ' % "- 

•> Tacaront€, a considerable village, containing 
S>500 inhabitants. , , . 

* T&ganana, a village on the north*, 1 situated 
aitt&ttg the most productive Tcilchfcri gardens of 
theistend; ?00 inhabitants. <* J :i l - r * 

Garrachico* in the seventeenth century wAV^he 
principal pdrt of the island ; but in I706 an erup- 
tion of the volcano Entirely filled up the part! 4^th 
fluid lava, and obliged the merchants to : rkk\ov6 
feOffctavb and Santa Cruz -Tat present/ WieViU 
htge built on the' site whfere the shi£* Ibftheriy 
anchored, Contains 1,600 inhabitaiits. « - • : ' ! 
? Sti Jagd is situated oh '*he l autiimfV of high 
mountains that line the-coaSt/* and J ftV*ttte 'ihorf 
fltf»i)fe*nfl volcahfe pai:t<tf the island. f *' ' 
; *1?he ttflrth-west cioastj ds We- have -before 6b- 
•enred, & tbftimostbarreii of tlkte islands the lavas 
fttim the Peak having stfetttingly rtitik r gfette§rafiiy 
dfteeted their course to this side, Mid formed a 
ehafn of steep mountains, tisihg abruptly r ft*tn the 
«ea lb the height of half a knife petf^dictitar. ' 
' Ade*a< is a small village containing '880 <inha- 
Wfeafts* on a bay vteited by the smalt fcfaft of the 
Maud, to convey away the produce, which is stigbr 
ttfrrye. -.*: ' ! " : ' ~ '* r i'> r ' 1f »-■'•">- > '' ' ^ ' 
. Los Christianos, soBth/of Adexa] 0» a ttnatt 
beys, Visited by^tbe/islafrtd ci^ftA . ^ r 
.Tha Grand Canary, twelve leagues south-east 

2f 3 of 



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43$ jrAJHTHMS GEQGIUPHYt 

of Teneriffe, is nearly round, being abotjt tW&V* 
leagues long and eleven broad; i% is the best 
watered and roo^t fertile of the islands, producing 
more corn than necessary for its consumption; 1 *!**! 
some wine, but which is said to be inferior to th*t 
of Teneriffe, and is principally converted iiitte 
brandy ; it also affords some silk, and calavaneea, 
which ate imported to Cadiz, sugar of an excellent 
quality, honey, wax, wool, cotton, and a, great dell 
of salt Its population is estimated at 40,000. ; 

Jn 1776, the military force on this islafad Wa* 
1,640 persons, distributed in eleven forts and 
redoubts. 

Palmas, the chief^lace of this island, is situated 
on the north-east side; its road i$ sheltered fwito 
the north-east by the north-east point of the taltokt 
which nips out in a peninsular form, and has 
several desert rocks off it. 

Ferro, Fer, or Hierbo, the S.W. of It* Cstlfe 
riei, is six leagues long, and three league* fewad $ 
its coasts are formed of high cliffi, and te mbun* 
fcuq? **re volcanic ; it has no running stream, indtrtrt 
few springs most of tfhich also fail in wnrtrer. Us 
jffodwee i$ con$aed to a jmli quantify of'Wrtv a 
considerable quantity of DtteMBa, gt^pee,*nd fifes 
which ve made into brandy/ The tfoti&'lfifre 
&&r*i rgdrtegged partridge*, bustards^ and J*** 
wnts, > t ,:•,; '■.-,.;., « .- : *.> 

The chief exertions of the itthabit4fttfc**i* 

JHBourofe ft, a^mUi AOW), t 'are turned fintard* the 

rearing of cattle. I 4ga ate veay common d**r tikis 

wr v] :. J vSvm .:. • " jrfand, 



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ISLANDS IM TH£ ATI^UW OCEAN. <J#§ 

ilftwl* *rhauce it has received the naw of Black 
Island from the people of the others. 
r Louis XIII., in order to create a regular uni- 
formity in the French charts, directed that the 
firft meridian should be drawn through this island, 
and several nations of Europe adopted it, com- 
puting it from Valverde, the chief plac$, nearly in 
its centre, which is 17° 45' W. pf London* El 
Gojfo, or the Gul£ on the east side, is the prin<* 
cipai village. 

Gomera is five leagues distant from the S^W. 
coast of Teneriffe j it is six leagues long, and. its 
medium breadth three leagues ; it is mountainous, 
fUut with fine vallies* well weeded, and producing 
Wxm calavaaces, and wine, hpt not sufficient for its 
consumption. Its population 7*QQ0» 
P Pabaas, the chief place, is on the east side, 
Actuated on a bay, sheltered from the N.E, lay a pro- 
jecting point, and into which fall several rivulets. 

Faisaa, the N.W. of the Canaries* is eight leagues 

Jopgl and six Leagues broad, is very mountainous 

a*d wo»dy t the interior having many extensive 

*okwwtas* It is only cultivated near tlie coast, aqd 

ptoduees the best wine of the islands, a great 

qpqntfty of almonds, some augar and silk, and 

. corn to serve its inhabitants half the year. It has 

^ttp^d animals. Jfopulatioa 2(^000. 

This island is said to be more subject to wester- 
Jy K wind* and i*insjttyfl any of thp others. Santa 
ijJryj^ tbft tfuef place, is, near the* middle of the 

;. 2f4 Rumel 



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bay. : ; '.-.?-■.»* ' , :, , ..^tfn.jv^ 

J^tatojwtujla* i* twenty leagues J99& #9Afi$un 

Ave to two leagues broad* fortmtjg tore p ffli m^ * ft 

* It hate ,m)riyukt^ tod but tfewr^riogf, b»&& 
prodbced motej<x>i?n (fcan jiecegKQ? fo <ftsi«fflfa 
sumptibn* ailittk ooJtton,an& MU^dfeflWiYPtth 
The chief pursuit tf the inhabitants ri* cfriJeogijft 
and burning the soda, which covers iUbe^qh^, 
Population 20,000- tlI . 

Lanceoota, named after its discoverer, , ianqpt 
leagues leng and four leagues broad: Tbet tj|f$v 
which formerly covered the summit* of thehilJi^ 
having been entirety cut down, he* almost cp^qebfe 
deprived the island of water, tfcere bewglb«Mn% 
running spring on it, which is on the north aide*, , 

The north coast presents very Jngb a»4 steep* ' 
cltfis, bordering the sea. » j /r * 

The vegetable productions of the idaqd^ when . 
thfe seasons are favourable as to rain, are more tbfp, 
sufficient for its consumption, and it also produOML 
some wine, which is mostly co»vwted into Jw«*Jy 
for the American market. The population o££te at 
island* and the small island near it, it egfoqfttaii*fr. 

9,500. ,,i .: ^i-iyioi 

On the S.E. side of the island aw two gQOd 
pcMts within reefs, called Puerto de Naoaapd Puerto 
Cavallos. The former, wJ^hisdienMtlMa| # .i9|^ ? 
sheltered from the N.E. and the reefs breaking off 
the swell, the water is perfectly smooth, and here, 
vessels in want of refitting usually put in. It has 

two 



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isLAN*i*rtr m* Atmcn& ucean. 44* 

ftfd'fentttriiees* bfctwde* th^ 4ee6?tbe borth one Has 
only fourteen feet . at high water, and the sooth 
seventeen feet $ the depth within fe'twenty-sevfen 
te^ft«^^ri»eoft*4eteH«efc -u ^ / ■•• 
. Puerto Cavallos id one mile -south ~&f/!Pwttfr 
Naos; h*B braked on the W.Bv iiy a smaH**iland 
jdiftid to the to*ifcrby a bridge^ oniiieristeod are 
tteHtitttofa qsstfej on tb^^.W, ii ^bounda^ by 
re&fy ledfcertmtfhlgofffromJ the *hM& tufchesmdi 
dte of the* chanttd, which, ha* boo tsrelwtfeet, 
within the depth is seventeen feet. 

The strait between Lancerota and Fortaventura 
is called the Bocayno Channel, in which is the 
Isle Lobos, two leagues long and half a league 
broad, dividing the channel into two passages. That 
between Lobos and Fortaventura is two miles wide, 
with five fathoms water and good anchorage. The 
channel between it and Lancerota is four miles 
wide, with tea fetboms. Off the north end of 
Lobos isa large reef,; on which the sea breaks vid* 
\&*ly. This iaittid has neither trees not ft^sh 
water. ;i» «-,.:.) 

- &**i*o0A i* one league north of lancerota* the 
channel between Arming the harbopr of El Rio, 
i» ^*^fc the depth is six and seve^ftttbomsc G**t 
tiosa is five miles long, and one mile broad. ! 
. tftatoA CLAftAwd* iites N.W. of Gtatiosa, and 
Alegmiwa v whieh has m ftesh, water, .are small 
s, rfwhk*^ft»diio'descripti«i. . : 



. J . . , M M i 

n "T -. :. • •• CAFE 



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44* -'/ ' ******** atoaufftm • 

CAPE VERD ISLANDS. 

*' • . . - •**i«0'' * lit ;u ji. 

The Cape Vbmj blands* ate^ dfcteot *ftt*»J that 

Gape 115 leagnes 5 they srefttnv in 4n£flile$ 

besides islets and rocks. Tlwit dirt«*t«*i**h*ttod 

not healthy, and the soil rocky anti burnt taw llitir 

produce consists of rice, Indian eJ*ny a fittle «*Ggttt 

cotton and indigo, with most settle tropioal^fctj. 

Their exports are nudes, goateldttty salt, and matt 

der. The population 4$060. , .T ,,l ' ti lo1 jI 

S*. Akthont, the N.W.of the group* htt»«ti&lfi 

ed hffl 7,400 feet high, tbatsis gaen thirty littfcfecg, 

and generally covered witfesftow.' Oh thiWMfck 

tMe is a good road, where ftteh' w*ee?'UMMforifc 

nay be piodttced. The inhabfeaitts tihviiel IfihNifll 

a few hundred hal&negroes. The <t Mdf*pWtih »s 

tions are some cotton* indigo, and! dMgbb*ii4ftbed. 

St. VsroSNT, Ave leagues sotfllh-east «l*s«t.iA«. 

thony, is uninhabited, but htoweftii, w X SiVO ri A 

wild gents, with a good road cam* Porto Gapit* 

on the north, and anchorage all round it* ' • vww 

St. LuCfA, three leagaeS'frottVSfc Vi*c<lt*£bav- 

ing ' three • or fbtifr *oeky" inle»%Jef#ft»- d ba w j is 

twenty-fair tiiiteo tongy moiMtaltf04isy aJtatafcrin* 

habited. On the- south-east is a gdetfaHia ^iftMn 

'■ bm small islands called ^SoetMfrSnd WWL ' lo h n s n ' i 

St Nicholas, hVe t*fegn^s'BOrith-e*s*titrfi«t 

Xucia, is the most agreeiWe 1 of J t*M^g*Sttt^i>aWcis 

the residence of the bishop. On the south tftttsare 

' several anchorages. "" K •' >*'*■*& 

< : :-.ii ■■• : Oraad 



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(Stead of §t* Ge^wge^Ba)V oa the narth-.weak 
has anchorage in. seven ftjtho$ia dose to the share* 
in cleaa ground, but oat, ia ainje or ten fathoms » 

the bottom is rock. Refreshments may be pro- 
cured, but there is no watering place for a ship. 

Tarrafal Bay, on the north-west, ha3 good an- 
chorage in nine and ten fathoms ; and the inhabi- 
tants will bring water to the boats on asses. 

Sal owes its name to the quantity of salt made 
on it. It is sixteen miles long and six miles broad. 
It forms in two high bills extremely barren, and is 

Mordeira Bay, on the south-west, is the best an- 
chorage, though its bottom is rocky ; before it is 
an islet named Bird Island. On the weat side are 
two other bays with indifferent anchorage ; and on 
the north a small river empties itself. 

Bon-avista makes in several high mountains 
and intermediate varies. The east side is lined 
by a reef; and from the south-east point, which is 
very low, a dangerous reef runs off a league, oh 
which the East India ship Hartwell was wrecked. 
English Road, on the north-west, has good an- 
chorage ; and here ships come to load salt Fresh 
water may be procured from a small run that 
looses itself in the sand 150 yards from the beach. 
A small island lies before the road with a passage 
within it. Portuguese Road, on the south, has 
anchorage in fifteen or sixteen fathoms, and fresh 



HH\c 



Bra**, fait leagues in circuit* ^bigb, to*i <m 
ofcflte meet, fruitful of the group. It afihrds wit* 

petre^ 



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+44 • «^«itt T GMpiguaiy^ 

pttre, and abounds in metallic ores,- particularly 
copper. It has many vitriofa? springs - Puerto 
Furno, on the east, is a good harbour with a nar- 
row entrapce that> obliges ship* to w*rp<e*t> - Pa- 
ertoFun^o, on. tip? wutfc, and JPuetto ft^e* Dngtiw 
on the w^st, are also good havens. . Water aedre* 
fresh^ents ire procured here Jtf&h mo*e vf%cttty 
than at St Jago. ■ - -* . - - ;v<* 

Ftncw, or St* Pmw*> fifteen miles long, Bitted 
from its tetatac** which continualiy Smokes, and; 
sometimes throws oat -flames and liquid' sfttphufc 
It has no running water, and but a fewmtriatw 
and negro iohabiUnts, who raise Vegetables, afad 
/ear goats add cattle, ' *<* ^ « ,* f r > 

St. J ago, or Yao6, the principal of tf>*C8p^ 
Verd islands both in size and popufca4on>4s fottyl 
miles long and twenty broadi It is*»ottd«*»ite4) 
and generally barren, but* with fertile spot* which 
jirdduc* abundance *# vegetables sfed fruits. - : . . r. 
J St Jagffr the capitals siUated in a vailtp, *c£2 
does not new contain more than half edom* 
families. >- . .v# 

- Porto Pftym, atar the middle of the south side, 
is one of the best toads anjong the gwpy fceifg* 
jtorfectiy safe, except from the* middle of ^kqgiwtttfe 
the beginning of November, when southerly* wvtffe. 
sometimes blow with great violence. Trfoe bay i*» 
about one mile and a half wide>betwee« the point** 
and the same depths with from fourteen. tp> ftNfe 
fathoms. Qn its west side is a small island csiltd 
Quails, Green or French Island, and off <4he wtest 
point of the bay, round Tuberon point, is a ledge 

of 



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ISLANDS f» Ttfff ATLjtMttfc 6fcEAN. 44£ 

of breakers running out one-third of a mile. The 
beach, at the head of the bay, is a steep sand, on 
which there is generally some surf, but not so great 
as to render landing difficult- Water is procured 
from a well in the valley which forms the head of 
the bay, but is both bad and in small quantity. 

The fort is built on a cliff, at the head of the 
bay, and mounts only a few iron guns, with a mi- 
serable garrison 1 of half-negro soldiers. Midway 
between St. Jago and Bonavista is the Leton reef 
of coral on which the Lady Burgess East Indiaman 
was wrecked in 1807 ; great abundance offish arc 
found near it. 

Mayo is high, uneven, and humrtk^ky;* twenty-' 
<JH© ihikfs in circuit. It lias but a slngfe opting iof 
w«er near its center, which fornhts a small* sfreanf*. 
Its inhabitants are said to be 7#00 frt three 
towns. • . • > 

The north coast of this island fs very rocky,' ari3 
ia* lined by a bank three miles distant frotn the 
ahftre that nearly dries at low water*. The only 
good anchorage is in a bay on the south-west, 
odfad 33fcgfi*h Road, on the shore of which is a 
tat£0<faitiJffal galt-pari, formed by the sandy beach, 
u**bfrj»> higher than the ground 'behind it. In high 
spWs#tidtfcs> l?he water rising above the beach, -fiHsr 
thfe^ffth, ami the sun forms the salt without eftfter 
kb&UPtyr expense The salt is conveyed tViftel 1 

.1«39}W -) # 'lJ 'ft< )'•■"- . /• . ■■ J L ■ • "..:>..•-■/ 



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44$ MARITIME GEOGRAPRY. 

I&ANfiS ik THE SOtJT H aHantic 6cEA*f, 

Fernando Nor&onha, sixty leagues ftom Cape 
St Roque, (Brastl,) i& ten miles long and three 
broad. It rises to a high rocky pyramidical 
f&kj leaning to the ifest. Hie shbre is entity 
rocky, Wid the surf so. high that it at times pre* 
vents lhtodifig. The best arifchorage is on tie nbrth 
tide, near which is a little island affbrdmg wood. 
It is deficient in watef , which almost entirely fail* 
during the dry seasob ; and whole years pass wSlfe 
out * shower of rain. This drought . 2s unfavour- 
able to cultivation, though the s6il is in otfier 
respects proper for it. It is much frequeiited by 
turtle between December and April. 

This island was discovered by Americus Ves- 
paciiis in 1502, but was neglected until 1533, when 
tbe French, finding it unoccupied, demonstrated 
art intention of forming a settlement on it ; to pte- 
vent which the Portuguese sent hither soing troopii 
froRvFernambuco, and built forts, and it has sine* 
been * place of banishment for their criminals. 
Besides the garrison, which is relieved erery she 
months, the only inhabitants are a few ind%felti 
mastees and slaves The refreshments die island 
afferds, are bullocks, sheep, poultry, and frui& 
Between this island atid the continent is a dift- r 
gerous reef a little above water, on whkh the 
Fart India ship Britannia, and George transport, : 
Were wrecked in 180$, JatHt^e 9° 12' &, longi- 
tude 93° 31' W. On the south-west or lee aide, 

is 



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ISLANDS IN THE ATUOTK OCEAN. 4*7 

is a sandy beari& probably affording landing to 
boats.. The current nms here two miles and a 
half an hour to the west, and the tide rises six 
feet. 



Ascension was first seen by Jaea Gallega in 
1501, and named Our Lady of Conception, but 
received its present name two years after from Al* 
buquerqne, who touched at it in hi* *ray to India* 
It is three leagues long north and south, end two 
leagues broad, forming in several peaked hiU^ 
and is a mere mass of volcanic matter, with the 
exception of a hill nearly in its middle, whisk is 
composed of limestone untouched by the volcanic 
fire. It is named by the English Green Mountain, 
from the little verdure that clothes it, and which is 
chiefly wild purakdn, almost the only vegetable 
found on the isl&nd. The only soil is decomposed 
lava and pumice-stone resembling brickdust. The 
island has no spring of water j for though the 
summit of the Green Mountain, which is 2,400 feet 
high, is oft*n enveloped in clouds* they scarcely 
ever condense into rain. The wild goats formerly 
found on the island (originally left, by the Portu- 
guese) have become scarce and are very lea*. 
Rats and mice however abound. Turtle come 
oft shore to deposit their eggs in great nurfifeers, 
in February, March and April, and afford th* 
only mduc^rt^tii to ships to touch art tills ietoftU 
The anchotfegfe &good. tti k iihoothstady bay> ott 



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'44S MARITIME' GBOGKJOPHY. 

fewest side ofihe island ; though Acsoff is her* 
at times so great as to prevent boats iaading. 



St4 Helena was discovered by Jaoa Nova Gal- 
kjga ott tfce festival of St. # Helena in 1501, but 
was neglected until 1651, when the English re* 
quiring an intermediate. place of rendezvous for 
Jheir India fleets, took possession of it, and re- 
tained it until 1672, when the Dutch took it by 
surprize, but the English recovered it the following 

It k twenty-seven miles in circumference, co&? 
twining .30,800 acres. It is entirely composed of 
steep rocky precipices and high mountains, co- 
vered with volcanic rubbish, but enclosing beau- 
tifully romantic vailies. The highest elevation is 
the Peak of Diana, 2,692 feet above the sea. 

Its' climate is dry and extremely healthy, M^E 
ftee from any sudden changes of the atmosphere, 
or of temperature, and continually refreshed bv- 
the trade wind. Thunder and lightning are veryr 
uncommon. . . ,. *j 

The windward side of the island has.JK* pot*: 
sible [landing, a violent surf constantly breaking oin 
it. . On the lee, or S.E. side, are somesmail baj* 
affording ^ anchorage. The principal of>Tihepa^ 
l&fc before James's Valley, on which is Jmasl? 
TWn, th$ only collection of houses tou tbtp: 
tabnd, and, of which the reader may form ^air 
itftft, by conceiving an oval hay, surrounded by 

vaiaked 



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ISLANDS IN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN. 449 

Baked precipices, rising to an .eleyation of 400 
yards. In a deep ravine, between these preci- 
pices, are seen a few white and yellow washed 
houses, ami a church resembling those of our 
English villages. Some cocoa-nut and other 
trees intermixed with the houses, afford a scanty 
verdure, which singularly contrasts with the red 
and dark grey rocks of the surrounding, h$ight&. 
Fresh provisions are at all times &ur&u$ml 
extremely dear at this island : a turkey, Usually. is 
sold for two guineas; a goose, one; guao^a,;wa 
duck, eight shillings ; a fowl, five to two phiUipgs 
and sixpence ; hogs alive, one shilling the poutfct, 
potatoes, eight shillings the bushel; cabbages, 
one shiUpng and sixpence ; limes, one penny 
each. As the island cannot maintain a suffioienayjof 
horned cattle, a vessel is stationed here for the. 
purpose of fetching them from the coast of 
Africa^jbut even the supplies thus obtained *fe *o 
inadequate to the demand, that the hooiewafrU 
bound jSeetsoisually exhaust the whole live stock * 
of ihfcjisland ; aad the garrison js only served with; 
freak beef gam the anniversary of his Majesty's; 
birth, and on Christmas day. Their usual food, be»^ 
ade% tkeir^radona of salt provisions* is confined 
toTd^ .aai tdthough there are seventy specie*- 
tafejen uoumt the island, and all abundant, . yet 
thettp Ara > eicqbdton^ly dear. The bone#a amfcr 
attriaorfe, andcar.Jtincib of horse mac&erel, axe tl*^ 
mmt aommmu \ The albioore >h*p received tb#, L 
name cfoStyibleiBt beef. , ; , > .,v.. 

Allhthevegetoblerof the English kitchen gaftt- 
jvdu. iv. « o dea 



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450 MAKTMME GE0G11APHT. 

den are produced here, together with some of 
the fruits both of Europp and the Tropics, but 
all in too small quantity to supply the demand. 

The wild animals on the island are goats and 
rabbits ; and amongst the feathered tribe are the 
red-legged partridge and common pheasant. 

The population of the island in 1805, was 50* 
white inhabitants ; 829 free blacks ; 1,231 slaves, 
exclusive of the military and civil establishments, 
the former consisting of one regiment of infantry, 
five companies of militia and a corps of artillery. 
The East India Company are lords proprietors 
of the soil, with powers of sovereignty and le- 
gislation. The supreme executive power is vested 
in the governor, and a council composed of tile 
lieutenant-governor and the senior civil ser- 
vants. 

During war this rock is of the greatest im- 
portance to England, affording a secure asylum 
to the homeward-bound India fleets, wherfr they 
wait the arrival of a convoy for England'. As a 
landing can only be effected on the lee side _of 
the island, every accessible spot on that side is 
protected by fortifications, and the strictest mi- 
litary discipline is enforced throughout the islfetfd. 
The annual expenses of the island to the company 
amount to from forty to ,£50,000. I'he onfy re- 
venue is in the quit rent and rente of land leased, 
which amount to rfl,000 a year, arid the pt&tt 
on the monopoly of arrack, which comnttohly pro- 
duces «£10,000. The Company have here A store 

house, 



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Islands iA f riE jhlAtfrifc o^ean* iht 

Rouse, in which the inhabitants can prbcure all the 
merchandize of England, India, and China, rte* 
cessary to them, at an advance of only ten per 
cent, on the prime cost. 

About 7>000 acres of land are productive, and 
laid out in orchards and gatrdefts, {he innuniendbl§ 
rats rendering it impossible td raise g/ain. The 
fruits are oranges, limes, figs, gfapes, guavas, 
bananas, peaChes, pomegranate^, citrbHs, water 
and tnusk melons. There is but one appl£ 
orchard, which affords the proprietor £ revenue of 
j£500 a year. In the government gardens' are 
a few cocoa palms, and pine apple plants : goose- 
berries and currant bushes turn to evergreens, 
and bear no fruit. The artlm esculentum is cul- 
tivated for the food of the slaves. The scarcity 
of water is the principal impediment to the ex- 
tension of agriculture, but this might probably 
be remedied by the planting timber Wees on the 
hilb, the summits of which, with the exception 
of the Peak of Diana, are entirely naked, and 
consequently do not condense the cl6tids, while 
fMatla's Peak is seldom a day in the whiter season 
without several showers. The indigenous trees 
are generally stunted, and the wood* light and 
spongy: the tallow tree fe the most common. 
The oak of Europe has been introduced with 
success, and it is probable the teak of India would 
also succeed. Furie, the seeds of which were 
brought by the English, is tolerably abundant, and 
supplies the only fuel. 

2g2 TrinidAiT 

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452 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY 

Trinidad Island is six miles in circuit, high 
and irregular, generally barren, but with some 
trees towards the south end. On the west side is 
an immense perforated rock, and another of a 
cylindrical form 850 feet high, called the Nine* 
pin, or Monument. On the S.E. side is a sugar- 
loaf hill, 1,160 feet high, with trees on its sum- 
mit, and on which, in heavy rains, a beautiful 
cascade is formed. There are also .good runs of 
water on the E. and S.W. sides falling over the 
rocks, but difficult to be got off, from the great 
and constant surf. The island has wild hogs. It 
was formerly occupied by the Portuguese, but 
again abandoned. 28° S2 7 S. 29° 9* W. 

The Martin Vas Rocks are three high, barren, 
and inaccessible islets, three miles in extent, and 
eight leagues and a half from Trinidad. 

The charts lay down several islands, rocks, and 
shoals in the Atlantic, which either have no ex- 
istence, or at least, not near the situations ascribed. 
Such are, Rocks twenty-eight leagues N.W. by W. 
of Porto Santo. The Porgas bank, between Cape 
Verd islands and the main. The Bonetta shoal in 
the same channel uncertain. 

Ascension of the Portuguese, placed 100 leagues 
west of Trinidad, is probably this latter ; an er- 
ror of this distance in longitude, caused by the. 
westerly current, being nothing improbable to the 
first Portuguese navigator who supposed he had 
discovered this island in 1501 r* 

• So late as 1776, it was not uncommon for ships bound to India to mate 
the coast of Brasil, when by tfecJr reckoning they were ten degrees of 
V>ngitade east of it. 



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ISLANDS IK THE ATLANTIC OCEAN. 453* 

St Mathew, in latitude 2° 3. and 9£ Q W. has 
probably no existence, though it is minutely de- 
scribed by the Portuguese discoverer. 

Saxemborgh Island, with its remarkable peak, 
though pretended to have been recently seen, 
does not exist in the position assigned it, and pro- 
bably navigators have been deceived by a fog 
bank. 



ISLANDS IN THE GREAT SOUTHERN OCEAN. 

The three isles of Tristran d* Acunha have their 
name from the Portuguese Captain who first 
discovered them. In 1767 a French navigator 
gave the two smallest the names of Nightingale 
and Inaccessible. 

The largest island is nearly square, being about 
sbt miles each way. The whole ndrth coast is 
forirted of rocky perpendicular precipices 1,000 
feet high, except in one spot, where is a sandy 
beach, with a little verdant valley behind it. A 
cascade falls on this beach over a rocky preci- 
pice, from which casks may be filled in a boat. 

From the sfcmmit of the precipices that form 
this coast, a table land stretches to the middle of 
the island, from which rises a conical peak, which 
retains *hesnow during winter, and maybe seen 
twenty-five leagues, its height being estimated at 
eight to 10,000 feet. 

e?3 On 



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454 3CARHOCE GEOGEAgH?. 

On the ^e*t side the land descends mope gnt- 

dually to the sea. 

The inferior hills and vallies are cloathed with 
underwood, and on the sides of the superior hills 
grow middling sized trees. The other vegetables 
are wild celery, purslain, cresses, &c. : and there 
are some wild hogs and goats on the island. The 
shores are frequented by seals of different species* 
and by penguins, albatrosses, and other oceanic 
birds: and the sea around is covered with rock 
weed. The tides are regular and rise eight to 
ten fe^t* The captain of ap American sealing 
vessel has latterly taken formal possession of this 
i&od, to cm? oq t&e s^l bunting. 

Inaccessible Island is pine miles in circum- 
ference ; off its south point i$ a cfetaqhe^ wk. It 
is sufficiently high to. be seen twelve to fourteen 
leagues. 

Nightingale Island i$ of an irregular fonh se- 
ven or eight miles in circumference, with spme 
rocky islets off it* south ppiot* It w*$ fag seen 
eight leagues, 

Gough's Island, or Diego Alva»z* i$ swaU (rot 
so large as St. Helena,) very high and broken, ^ 
few shrubs are the only vegetation, but it fc^s se- 
veral runs of fifesh water, and landing in, a little 
bay. It has been latterly much visited by Ame- 
rican vessels for seals, these animals beiflg found 
on it in vast numbers, Latitude 4ft° 19 & longi- 
tude 9° 42' E, 

Bouvet's Island, the famous Cape Cu£umci&on 
jsought for in vain by Captain Cook, was redis- 
covered 



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ISLANDS IN THE GREAT SOUTHERN OCEAN. 455 

covered in 1808 by Captain Lindsay, in an English 
trading brig. It is about five miles long east and 
west. The west point, or Cape Circumcision, i$ 
very high and steep, and covered with snow. The 
fast point is low. It was surrounded by floating 
ice in October. latitude 54° 15' S. j longitude 
6° 14' i; 

Prince Edwards's Islands, discovered in 177a 
by Monsieur Marion du Fresne, and named by 
Captain Cook after his Majesty's fourth son, 
are two in number, five leagues asunder % 
the southernmost and largest, is fifteen leagues 
in ekcufliference, and the northernmost nine! 
leagues : towards the S,E. they are rather low, 
but every where else hilly, and excessively bar* 
yen. In the month of December^ the middle of 
summer, the summit* of the hills were covered with 
snow- There was no appearance of tree or shrub, 
but the low land seemed to be covered with mos% 
or. such grass as at Falkland's Islands ; nor did 
they appear to afford any sheltered anchorage. 
On the north side of each island is a detached 
rock. South Island, 46° 52' S., 57° 47' E. 

Mahk>n, or Desiirt I$les, are four in number, 
discovered by Monsieur Marion in 1772. The 
two easternmost are three degrees east of the north- 
western, 48° 5' S., 58° E. 

Kfc&etJELEN's Land* discovered by Kerguelen, a 
French navigator, in 1773, but ritore accurately 
exaoiined by Cook in 1776. This island, or perhaps 
group of islands* for it does w>t appear to be yet 

2 g 4 ascertained 



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40d MAMTOfB OEOGEAFHY. 

twined whether several deep bays are not the en- 
trances of channels, lies between the latitude 
48°40'and50 & and between 68° «K and 70* 
30 E. The name of the Island of Desolation whkk 
Captain Cook said it merited, is descriptive of 
its sterility. It is hilly and rocky, generally pre- 
senting steep clifls, with deep chasms towards the 
sea. The rocks and bases of the hills are of a 
deep Mae very hard stone, mixed with quartz, 
and the only soil, even on the hills, is a mere bog, 
so that perhaps no place of the same extent hither- 
to discovered in either hemisphere affords so 
scanty a harvest to the naturalist. The whole 
number of vegetables found on it amounts only 
to sixteen varieties, including mosses; the prin- 
cipal are, a small plant resembling saxifrage, 
another like a small cabbage run to seed, two 
kinds of cresses, and a coarse grass, which 
cattle will eat. There were no land animals seen 
on it, but the beaches were covered with seals, 
particularly of the ursine species. The birds were 
also entirely austral oceanic fish do not appear 
abundant ; and the only shell-fish observed were 
Mmphs and muscles. There are several good bays 
and roads round the island, latterly visited by 
sealing vessels. The tides are regular, and the rise 
considerable. 

West and north-west of Kerguelen's Land are 
fome scattered rocky islets. 

Several islands and shoals are marked in the charts 
^th»GreatSotffc*inCtoe«B&^ 

Bop* 



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ISLANDS IN tffffi OftfcAT SOOTBfclN OCEAN. 4Sf 

Hope, : tfhich* certainly have no existence, and 
others which are very doubtful : such are the Tele* 
maque Shoal, 88^ <50? ; W^R uncertain } 
the Slot Van Cafpelfe Shoal probably exists, but 
its situation is uncertain, b^twfeen S6£° and 40 a 
S. ; soundings have been got in 37° 20 ; 36* 
54/ E. which is probably on a part of this bank. 

The pretended Isles of Denia and Marseeven 
have most probably no existence, and navigators 
who supposed they had seen them were possibly 
deceived by ice islands, which are very common 
m this latitude (41°). ' 

The islands of St. PaUl and Amsterdam 
lay in the track of ships bCatnd to India and 
China. They are seventeen leagues north and 
south of each other. The northernmost, namtd 
originally St. Peter, is the Amsterdam of the 
Dutch, but the- English charts have generally 
given that name to the southernmost. . "i 

The sotrthern island is eight or ten miles long 
and five < broad, moderately high, and generally 
coveted with a fertile soil calculated to produce 
the fruits and vegetables of Europe. The only 
indigenous vegetables are, however, grasses 'and 
moss, without bush, or fruit-bearing plant of any 
kind. On the east side is a curious basin ap- 
parently the crater of an ancient volcano, two or 
three miles in circuit, defended from the sea by 
a narrow low causeway 1,000 feet long, in which 
is a shallow break 300 feet tfide, forming a chan- 
nel into the! basin, through which the tides run 
in and out three miles an hour with a rise and 

fall 



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458 MAWTfME GEOGRAPHY. 

fell of nine feet } in the middle of the basin the 
depth is twenty-nine fathoms* On the causeway 
are several hot springs* in which the thermometer 
rises to £04° ; and of which the wat$r ip brackish 
and chalybeate. From each end of the causeway 
the edges of the basin all round rise perpendicular- 
ly to the height of 7Q0 feet. 

The island has several other old craters, and at 
Bight flashes of flame a?e observed to burst from 
the erevices in the higher grounds, 
» Fish is extremely abundant, particularly in the 
basin ; the chief kinds are rock pod,, large perch 
and bream ; cray fish are also plenty. This island 
is chiefly visited for the seals which cover the 
shores. Besides the usual austral oceanic birds as 
albatrosses, penguins, petrel, &c a sqaall duck is 
found here* The only good anchorage is opposite 
fre basin. Latitude 38° 44/ S., 77° <53' E. 

The northern island is twelve miles in circuit. 
Mid? very high, with a volcanic appearance, and is 
teid to have abundance of fresh water, but no 
anchorage. 

New or South Georgia Island was discovered 
by La Roche in 1&75, %i# its extent was not as- 
certained until 1776* when Coofc visited it It 
ffttesente nothing bid; mountains raising their 
toeads to the clouds, and surmounted by glaciers, 
iphiie the valiies are covered with perpetual snow. 
The only vegetation is a strong bladsd grass in 
-tufts* and some other small plaqts. The dung 0f 
am: animal, supposed to be a fox, was the only in- 
dication of the exipt^ncq of quadruped ^nd the 

only 



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ISLANDS IN THE GREAT SOUTHERN OCEAN. 459 

only land bird seen was the lark. The atmosphere is 
enveloped in constant mist, which together with 
the numerous detached islets and rocks, renders 
the navigation very perilous. Sandwich Bay, near 
the middle of theland, is in 54? 42' S., 36° 12' W. 
Sandwich Land, or the Southern Thule, is 
if possible more dreary and desolate than even 
Georgia, being a mass of black rocks covered with 
ice and snow, and which probably will never be 
tevisited by humaQ beings* It extends between 
the latitude 57° 10' and 59£? S., and betweea th# 
fengttudes 26f ° and 27? 40 W. 



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C 4«0 ) 



BRITISH ISLANDS. 



The. Island of Great Britain is calculated (fol- 
lowing iu indentations) to have 800 leagues <a£ 
coast, and presents a very irregular outline, from 
its numerous gulfs, bays, and estuaries. As a ge- 
neral feature it m$y be observed, that the western 
coasts are elevated, rising in some places to al- 
pine heights, and warning the navigator of his 
approach at many leagues distance, while the face 
of the land declines to the east and from the 
North Foreland to Duncan's Bay Head presents a 
comparatively level and low line, visible but at 
the distance of a few leagues or even miles. The 
south coast is also generally little elevated. 

The idea that Great Britain was anciently joined 
to the continent has been adopted by many 
writers, and is principally founded on the simila- 
rity of the strata that compose the cliffs of Dover 
and Calais, which are alike composed of chalk 
and flints, and their length on both coasts the 
same, that is six miles. A narrow ridge of sand 
and stones, tea miles long, called the Hip-raps, 
extends between Folkstone and Boulogne, at the 
distance of ten miles from the former, over whiqh 
there id but fourteen feet water at tow spring 

, jtidesj 



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BRITISH ISLANDS. 461 

tides ; and another bank, called the Varne, with 
the same depth, lies about six miles from Dover. 

The English channel, La Manche of the 
French, Oceanus Britannicus, is 276 miles ia 
length from the Strait of Dover to the Land's 
End, and its breadth between this latter point 
and Ushant, called by seamen the Chops of the 
Channel, is 100 miles* * In general this gulf, or 
internal sea, is without shoals or dangers except 
near the shores. The depth in mid channel, from 
the Land's End to Dungeness, is from fifty-six to 
eighteen fathoms. 

The Strait of Dover (Pas de Calais of the 
French) is where narrowest, between Dover and 
Cape Griznes, eighteen miles and a half, and the 
distance between Dover and Calais piers twenty- 
three miles. The depth in the* middle of the Strait 
is twenty-four to eighteen fathoms. 

The tides on the coasts of the British Islands 
are entirely conformable to the theory of siderial 
attraction, though in some instances they come 
from directions that would seem to contradict thia 
theory. 

The main or grand tide of flood coming from 
the south, when it strikes against the Land's 
End, is broken by this promontory, and follows 
the directibn of either coast ; that branch which 
runs up the English Channel increases its velocity 
on the coast of England as it proceeds, being it* 
spring tides between the Land's End and Lizard 
two miles an hour ; from the Lizand to the Eddy- 
stone two and a half; from the Eddystone to the 

Owers 



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4G& ma»itim£ geography. 

Owers Sand three and three and a half; from 
the ewer's to Beacby Head four; and from 
Beachy to Dengeness four and a half: the great- 
est rise is thirty feet in common springs. On the 
coasts of France the velocity and rise are much 
greater, and the stream continues on these coasts 
through the Strait of Dover, and along the coast 
of Flanders, Holland, &c. quite to the entrance 
of the Baltic On the English shore, on the con- 
trary, the tide from the Ocean up Channel is met 
by an opposite tide from the British or North Sea 
at Dengeness. 

S.W. winds considerably raise the lfevel of the 
English Channel and increase the velocity and du- 
ration of the stream of flood. At the Land's End 
this cause produces an effect of ten feet ifi the 
rise and one hour m the duration, the current 
caused by the wind overcoming the first of the 
ebb. 

The second branch of the ocean tide broken by 
the Land's End ascends the Irish Channel, fffling 
the Bristol Channel in its progress, where the 
confinement of the shores causes an accumula- 
tion that gives a rise of forty-two feet in King 
Road, and produces a bore in the rivers. Hav- 
ing filled the Bristol Channel, the flood continues 
its course along the coast of England to Wdney 
Island, where it meets the stream that cortex 
round the north coast of Ireland, and this ojipbsi- 
tion, "While it neutralizes the current, causes an ac- 
cumulation in the Bay of Moricambe, that rises the 
spring tides to six fathoms. 

The 



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BRITISH ISLANDS. 4&9 

Thegrand stream of the flood coming from 
the south towards the British Isles is divided by 
the south-west end of Ireland at the Skellig Rocks, 
in a similar manner to that of the Land's End) 
one branch setting into the Irish Channel along 
the south and east coasts of Ireland, while the 
other, flowing along the west coast, and arrived 
at its north extremity, turns in through the north 
channel, where at the extremity of the Mull of 
Kintyre it flows six miles an hour. Continuing 
its course to the south it meets the southern flood 
already noticed at Peel on the west side of the 
Isle of Man; here another division takes place, 
one braneh running to the north-east round the 
north end of the island, and the other to the S. W. 
rounding the Calf of Man, and then turning to 
the N.E., till a few miles from Maughold's Head 
it joins the first branch, and they flow together 
into the Solwafy Frith. 

The main branch of the tide that sets along the 
west coast of Ireland continues its direction to the 
north towards the south end of Hay Island, whose 
S-E. point divides it, one braneh setting through 
the Sound of Hay between that island ami J#-> 
ra, and the other following the coasts <*f the 
island to the west, rounds the Mull of Kinho, tha 
S.W. point of the island, and then turns to the 
N.& through the Gulf of Corryvrecken between 
Jura and Scarba. In this strait it forms a whirl- 
pool little inferior to the Maelstrom, the velocity 
being fourteen or fifteen tt&ek an hour. The 

whirlpool 



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464 MAEITIME GEOGRAFHT. 

whirlpool is caused by a sunken rock of a conical 
shape, sixteen fathoms under water, as well as by 
the stream that had set round the east side of Hay, 
and which running at the rate of eight miles an 
hour and meeting the other running fourteen, 
their opposition causes frightful breaking waves, 
extremely dangerous even to large vessels. 

The general stream is again divided by the 
southern isles of the Western Hebrides, each 
branch taking a direction along the opposite sides 
of the chain, with no material deviation until the 
western branch reaches the Sound of Harris, 
through which the stream flows to the south ; the 
main stream, however, continues its direction to 
the north, and off the Butt of 'Lewis again unites 
with the eastern stream, and flows towards Cape 
Wrath, and round this cape along the north coast 
of Scotland and through the Pentland Frith with 
the velocity of nine miles an hour, forming whirl- 
pools and races. The stream runs regularly from 
Duncan's Bay Head to the south along the east 
coast of Great Britain, filling up the great gulfs of 
Murray, of Forth, of the Humber, and the Thames 
in succession, and forcing its way through the Strait 
of Dover, until it meets the channel tide at Den- 
geness. 

Thus it clearly appears that the tides deviate 

no farther from the siderial theory, than as they 

are necessitated by the common laws of fluids to 

follow the direction of the opposing coasts* 

The currents in the British Seas are by no means 

well 



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BitrnsH ISLANDS. 465 

WelT understood, and' their, effects are probably 
often confounded with those of tide*. We have 
before noticed that & general current sets from the 
north and north-west into the 'Bay of Biscay, and 
it would appear* that when long continued west 
and south-west winds have prevailed, the com- 
bined accumulation of water thereby caused in 
this gulf, seeks an exit to the north-west, and 
produces a strong current in that direction across 
the entrance of the English Channel, which may 
be of very dangerous consequences to ships run- 
ning fbr the channel upon what is called the Air- 
way parallel (49° 8C) without alloyring for, the 
effects of this current.* 



SOUTH COAST OF ENGLAND. 

The county of Cornwall occupies the Western coman. 
extremity of England, and terminates at the pro- — " 
montory of the Land's End J the Bolerium of 
Ptolemy, and the Pairing huad, " promontory of 
blood," or Penwith, " promontory to the left/' of 
the Ancient Britons. It is a vast round cape form- 
ing three points, the S.E. named Tollpeden Pen- 
with, or the Hole in Penwith, from a cavern in the 
clifli into which the waves rush with great noise. 
*The N.E. point is Cape Cornwall, and the mid- 
dTe the Land's End point ; between them is the 

yen,, iv. 2 n ppen 

s • .. . * » .. « 

• Kennel Phil. Tran. 



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4/66 MAEITIIrt GEOGRAPHY. 

open bay of Whitesand. Round this promontory 
are several rocks above and under water, viz. the 
Rundle Stone, on which fe a beacon of four cast 
iron cylinders twelve ffeet high, bolted to the 
rock; and surmounted by a pole with a basket. The 
Wolf has al*> a beacon. The Lotigships are 
a ledge of black rocks, a league off Shore, with- 
out any ship channel within them. They have a 
light hdus6, erected in 1797 by a private indi- 
vidual, who receives a toll for its support from 
all vessels passing round the Land's End. 

On approaching the coast of Cornwall from 
the Atlantic, the voyager is by no means favourably 
impressed with the appearance of the country, 
the coasts being in general rocky, and almost en- 
tirely without wood. 

Between the Land's End and Lizard Point 
is Mount's Bay, named from the Isle of St. Mi- 
chael's Mount, on the east shore, which is sur- 
rounded by the sea at high water ; but when the 
tide is out, a ridge of dry rocks 400 yards long 
joins it to the main. 

This islet is one of the most celebrated objects 
of the coasts of England. It is a great conical 
mass of granite, surrounded by craggy rocks, 
with only a little herbage and some clumps of 
firs. According to the popular tradition, which 
is preserved in its Cornish name, signifying ** Grey 
Rock in the Wood/' it was anciently situated in 
a wood, and this belief* is corroborated by the 
remains of trees found buried in the soil, within 
the present wash of the tide. It was known to 

Ptolemy, 



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Relftmy, wfcn call* ft i^WP» and received h* 
present name in the sqM& oentnry frgm the pra- 
tended apparition of St. Miehael ta wme hermits 
of the wouat. whew ** pbapel w» touit on it, end 
it acquired additional aanetity* ith#v»ug hew al- 
ready % noted plaoe of pilgruni^e from the fifth 
oentmy» Inward the Confessor founded a Bet 
nedietine monastery on it, which, after many r*» 
volution*, i$ now the property of Sir Jphn St 
Aubyn* The inhabitants of the mount are about 
£60, all fishermen. On the north «de 4ft a little 
p& haven for small craft. 

The Lteard Point which bound* Mount's Bay 
on the east, is also the south point of England* and 
the extremity of a peninsula, named Mvwg, 
on it are two lights. It is composed of serpentine 
and hornblende, and between it and Million is 
the celebrated loop rock, a vast mass of ste+titeb 
used in the manufacture of porcelain. Half a 
league from the Lizard Point are the $tags, gpatf 
rock* above water. 

The trading places of Mount's Buy* are M#u#p 
Hole, or Port Inis, a little haven witfrtws piers j 
north of which is St Clement's Island- PpN- 
2unce(iV& the head of the bqy) y& \\& tnpst 
westerly town of England, and i*, as. its name de- 
notes, situated at the bead of Mount's Bay, ten 
miles from the Land's Efld. It is a ftwpprate 
and one of the tin coinage towns. The bPUtf* 
are many of them good, and the streets paved. 
It has a pier haven, exports a considerable quan- 
tity of pikbards, and is a grand smuggling place* 

2h« It 



CorwmalL 



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468 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

<**;*• It has a daily communication with the Scitfy 
Islands by passage vessels. 

Market Jew, or Marazion, within SL Michael's 
Mount, is an ancient town, having its origin from 
the resort of pilgrims to the Mount. The name of 
Market Jew is thought to be from the Jews 
formerly having an annual fair here, when they 
were the only traders of England. Marazion 
signifies " Sea Coast Market." The cessation 
of pilgrims and the vicinity of Penzance, have 
caused its decline. It is built on the side and 
at the foot of a hill, which shelters it from the 
cold north windsv It has 1,000 inhabitants and 
is corporate. > 

Helstone, a corporate and borough town, is 
situated at the junction of the little river Cober 
with the Loe. It has £,284 inhabitants and s0me 
trade. 

Rounding the promontory of the lizard, tbe 
first place of any consideration is Helford bar* 
bour, at the mouth of the Hel. The village of 
Helford, on the south shore of the harbour is 
inconsiderable. 

Falmouth haven is a deep inlet, whose entrance; 
is a league wide, between Pendennis Point on. *Jie 
west, and St. Anne's Point on the east It di- 
vides into several branches and creeks The main 
one, named Carrick Road, is a mile withjn tb$ 
• entrance, and has eighteen fathoms depth. , ■ « 

Falmouth, the richest town of C<ffqftfttl* l is 
built at the foot of an eminence, pa e <*eek ^lupb 
receives large vessels to its <n*ay. Tibe^opulation 

is 



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ENGLAND. 469 

ig 3,800, exclusive of seafaring people. 'Its chief »*w»u. 
business is the pilchard fishery, the produce of 
which it exports direct to Spain, Portugal, and 
Italy. It also derives considerable advantage 
from being the station of the Lisbon, Corunna, 
and West India packets. It has a general cus- 
tom-house for all the ports of Cornwall. 

The entrance of Falmouth harbour is defended 
by the castles of Pendennis and St. Mawe. The 
former is a long point of land on the west, 300 
feet above the sea, mounts 100 pieces of cannon, 
and is garrisoned by a company of invalids. St. 
Mawe's Castle, on the east shore, is inferior in 
strength to Pendennis, and commanded by an 
elevation. The corporate and borough town of 
St. Mawe does not contain above twenty houses of 
fishermen. 

The other towns accessible to sea vessels through 
Falmouth harbour, are Penrhyn, on the same creek 
above Falmouth, a considerable corporate and 
borough town q{ 2,30Q iijhabitants ; opposite it is 
the village of* St. Gluvias. Tregoney, on the 
Pal, a small borough towp, receives bo^ts only. 
Truro, the most thriving town of Cornwall, is 
corporate and borough. It is built in a valley at 
the confluence of the Keijwyn and St. Allen 
with the Fal, where the tide at high water forms 
a basin, two miles long, which receives vesspjs of 
100 tons with the tide. The population is 4,500. 
Its principal business is the exporting tin &od 
copper, it being pnp of the tin coinage towns. It 
hasu theatre and assembly rooips, 

2h3 The 



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€f*—V. 



47d MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

The beadmah, or Dodman Point, is very high 
land, with the Yare and Winehead great rocks, 
ihree miles N.E. of it. North of it is Polkerries 
Bay, to which succeeds Goran Haven, and M£- 

vagizzey. 

Rope Haven has a pier for fishing boats. 
Portmear, or Charlestown, on the N.W. side of 
Trewardreth Bay, in 1790, was only a hamlet of 
tine houses, but by the exertion of the lord of 
the manor, it has grown into a thriving town, and 
a haven has been formed for vessels of 500 tons, 
by excavating the soil inwards, a manner much 
^preferable to running out works into the sea. A 
dry repairing dock has also been cut out of the 
rock. In 1802 the population was 282 souls. 
The principal business is the pilchard fishery, and 
the export of China stone, for the use of the 
Staffordshire potteries. 

Trewardreth, at the mouth of a creek, is a 
small fishing village. 

Fowey, on the right bank of the river erf the 
same name, one mile and a half from its mouth, 
Nfrhere it is a quarter of a mile broad, is a coipo- 
rate borough 4nd tin coinage town. Its streets 
are generally so narrow as not to admit a carriage, 
nor has it any thing worthy of notice, except its 
Church. The inhabitants, who are about 1*200, 
&re chieffly employed in the pilchard fishery, 2,800 
f><5g*heJLds of these fish being brought into the 
^brt every stetson. The haven is defended by 
Vwo small batteries, and by St. Catherine's Fott, 
ou the summit of & pile of great rocks. 

Polperron 



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ENGLAND. 471 

Polperron is a fishing village on a creek of am^. 
Lantach Bay. Looe 9 East and West; are two 
dirty, but opulent fishing towns, on the river of 
the same name. They communicate by a bridge, 
but have Separate corporations, and are both bo- 
roughs. Eaet Looe is a labyrinth of narrow al- 
leys, and has not above 200 houses, and West 
Looe is still less. A small battery and break 
work protect the port, whose entrance is crossed 
by a bar, with bat twelve feet at low water. 8. W. 
of the river's mouth is Looe, or St, George's 
Island, a great rock frequented by 6ea birds. 

Port Wrinkle, in Whitsand Bay, west of the 
Ramehead, is a small pier for boats. 

Plymouth Sound is a deep bay, separating the 

counties of Cornwall and Devon, the Ramehead 

being its west, and Stoke Poiat its east limit. 

The sound is exposed to the south and has several 

dangerous sunken rocks and reefs* one of which, 

named the Tinker, has been recently rendered of 

the greatest service, for by raising it with stones 

and rubbish above the surface of the sea, it has 

been converted into a break water, which greatly 

lessens the swell in southerly gales, and renders 

" the anchorage within it comparatively safe* 

/ The Eddystone is a group of gnaoite rooks, 

/S. by W. ten m2es from the Ramehead. The 

length dbove \teter is about 3©Q fathom* and 

.OQe&icdof aimHe ail round, the depth k thirty 

faftoms. A light-house Ww first ereoted o#;t£**e 

rocks in 1696, but which being destnpod byjthe 

ifferhendws storm firttn* 4fie<&W. in 1708* a#*ther 

2 H 4 was 



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47% MAMJTOB CE061APHT. 

was erected, which being partly of wood, though 
k reasted the finy of the ocean for forty-six years, 
in 1755 it was totally consumed by fire. The 
present light-boose was commenced in 17^7» and 
finished in 1759, upon principles which seem to 
identify it with the rock, and render it secure 
against the utmost fury of the waves. The 
height above the rock is ninety feet, and the 
whole elevation above the sea 120 feet 

On the west shore of Plymouth Sound is Caw- 
sand Bay, sheltered from the S.W. by the pro- 
jecting land of Penlee Point, one mile and a half 
east of the Ramehead. Moorings are laid down 
in the bay for King's ships. The villages of 
Cawsand and Kingsand, in the bay, are inhabited 
by seafaring people. The former is in Cornwall 
and the latter in Devon. In the latter county 
is also the mountain peninsula of Mount Edge- 
cumbe, the grounds and mansion of which are 
considered amongst the most beautiful in England. 
Opposite this peninsula lies St. Nicholas, or 
Drake's Island, named from Sir Francis Drake, 
a native of Plymouth. It is near a mile in circuit, 
surrounded by rocks, and well fortified, but de- 
pendant on the main land for water. The chan- 
nel between it and Mount Edgecombe is half a 
mile wide, but so shoal as to admit only boats. 

Plymouth harbour consists of two branches. 
The first, at the mouth of theTattfar, w named 
Hamoaze, and the second, at the mouth of the 
Plym, is called Catwater. Hamoaze is * the man 
of war's harbour, and is a reach of the river, 

fouy 



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ENGLAND. 478 

fbur miles long and half a mile broad. On the 
west, or Cornwall shore, are the villages of 
Milbrook, on a creek. St. Germain's, a borough 
town of sixty houses, on the Lynher creek. Its 
cathedral is the only object worthy notice. Salt- 
ash, a corporate and borough town, chiefly in- 
habited by fehermen. It is three miles above 
Dock. 

The town of Dock has its name from con- 
taining the Grand Royal Naval Arsenal. It is, 
on the left bank of the Tamar, at the lower part 
of Hamoaze, and is a neat and very clean 
town, the streets being wide and strait, excel- 
lently paved, and the houses handsome ; their 
number is 2,400. The inhabitants are chiefly 
persons employed in the business of the fleet. 
The naval arsenal, though still in a state of im^ 
provement, is in every respect the first in the 
world. The dry docks are excavated In the solid 
rock, and lined with Portland stone. The for- 
tifications are as strong as art can make them. 

Stonehouse is a village separated from £)ock 
by a little creek, and has the marine barracks, a 
very noble range of buildings. 

The town of Plymouth is on the north shore 
of the entrance of Catwater, and on a creek 
named Sutton Pool, which, by means of a pier, 
fortns i a safe haven for small vessels, who lay 
dry alongside the quays at low water. Plymouth 
is perhaps the moat detestable of all our seaport 
towns, the streets being marrow, crooked, afad 
#thy. The Catwater has depth for th6 largest 

ships, 



CorwtmJf* 






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47* MARITIME GfiOGRAPHY. 

ships, but is only used by merchant vessels laying 
up or refitting. The population is 19,000, and 
the chief trade is the export of pilchards to the 
Mediterranean, besides the business produced by 
the royal shipping. 

The Shagstone and Mewstone are two great 
tocks at- the east entrance of Plymouth Sound, . 
named from the aquatic birds that make them 
their retreat. The Mewstone als6 abound* with 
rabbits. East of this islet is the entrance of the 
little river Yealme, defended by a battery, ami 
with barracks on the high lands above it. 

Bigbury Bay, west of the Boh Head, is entirely 
open. It receives the rivers Erme and Avon ; the 
latter a rapid torrent stream, but both useless to 
navigation. 

Salcombe is a market town, between the Bolt 
Bead and Praul Point. Its haven, called the Bag* 
is crossed by a bar with but eleven feet high 
water springs, but within the depths are thnje to 
five fathoms at low water. It has a considerable 
trade, and builds merchant vessels of 300 tons. 

Kingsbridge, and Dodhrook, are small towns at 
the head of Salcombe Haven. 

The shore between Bolt Head and the Praul 
Pbint is steep and rocky. Off the former is a 
second islet named Mewstone, The «ext point 
to the Praul is the Start, the bay between them 
being called Start Bay ; oo it are the villages of 
Star Cross and Street Gate- Between the St^rt 
mad Dartmouth is Sbptyo Lea, a fresh iraterjake 
fcw^tu&aicwg,|)araJlelto tbe^eiv from which i^Jb 

separated 



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ENGLAND. VJ5 

Separated by a strip of dandy land a quarter of a 
a mile broad. It formerly abounded with pike, 
perch, roach, and eels ; but some years since al- 
most all the fish were destroyed, and the lake 
hearly drained, by a break made by the sea in the 
bank. In winter the lake is covered with wild 
ducks, teal, coots, and other birds. 

Dartmouth is a corporate and borough town on 
the Dart, which forms a good harbour for frigates, 
being one mile and a half broad within the en- 
trance, narrowing to Dartmouth, where it is two 
hundred yards ; the depth is five fathoms above the 
town, and boats ascend to Totness, two leagues 
further. The fortifications are Kingsfcear Castle 
on the east shofe, and a block-house on the west. 
The town is built on very irregular grouftd, so 
that the lower tier of houses dommuhicate with 
the upper by flights of steps. It has a large share in 
the Newfoundland cod, and home pilchaixl fisheries. 

East of Dartmouth, the coast of Devon forms a 
jgreat bay, bounded on the east by the peninsula 
of Portland. We have no name fbr this curve, to 
which the French give the name of fhe Bay of 
Exeter. Near its west extremity is Torbay, li- 
mited on the west by Berry Head, a steep lofty 
promontory, and on the east by Bob's or Hope*s 
tfofce. In sailing into the bay ships may Icefcp so 
close to the former as to receive a stohe thrown 
Trorfl'the edge of the cliff, which seems to evertfehg 
tteirmasi-heads.' Oflf Bob's Noste^ are four telfets, 
called "ttie Mewstonei Shagstone, 4 Loadstone, afed 
'Hiatcher. iWbay has About twdve miles of cfr% 

cuit, 



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tkvmu 



4/76 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

cuit, and is the usual rendezvous of the channel 
fleet, affording perfect shelter in west winds. The 
usual anchorage is off Brixhaxn in the south part of 
the bay, where the ships of war water by pipes at 
* jetty head. The Torbay fishing boats lay dry 
within a pier. 

Near Brixham is Lay Weil, noticed for conti- 
nually ebbing and flowing five or six inches at in- 
tervals of a few minutes ; the water is clear in sum* 
mer, turbid in winter, brackish and never freezes. 

Torquay is a pleasant watering village in a cove 
two miles west of Bob's Nose. From this last 
point to Teignmouth the shore is composed of 
limestone cliffs with many caverns and fissures. 

Teignmouth, at the entrance of the little river 
Teign, is a fashionable sea bathing place. It has 
also some trade, exporting clays for pottery, and 
sending ships to the Newfoundland fishery. Its 
haven receives vessels of 400 tons with the tide. 

The hamlet of Sheldon, under the point named 
the Ness, south of Teignmouth, is a summer re- 
port of sea bathers. 

The Ex river is one of the most considerable of 
the south coast of England, having a course of 
sixty miles, and spreading towards its mouth to a 
basin more than a mile wide. The tides run up to 
Topsham* but its mouth is crossed by a bar with 
only six feet at low water. 

In ascending the river the first place met is Ex- 
mouth, a frequented sea bathing village; Star 
Cross, a village two miles higher ; and the same 
distance further Fowderham Castle, the superb 

seat 



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EttGtAND* 477 

seat of the Lords Courteney, tfhich dates its foun- iw*. 
dation from the reign of the Conqueror. Top- 
sham is one mile above Powderham, and three 
miles farther is Exeter, on the left bank, an 
ancient city and county of 17,000 inhabitants ; it 
was the residence of the West Saxon kings, and 
the walls of the city, built by Athelstan, still re- 
main. Vessels of 150 tons ascend to it, and it has 
a considerable foreign and coasting trade, its chief 
exports being woollen manufactures and corn ; it 
also sends ships to the Newfoundland and Green- 
land fisheries. 

Sidmouth is a small neat market town at the 
mouth of the Side, which was formerly a good 
haven, but is now choaked up with pebbles and 
sand. It has a considerable share in the coast 
fishery, and is a fashionable bathing place. The 
coa&t scenery from Sidmouth to Seaton is com- 
posed of bold wooded rocks, with a margin of 
sand and pebbles thrown up by the sea, and by 
which the ancient port of Seaton has been filled 
up, so as to receive only fishing boats, in conse- 
quence of which it is reduced to a village. Ax- 
mouth on the Ax, and Colyton on the Coly, are 
insignificant fishing towns. 



The first place in Dorsetshire is Lyme Regis, 
built in a glen between two stony hills; and du 
vided into tw* f>arts by the little river Lyme? lis 
liavenris the best place of shelter bfctwedn Dart- 
mouth 



Don*. 



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XhneU 



478 MARITJMJB GJ50GRAPHY. 

mouth and Portland, aodis formed by a pier, called 
the Cobb* which was formerly of loose rocks piled 
on each other* but is now regularly constructed 
with stone and mortar. Besides a gre^t $hare in 
the pilchard fishery it has a coastipg trade. In 
the reign of Edward I. Lyme Regis furnished 
four ships and sixty-two mariners at the siege of 
Calais* From its height* wa$ seen the capunqM$. 
ment of the action between the English fleet and 
Invincible Armada. 

Charmouth is a pleasant viHags at the foot of* 
hill, past which runs the little river Char., 

B&nxromT, on the Bride or Brit, a mil? above 
its mouth, is a corporate and borough town of 
888 houses chiefly of brick, and 3,000 inhabitants. 
Its chief business is the manufacture pf fishing 
nets and lines and small cordage, which it exports 
to America and the West India*. Its harbour at 
the mouth of the river receives vessels of $50 tops. 
The shore in die vicinity abounds in copperas 
stones, cornuaamnums, and other fossils. 

The Isle of Portland is at present joined to 
the main by a long ridge of pebbles, palled the 
Chesil Bank, thrown up by the sea. The island 
proper is a vast mass of freestone, with which the 
handsomest public and private buildings in the 
kingdom are paved, about 9,000 tons being quar^ 
ried and exported annually. The island is well 
watered by running springs, and has seven villages 
or hamlets; Chesilton, the largest, is on the nprth 
aide, and before it is Portland Castle, erected by 
Henry VIIL, and commanding Portland or Wey- 
mouth 



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ENGLAHO. 47^ 

mouth Road. The extremity of the island forms 
a round promontory called the Bill, on which are 
two handsome light-houses, so well arranged that 
the lights are visible almost in the horizon. Near 
them is a cavern in the cliflk, perforated at top, 
tifty feet square and twenty-one feet deep, in 
which boats sometimes take shelter* The Shambles 
are a dangerous ledge of rocks two miles east of 
the Bill; and south of this latter is that agitated 
space of the sea called the Race of Portland, 
caused by the meeting of the tides from the coasts 
of France and England, which produces dangerous 
breaking waves. 

The Chesil Bank is fourteen miles long and 
above a quarter of a mile broad ; the pebbles on 
it are so loose that a horse sinks up to his knees in 
them; they are of the same nature as the Portland 
stone. The bay west of the bank is extremely 
dangerous in south-west gales; and vessels em- 
bayed are recommended to try and work out, 
keeping close to Portland island, where there is a 
Strong outset that may help diem to weather the 
Bill ; but when it is found tJiat shipwreck is in- 
evitable, it is best to run on shore under a press df 
sail, and the crew should not quit the vessel until 
two or three seas have struck her, by which she will 
be hove up and settled in the beach, affording 
them a greater facility of getting ashore under 
her lee. 

Vessels coming from the eastward and embayed 
in Portland Road, perish without remedy. The 
Pottlanders are active in saving the crews of ves- 
sels 



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480 Maritime geography. 

sels wrecked, but at the same time they plunder 
them with as little ceremony or remorse as a Moor 
of the desert. These islanders have a custom si- 
milar to bundling, the women never accepting a 
man as a husband until she finds herself pregnant 
by him, when she immediately informs her mother, 
who tells her husband, and the latter lets the lover 
know that it is time the marriage ceremony was 
performed ; and as the refusal on his part would 
be attended by certain stoning to death by the 
women, an instance of it so seldom occurs, thai 
in twenty years not one illegitimate child is born. 
If pregnancy is not manifested in a competent 
time, the parties conclude that Providence has not 
intended them for each other^ and they separate : 
nor is this any bar to the woman's finding another 
lover and eventual husband. 

Weymouth is a corporate and borough town of 
3,600 inhabitants, situated at the mouth of the 
Wey, which forms a tide haven within a pier. It 
is one of the most fashionable sea bathing places, 
its bay having a fine pebbly beach. Its trade is 
chiefly with Portugal and Newfoundland. In the 
twenty-first year of the reign of Edward I. Wey- 
mouth furnished twenty ships and 264 marines at 
the siege of Calais. Three forts, with two or three 
small guns in each, defend the port. On a high 
cliff a mile from the town are the ruins of Sandier- 
foot Castle, erected by Henry VIIL 

Melcombe Regis, opposite Weymouth, a bridge 
uniting them, is a distinct corporate town. 

Lulworth Cove is a kind of natural basin en* 

tered 



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ENGLAND. 481 

tered through a gap in the cliffs, and is accessible 
to vessels of eighty tons ; the rocks round it rise to 
a great height and are composed of calcareous 
gritstone. West of the cove the sea has scooped 
out vast cav6rh& into which the w&ves rush with 
great noise, while the rocks resound with the 
screams of the puffin and razor-bill that frequent 
them to breed. 

St. Adhelm's Head (vulgarly St. Aldan) is a 
bold cliff 440 feet high* with the ruins of a stone 
chapel on the very edge of the precipice, sup- 
posed to have been erected for the purpose of re- 
ligious ceremonies, to invoke safety for navigators 
passing this dangerous coast. Amongst recorded 
shipwrecks, that of the H&lsewell East-Indiaman 
near this point, in 1786, is one of the most melan- 
choly, 186 persons, among whom were many 
young ladies, having perished. 

St. Adhelm's Head, is the extremity of a high 
peninsula, named Purbeck Island, almost entirely 
composed of pipe-clay, marble, and a hard stone, 
used in flagging the streets of London. Swanage 
and Studland Bays, on the east side of the penin- 
sula, afford good anchorage. Swanage is a village 
of a single street one mile long, and from it the 
stone of the peninsula is chiefly shipped. Stud- 
land is a village of fifty houses scattered on a 
common ; near it is a singular great rock supposed 
to weigh 400 tons raised on a mound of clay j the 
common people call it the Devil's Night Cap, and 
believe that Satan hurled it from the Isle of Wight, 

vol. iv, 2 1 with 



Don*. 



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482 MARITIME 0EO6RAPHY. 

-with an intent to destroy Corfe Castle in the mid* 
die of Purbeck. 

Fool, a corporate town and county, is built On 
a peninsula, on the north shore of a shallow h*- 
goon, called Laxford Lake, which has twenty 
leagues of shore with many banks and islands ; 
the principal of the latter, Hamad Brownsea, is one 
mile and a half long, and three quarters of a mite 
broad ; in general its soil is sandy and over-run 
with heath and furze. On it is a castellated man- 
sion, named Brownsea Castle, now a family resi- 
dence. The greatest depth in the lagoon is four- 
teen feet, and in certain parts of it the tide ebbs 
and flows four times in twenty-four hours, which 
seems to be caused by Brownsea Island, which ob- 
structing the ebb in its exit, obliges it to flow back 
$nd produces a second flood. 

Fool is meanly built, but has a considerable fo- 
reign trade, chiefly to Norway and South Carolina, 
besides a large share in the Newfoundland fishery, 
and a productive oyster fishery in the lake which 
supplies London for two months of the year. 
£30 merchant vessels, or 21,000 tons, and 1,508 
seamen belong to the port, of whom 140 are em- 
ployed in foreign trade. 

Wareham, on the west shore of Laxford Lake, is 
mn aneient corporate and borough town of 1,100 
Inhabitants ; it is surrounded by high wrfb of 
earth, the houses of brick and the streets wide. 

The 



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ENGLAND. 483 

The first place in Hampshire is Christchurch 
on the west shore of a large bay, between Hen- 
gistbury or Christchurch Head on the west, and 
Hurst Castle on the east. From the former point 
a great bank stretches over towards the Isle 6f 
Wight, on which there is but twelve feet, nor has 
the bay depth for vessels above five feet and a half 
draft. The town of Christchurch, at the con- 
fluence of the Avon and Stour, has 1,400 inhabi- 
tants ; near it are the rums of an abbey and castle. 
The chief business of the town is brewing and 
the salm&i fishery in the rivers. 

Hurst Castle, on the east point of the bay, is 
buik at the extremity of a bank of pebbles and 
gravel, thrown up by the sea, and which at high 
water is not above 200 yards wide, but stretches 
across to within three quarters of a mile of the 
We of Wight, the channel between being called 
the Needles, through which the tides run witfi 
great violence, and the depth is twfenty-eight fa- 
thoms. Opposite this channel is a dangerous bank 
of pebbles, called the Shingles, which shifts its 
situation, sometimes approaching the Isle of 
Wight, at others nearing the main ; it also varies 
its elevation, at tiiries appearing above the sur- 
fkce at low water, while at others it is consider- 
ably under water. These variations are produced 
by the waves in strong winds driving the pebbles 
from side to side. 

Hurst Castle was built by Henry VIM, and 
was the last prison of Charles I. It is a circular 
tower with semicircular bastions j besides defend- 

2 i 2 ing 



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484 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

*«£*"' ing the channel of the Needles, it has also a light 
to direct ships through this passage. 



The Isle of Wight is included in the county 
of Hants, from which it is separated by a chan- 
nel, from three quarters of a mile to seven wide. 
It is twenty-one miles long and twelve broad, con- 
taining about 100,000 acres. Its fertility is such 
that it produces more corn annually than is suffi- 
cient for its consumption for ten years* It is 
intersected from east to west through its length by 
a ridge of hills, of a calcareous chalky super stratum 
over a base of schislus ; these downs pasture great 
flocks of sheep. The shores of the island are in 
general high, particularly in the south or sea 
coast, where they fall into the sea in perpendicu- 
lar broken cliffs ; this side is lined by scattered 
rocks close to the shore, the resort of innumerable 
sea-birds, as puffins, razor-bills, willocks, gulls, 
cormorants, &c. Many of the clifls are cavernous, 
and small cascades tumble over them into the sea. 
The most remarkable of these cliffs a;e those 
named Culver, at the east limit of Sandown bay : 
their holes are the breeding places of vest quanti- 
ties of wild pigeons. At the west extremity of the 
island are the Needle rocks, named from a pointed 
one 120 feet high which no longer exists, having 
tumbled down and entirely disappeared about forty 
years since. 

The island has several minerals, .particularly 

alum, 



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ENGLAND. 485 

atom* micaceous sand, which k exported for the # a, 2fi if '- 
glass manufactories of London and Bristol, cop- 
peras stones, which also are sent to London where 
the copper is extracted from them, pipe-cky, red 
and yellow ochers ; small masses of native sulphur 
are also found. Chalybeate, sulphureous and alu- 
minous springs are also met with. The island has 
several rivers, of which the Medina is the most 
considerable, running from north to south, anil 
almost dividing the island into tv/o equal parts. 
The face of the country is various and beautifully 
picturesque, and hence it is one of the favourite 
summer trips of the inhabitants of the inland 
counties. 

The shores abound in fish, and on the south shore 
$re found very large cray fish, crabs, and cockles. 
Its trade is considerable, consisting in the export 
of corn, sheep, and other provisions, and the 
import of consumable goods. Cowes is the prin- 
cipal emporium of commerce. The population of 
the island is 22,097- 

Newport, the chief town, is on the river Me- 
dina, nearly in the centre of the island. In its 
vicinity is Carysbrook Castle, thought to have been 
originally built by the Britons, and repaired by 
Vespasian. It was one of the prisons of Charlea 
L Newton is a corporate and borough town, 
though reduced to ten cottages ; it has a harbour 
which at high water can receive vessels of 500 
tons. Yarmouth, in Fresh Water Bay, is also a 
borough town, with a castle mounting eight guns. 
Cowes, east and west, at the mouth of the Me- 

2 1 3 dina, 



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486 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

jramptkire. ditia, is a considerable place, and its road is the 
rendezvous of merchant ships waiting for Gonvoy. 
Packets sail between it and Southampton and Lon- 
don. A castle mounting eight guns defends the 
port. 

Ride, opposite Portsmouth, is a straggling vil- 
lage, from whence ships are usually supplied with 
butter, milk, and vegetables. St Helens on the 
riorth-east side of the island is a' village, in the 
road before which men of war usually lay, to wait 
for a fair wind, or to receive their final orders. 
Brading, at the east end of the island, is a little 
corporate town on a creek, forming a dry tide 
haven capable of receiving vessels of 400 tons, in 
tvhich are taken great quantities of flat fish, whit- 
ings, and oysters. Sandown bay, on the east end, 
is protected by a small fort. 



The coast of Hampshire, from Hufst Castle to 
Southampton, is lined by mud banks, tyhich dry 
at law water ami are frequented by great flocks of 
ducks arid \tidgeons to feed on the sea-weed that 
covers them ; in winter these birds are killed in 
great numbers by the fishermen of the neighbour- 
ing villages. 

The first plate east of the castle ist Key Haven, 
a little tide port ; to which succeeds L> mington, 
a corporate and borough town on the little river 
named Bolder Water. Vessels of 500 tons formerly 
went Up to it, but the construction ef a dajn pre- 
venting the stream from carrying out the mod, 

the 



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the depth has deceased utatil it can now receive Ha ^^ 
adly vessels of 250 ton*. The population of the 
town it 2,500, its chief business is the making of 
salt from sea water, which ia exported both coast- 
wise and to America. 

Leap is a fishing hamlet, the usual crossing 
place to the Isle of Wight ; to it succeeds Buck- 
ler's Hard on the river Beaulku or Ex, a popu- 
lous village where is a building place, from 
whence frigates are launched. The village of 
Beaulku is three miles above the Hard, and Tea- 
sels of fifty tons ascend to it. Near it are the 
beautiful ruins of Beaulieu Abbey, a Cistercian 
coijveut, in whkJh Perkin Warbeck sought sane* 
tiiar^ia 149& 

Southampton Water is an indet of the sea ten 
miles long and one to two broad. The entrance 
is defe&ded by Calshot Caatle, <** the west point, 
a small fort erected by Henry V1IL Ascending 
along the west sbcfre, the plaees in succession 
aire Hythe, a beaytiftil little hamlet, from 
whence ft ferry-boat crosses to Southampton. 
Eling, where staall vessels aire built lor the navy. 
On the east shore of the water are Bursleton or 
Hamble on a creek, near which are the romantic 
grounds of Nettley Abbfcy, whose rtiaa are con- 
sidered amongst thef mo^t pleasing objects of the 
kind in England* 

Southampton fe a town and eonftty jajfttMrted on a 
poifct of land at the coaflweBce of the Te*t and 
Ichin* .Seven miles fropi the entrance of South- 
araptoh Water. It epntains 7 or S,000 inhabitants, 

2 i 4 and 



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488 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

fh^rtire. an d has a large trade, chiefly to Portugal, for wine 
and fruits, and to the Baltic for naval stores. It 
is also allowed by act of Parliament, to export 
6,000 tons of raw wool to Guernsey and Jersey, 
which is returned to England chiefly in knit stock- 
ings, caps, and jackets. The foreign trade em- 
ploys about fifty vessels, that to Guernsey twenty 
to thirty small craft of twenty-five to fifty tons ; 
the town has besides about 100 coasters. Passage 
vessels sail between this port, Cherbourg, the Isle 
of Wight, and Portsmouth. It is also a fashion- 
able summer resort for sea bathing. Above South- 
ampton are the villages of Millbrook and Red 
Bridge, where small king's vessels are built Be- 
tween Southampton Water and Portsmouth is 
Tichfield Lake, where considerable quantities of 
salt are made. 

Portsmouth, the second marine arsenal of Eng- 
land, is entered through the road named Spithead, 
between the Isle of Wight and the main, which is 
perfectly secure in all winds ; and here is the grand 
rendezvous of the fleet as well as of the trade, 
from all the ports to the east waiting for .convoy 
down channel, so that it was not unfrequerit on 
the late war, for 1,500 vessels iq sail at one mo- 
ment. The Mother Bank is a part of the road 
near the Isle of Wight, where E«tJnc&tfhen 
anchor as well as ships of war under quarantine. 

Portsmouth Harbour is 'formed at the mouth of 
the river, which is so narr6w thfct but tme ahip 
can enter or go out at a time and only toith a fair 
wind. The tide flowSyin for seven hours and ebbs 

out 



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BKGLAND. 489 

out hi four, by which increased rapidity the chan- 
nel is constantly scoured out, and the mudrforms a 
bank before it, named the Spit, from which the 
road has its name. 

On the east shore of the harbour are the towns 
of Portsmouth and Portsea adjoining, and the 
naval arsenal, of which no description can give an 
adequate idea. The machinery worked by steam 
for the making of blocks and other purposes, is 
perhaps the most perfect and curious thing of the 
kind in the world, and the least number of men 
employed in the dock-yard, is said to be 2,000 
in peace. 

The fortifications of Portsmouth and Portsea are 
as strong as art can make them, and the ramparts 
of the former planted with trees, form a pleasant 
walk. . 

On the west shore of die harbour opposite Ports- 
mouth is Gosport, a. large town chiefly frequented 
by merchant vessels, and from whence a packet 
sails every week to Havre de Gr&ce. 

. On a peninsula west of Gosport, which forms 
the west side of the harbour's mouth, is Haslar 
• Naval Hospital, capable of receiving 2,000 pa* 
tienis. A little yrest of it is Monkton Fort, a 
niodernand regular fortification mounting thirty- 
two heavy* guis, but of very little use where it is 
placed./ The entxapee of Portsmouth Harbour is 
iriore effectually defended by a very strong block* 
hou*e o<v the west point and by the guns of Ports* 
moutht works. > , . 2 . 

'<Afec6niUBg>the harbour of Portsmouth we meet 

Porchester 



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4QQ MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

Pordhester Castle, a very ancient building on a 
projecting point of land, which has latterly b£en 
used as a depot for prisoners of war. The village 
of Porchester near it is a thriving place. On the 
western branch of the harbour is Fareham, a 
town of 3,000 inhabitants, which does a great 
deal of business respecting the fleet. 

A mile south of the harbour's mouth id South 
Sea Castle, first constructed in the reign of Henry 
VIIL to defend the coast. Farther east is Lang* 
stone Harbour, a large lagoon, but crossed by a 
bar that admits only vessels of fifty tods. It is 
formed between Portsea Island on the west, and 
Hayting Island on the east. This latter contains 
5,000 acres of surface chiefly arable. The harbour 
abounds in excellent oysters. Cumberland Fort 
on the west shore defends the entrance. Era* 
worth ifl a thriving village on the borders of Sus- 
sex, accessible to small craft through Lantgston 
and Chichester harbours. 



The county of Sussex is separated from Hamp- 
shire by Chichester Harbour, which goes in be* 
twecn HayHng Island on the we&t, and Sekey, 
Thomey, atnd Ptlsey Islands on the east. Selsey 
Island terminates to the south, i» * point ctftyed 
Sdsey Bill, off which are many s^ool* abotupkU&g 
in cockles. Bracklesome Bay im hefore tbe en* 
trance of Chichester harfnour ; .testis of burden 
enter this latter but cannot approach Chuzhrstbr 
within two miles. This city has the. privileges of 

a county 



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BKGLAND. 4£1 

a county and is situated on the Lavant, 'which 
almost surrounds it ; it contains 6,700 inhabitants. 
Fagham is a small tide haven, to which succeeds 
Bognor or Hothampton, a modern village, rising 
into notice as a sea-bathing place. The Bognor 
Rocks lay two miles off shore, West of the village. 
Little Hampton at the mouth of the Arun, is also 
a small sea-bathing place, its river is celebrated 
for its trout, eels and mullets ; small craft ascend 
it to Arundel, four miles from its mouth. Worth- 
ing, from a poor fishing hamlet, by the resort of 
aea-bathers, has become a thriving village, with 
all the usual accommodations for amusement, as 
assembly and reading rooms, &c. 

New Shoremam is a borough town of 8CK> in- 
habitants on the Adur and Beading, which form a 
tide haven with but three feet at low water bnd 
eighteen feet high water springs ; the entrance is 
llso obstructed by shifting sands. The chief busi* 
ness r isshij> building, vessels of 700 tons being 
built here. It has a custom-house. A consider* 
able part of Old Shoreham has been washed away 
by the sea> and it now contains not above tweirty 
housed. 

BieiGHfON (properly BiiKmfELMSTONE) is the 
largest tcJwtt of Sussex, and the most fashionable 
sea-bathihg place of England ; its resident popula- 
tion h HfidO, and it k thought that an eqttal num- 
ber of strange^ Visit it every season. It is situated 
at the bottom of a bay between Worthing Point and 
Beafchy Head. ' It has nd £ort, but Vessdli unload 
eloee tothg shore, sheltered by a jetty constructed 

to 



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402 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

to defend the town from the attacks of the sea* 
which in 1699 in particular washed away 180 
houses. At present the western waves wash up a 
grjeat quantity of sand and gravel. One hundred 
boats are employed in the herring and mackerel 
fisheries, which produce a profit of ^£10,000 a 
year* A packet sails every week to Dieppe. 

New Haven, at the month of the Ouse, has a 
small tide haven, and loaded boats ascend several 
miles above Lewes, which is seven miles from the 
sea : the entrance is defended by a small fort. Sea-? 
ford i$ now an insignificant fishing village, but 
^nds representatives to Parliament, and is one of 
the cinque ports j on the beach is a small fort, and 
on a cliff west of the town is a signal post East- 
bourne is a sea-bathing village in a valley surround- 
ed by hills. 

Beachy Head is a bluff projecting point forming 
the extrejnity of the tract of elevated land called 
the South Downs, on which vast flocks of sheep 
are pastured. Between it and Hastings are En- 
bourne and Pevensey ; the latter £t the mouth of 
a rivulet, and near it are the ruins of a magnifi- 
cent castle erected by the Saxon kings, covering 
an area of seven acres. There are reasons to sup- 
pose its having been formerly on an island, though 
now two miles from the sea. BuJyerhithe, Bex- 
hill and Nuntide Haven, are east of Pevensey. 
Nuntide is supposed to be the spot where William 
I. landed. 

Hastings, $ corporate borough. ar\d cinque port 
town, is built between two hills, its population is 

3,000. 



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ENGLAND. 493 

3,000. Though its harbour is entirely filled up, 
it has several coasters employed in bringing lime- 
stone from Beachy Head, which after being burnt 
is exported. It has also a considerable share in 
the herring and mackerel fisheries for the London 
market, builds boats, and is a sea-bathing place. 
On a lofty rock west of the town are the ruins of 
an ancient castle, and near them a fort of eleven 
twelve-pounders. 

Govers and Ecclesbourne, between Hastings and 
Winchelsea, are sea-bathing villages. Winchefeea, 
a borough and cinque port town, is now one mile 
and half from the sea, and reduced to a few 
houses. The ruins of Winchelsea or Camber Cas- 
tle one of those erected by Henry VIIL are two 
miles N.E. of the town. 

Aye, a corporate and cinque port town, is situated 
on the Rother, whose mouth being nearly choaked 
up with sand, a new channel w cut for it in a 
more direct line to the sea, and forms what is now 
called Rye New Harbour, which receives vessels 
of 200 tons to the quay of Rye two miles and a 
* half from the entrance. . It exports some com 
and malt and has a good share in the herring*, 
mackerel, and flat fisheries. 



The Rother, which separates the counties of 
Sussex and Kent, formerly emptied itself at the 
town of Old Romney, but in a great storm in the 
reign of Edwai'd I. changed , its cpupse t# ;i Ry$. 
Old Romney has nc$ above twenty houses, ,and 

Appledore, 



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£04 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

**«. Appledore, which was also accessible to sea vessels 
by the Rother before the change, is reduced to 
fifty houses. 

Dengeness, the S.E. point of Kent, is a low 
long point, with a light-house 110 feet high, the 
property of Mr. Coke of Norfolk, and which af- 
fords a revenue of JC4GO. 

New Roinney is a corporate borough and cinque 
port town of 500 inhabitants, at present, by the 
retiring of the sea, two miles and a half from the 
shore. The whole of the tract between this town 
and Hythe is a deposit of the sea named " Rom* 
ney Marsh ; JJ it is preserved from the action of 
the waves by a great dyke called Dymchurch 
Wall, three miles in length ; the slope of the 
dyke towards the sea is strengthened by piles and 
faggots pegged down ; three sluices let off the 
superabundant water, the level of the sea at low 
water being lower than that of the marsh. The 
repairs of the dyke cost ,£4,000 per annum, and 
are defrayed by the owners of the ground. The 
whole of this tract is a pasture for sheep. 

Hythe, a corporate and cinque port town, is 
near a mile from the shore ; it has about 200 hou* 
ses, and near it are several batteries and barracks. 
Sandgate is a village at the foot of a hill, with a 
castle mounting a few guns. 

Folkstone, a corporate town and member of 
Dover, chiefly inhabited by fishermen, has a ha^ 
ven formed recently by a pier of stones without 
mortar, enclosing a basin of twenty-four acres. 
Two hoys sail from hence to London every week. 

Dover 



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Dover, one of the most celebrated port towns 
of England, from its situation with respect to 
France, has 7,500 stationary inhabitants, but the 
inApx 4>f strangers usually increases the population 
to double that number ; it is a borough and cinque 
pert. The haven is formed by a pier, and i$'kept 
clear by the current of the little river Idle, which 
fklte into k; the depth at high water neaps is 
fourteen feet, and at springs eighteen to twenty 
feet, so that it is capable of f eoeiving vessels of 
AGO tons, and i\m* is an instance of a Dutch 
loaded East-Imiwu»an of 800 tons being brought 
into it in dtatress. Five post-office packets are 
kept 4n constant employment here for France, be- 
sides about thirty passage vessels which pass back- 
wards and forwards every tide ; the run to Calais 
with a fair wind being not above three or four 
Hoare. The port is defended by two forts, as well 
as by Dover castle on a cliff east of the town. 
This easfcle presents a singular appearance, having 
been ©obstructed at various periods from the time 
ef the Roman possession of the country almost to 
the present time ; it occupies an area of thirty- 
tftae acrea, and has accommodation for 3,000 men. 
Near the edge of the cliff is the celebrated brass 
< mnfwn caHed Queen Elizabeths "pocket pistol," 
tawing been presented to that princess by the 
jStatea General of Holland ; it is twenty-four feet 
♦ong, and carries a twelve pound ball, but is en* 
t&rely useless. South of Dover is an object more 
werfehy of notice, the cliff so inimitably described 
by ■ Studcespeare.* 

• Lear. 



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49& MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

*£ Between Dover and the South Fontanel u$ 
Eastware and St. Margaret; the latter has a,pttr 
for fishing boats, and in its bay are taken quanti- 
ties of small but very delicate lobsters* Thisiptit 
of the shore is composed of sand downs, extend* 
from Peperness to Deal, and a garter of a,mik 
in breadth* The South Foreland is a clifiy poiot* 
on which are two light-houses Between ktand 
Walmer are the bathing villages of Old Stairs and 
Kingsdown. Walmer Castle, a mile south of Deal* 
is the residence of the lord warden of the cinque 
ports, and near it is a pleasant and genteel village* 
Sandown Castle, between Walmer and Deal, con- 
sists of a round tower with four circular lunettes 
encircled by a ditch. This castle, as well as, those 
of Walmer and Deal, was constructed by Heny 
VI1L when he feared an invasion of the kingdom, 
in consequence of his disputes with the see of 
Rome. 

Deal is a corporate town of 5,000 inhabitants, 
on an open bay lined by a beach of pebbles^ on 
which there is often a violent surf. Opposite the 
town four miles distant are the Goodwin Sandsi 
extending parallel to the shore ten miles ; the^aot 
composed of a quicksand, and dry in sevdraLparts 
at low water, when the sand becqpoes so compact 
that it is impossible to penetrate it* but when* the 
tide again covers them, the sand loosens d« a /man- 
ner that a vessel striking on them is inatantlyieo 
imbedded, as to render it impossible tto> gat her 
off, and in a few days she totally disappears under 
the sand. It was in contemplation to erect a 

light 



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JgNQLAND. 497 

light-house on this sand, but after boring several K j^ 
feet, no base, to .form a foundation being found, 
the idea was abandoned, and a floating light was 
mopred in pine fath^ps depth at the north east 
extremity of the bank. Though this sand is oc- 
casionally fatal to ships, it is of material utility in 
sheltering the road between it and Deal called the 
" Downs" from east winds, and rendering it to- 
lerably secure, so that it is a grand rendezvous of 
convoys, and a station of the royal North Sea 
fleet in war. Vessels also stop in this road to dis* 
charge or take pilots to andlfrom the Thames, and 
frequently for the purpose of procuring spirits, 
tea, &c. which are smuggled on board by the Deal 
boatmen, who procure them from France. A more 
honourable source of the prosperity of Deal is t 
derived from the assistance its boats and pilots 
afford to ships in distress, the intrepidity of the 
Deal men in these cases being unparalleled. 

Sandwich on the Stour, six miles from its 
mouth, is a borough and cinque port town of 
6,600 inhabitants ; it is badly built, but receiving 
vessels of ten feet draft j it has a considerable 
trade, chiefly in the export of malt to London* 

The Isle of Thanet is the north-east land of 
Kent, and is separated from the main by the river 
Stour, and a rivulet called the Sair, communicat- 
ing with the Stour, and emptying itself near Re- , 
culver on the north. The valley through which 
the Stour now runs was anciently a wide and navi- 
gable channel, through which all vessels passed,, 
from the Downs into the Thames. It is noticed 

vol. iv. 2 k by 



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Jfes. 



498 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

by Tacitus under the name of Forlui Rutupen^ 
and described as having two entrances, ihttf 
on the south defended by the castle of Rutm 
piume (Rich borough), and on the north' by thi 
castle of ReguMvm (Reculver). Wheri n Bedfr' 
wrote this channel, then named fVcmtstfriien, W« 
still H three roods" broad, and in the middle 0# 
the sixteenth century loaded vessels passed 
through it At present Richborough Castle ii 
considerably inland, the sea having formed new 
lands on this side of the island, while oh fhs 
north it constantly encroaches, and has Washed 
away a part of Reculver castle. The shores of 
the island are in general composed of chalk diiSj ' 
in which are found Corntia ammonis> measuring 
three feet in diameter. 

Ramsgate is a flourishing town of 3,000 inha* 
bitants ; its haven is formed by two piers endos* 
ing a basin of forty-six acres, with fifteen feet 
depth at high water neaps, so that it receives ves- 
sels Of 500 tons* The piers are of Portland sfceme, 
and the eastern one, after running out in a straight 
line 800 feet, curves round, its whole length be- 
ing 2,000 feet, and its breadth at top, including 
a parapet wall, twenty-six feet ; the western pi** 
is 1,500 feet long, and the breadth of tftte erf* 
trance 240 feet. There being no natural back water 
to scour out the port, this effect is produced 1 !^ 
means of sluices, which retain die tide water* $he 
whole being the most perfect example of ftie r flfo4 
mation of an artificial haven. Its total etpense 

amounted 



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r ENGLAND. 499 

amounted to uptffcrrte of £6O0 9 00(f: The preserva- 
tion of the harbottf is provided 1 for by a duty on all ' 
vessfclsbetween ttferityand 300 tons passing Beachy 
Head of one penny pfer ton, and 3d, on every chal- 
dron of coals and ton of stone imported to Lon- 
don. This harbour is of the most imminent utility 
to commerce, being so situated that vessels driven 
from their anchors in the Downs in gales of wind 
can always run into it if the tide answers, and be 
perfectly secure. It has also a dry dock for re- 
pairing vessels that may have suffered damage* 
On the westpiei 1 head Is alight-house, on which 
thfe light is shewn when there is ten feet water on 
the flood between the piers, and kept burning un- 
til thjere is the same /depth on the ebb ; during the 
day a flag is used to denote the (depth. The port 
is protected by a cattle. It is a member of Sand- 
wich, and has some trade, chiefly to thfer Baltic, ' 
for naval stores. * iu ' 

Between Ramsgate arid the North Tforeland are' 1 
Dumpton Stairs, and ' Broad Stairs, . sea-bathing ' 
villages, with piers for boats. 

The North Foreland* suppiosed' to be the Can- ' 
tium of Ptolemy, is the N.E. promontory of Keht, 
tad the sduth point of the "Gulf of the Thames ;* 
it forms in three points, named Longnose or Fore- 
Bess, the N.W., Whiteness the middle, near which 
fa Kingsgate, a baching village on a break in the 
cliffs, sxnd fastness on the S.E. On the latter is a 
light-house, s^eri ten leagues, which as well as 
that ( o/i the South Foreland belongs to Greenwich 
Hospital i the t6ll of them is 2d. per ton of na* 
2 k % tional 



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Kent. 



500 MARITIME GBOGBAPHY. 

tional vessels,; a*d 44* of foreigners. Between 
the North Foreland light and Kingsgate are two. 
tumuli, thought to be the graves of the shun in a 
bloody battle fought here between the Danes and; 
Saxons. 



EASt COAST OF ENGLAND. 

The East Coast of England properly commences 
at the North Foreland, and the first place west of 
it is Margate, a straggling town on a break in the ; 
cliffs, chiefly noticed as a sea-bathing place ; it 
has a little pier haven, and partly supplies London 
with fish, particularly skait, wraiths, small cod, 
haddock, turbot, whiting, soles, mackerel, her* 
rings, lobsters and oysters. Eight passage-boats 
or hoys constantly ply between this port and Lon- 
don from the 4th of June to the middle of Octo- 
ber; ths passage is from nine to twenty-four 
hours. It is not unworthy of remark, that Mar- 
gate lays so directly exposed to the north, that a . 
vessel sailirjg from it on a N.§E. course would not 
strike land .until she reached the coast of Green- 
land in latitude 75°, a, distance of 1,380 milep. 

Birchington is a pleasant village on an elevation 
half a mile from the shore. Reculver is p, little 
village, near which are the ruins of the anciept > 
castle, and great numbers of Roman coins agd 
medals are dug up in the vicinity. Oq.He^rn 
Bay is a small bathing village, wbljch also exports 
corn to Loijdpn by two hoys of sixty tpas. /VFbit Tt 

, J . stable 



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BKGLAMD* 501 

stable street is a small populous village, chiefly **• 
inhabited by oyster dredgers, those fish being sent 
from hence to London, in which- business seventy 
or eighty boats are employed- -It is also visited by 
colliers, who discharge their coals here for the 
supply of Canterbury. 

Faveesham on the Swale is a town of four 
streets, and a member of the port of Dover ; it 
has three wharfs, at which vessels of eighty tons 
disehkrge and load. Its chief business is the ex- 
port of corn (40,000 quarters) to London, besides 
hops, fruits, wool and oysters* and the import of 
naval stores from the Baltic ; it has thirty coasters 
of from forty to 150 tons. It has a custom-house. 
Milton, west of Feversham, is celebrated for its 
oyster fishery, which produces from three to 
JPlfiOO fe year. 

« M The Isle op Sheppey forms the east side of the 
entrance of the River Medway, and is separated 
from the main by the channel called the Swale, 
navigable by vessels of 300 tons ; it was anciently 
the usual passage into the Thames by ships coming 
round the North foreland, but has long been dis- 
used -except by the coasters bound to the ports on 
it. The passage to the island from the main is by 
ferry-boats hauled across by cables, <the distance 
beinjg 150 fathoms Sbeppey is eight miles long 
ami three broad ; the north shore is composed of 
clay cliffs eighty feet high, which as they crumble 
aWay bring to vidfor a variety of fossil remains, as 
the teeth and vertebra of fishes, grains of oats* 
petrified wood, &c. On the north-west point of 
V- 2 k 3 the 



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Ktmt. 



S0& MARITIME Q^OG^APHY. 

the island, forming the entrance to the Me4^ay« 
is the town ; o£ Sourness, containing fyQQQjijfor 
bitants. Here is* a royal naval arsenal* chiefly jfl- 
tended for buiWing and repairing frigate?. This 
tctarn was without fresh water upti} \7§l> t .whe$.a 
well was dug to the vast depth of 328 feet bef<#e 
watef wa* arrived at (the last 150 feet tbroygh a 
bed of chalk); at last the baring augur sunk i^, 
and the Water rushed up with such velocity, thqt 
the workmen were with, difficulty drawn , up ip 
time to escape drowning. In six hours the wa^r 
rose 189 fetft, and in a few days was withjn eight 
feet of the top, Where it remained stationary, and 
has ever since continued .tp afford an ample supply* 
A strong fortress at Sheefaess defends the mouth 
of the Medway. Ths joad, catted the Nore is op- 
posite the north end of Sheppey Island; it; is the 
usual anchorage of ships of w^rfrojn Chatham, 
Sheerness and, Woolwich waiting for ^nal prd^pk 
A floating light lis moored here. Queenborough 
is a small borough town two miles and a half south 
of Sheerness. 

The Medway rises in the Wolds of Su^ex, ajad 
rum east to Maidstone, thence to Chatham, a#d 
empties itself into the same gulf as the Champs 
at Sheerness, from which to Chatham is sixteen 
miles, and the largest ship^ ascend t^ thb latf^r. 
Barges of sixty tons go up to Mai4$tone* an£ leg* 
set craft to Tunbridge. This river formerly ab^nd- 
ed in sturgeon, but they are now rarely j met i^^j 
it has* however, a good sij^oOt^ oyster fish^y. 

Chatham, the third nayal arsenal, of England, is 

a large 



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BNQLAND. 503 

a large straggling and illrbuflt town ; its dock yards 
employ 3 to 4,000 men in war. It is w^ fortified. 
Rochester, a mile above Chatham, is a*|i,apcieiit 
town with a magnificent; cathedral. . 

The Th AMes rises qj\ the confines of Glpucest^r, 
then passes through Oxford, Abingdon, ^allii>g- 
ford, Reading, Marlow, Windsor, Kingston, ^nd 
Richmond, to London, sixty- two milqsbelpw wbich, 
and after a course of 450 miles,, it. empties ipto 
a gulf by many channels between sajid Vapk& 
one of which is worthy of particular mention from 
the quantity of broken vessels of,earthqn-warp 
and even whole pans brought up fropa it in the 
oyster dredges, whence it hasr been na*n?d ',« Jfcp 
Sand." Some persons havp supposed that it, wqp 
anciently an island Qty r ,whjtpb wag a nqaijufacture 
of pottery* hut tradition accoijnljs for it ^y r thp 
sinking of a vessel with a cargo of this fotf • v 

* The Isle of Grain bounds the entrance of the 
Thames on the south, being separated ftp|»; the 
main by a boat channel called the Scrag/ , The 
island is composed of low tparsh embanked frQip , 

t the sea r The breadth of the river's mojutb is hefe 
four miles; it is navigable for the, largest ships 
to Deptjford, for small frigates Jo the tower of 
London and for barges to Lechdale in Oxford- 
shire, 280 miles from the sea. The tide flows up 
to Richmond, ten miles above London bridge, 

• £»* ftr^t place on the Kentish bank of themer 
ff Ctravesend, a cotfpdrate town of several narrow 
dirt)- ^eets and 4^000 inhabkaate, ahaoift allen- 

Y $3&fert W "ihif/ffing business* and particularly in 
1 :? 2k4 supplying 



Kent, 



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50* MARITtafe 'geography. 

supplying live stock and vegetables to outward* 
bound ships. It has twenty smacks Employed in 
the cod and haddock fishery in the British or 
North Sea, and is the usual rendezvous of the 
Dutch turbot boats, from whence they send their 
fish to Billingsgate. Passage boats sail every tide 
between Gravesend and London, the fare being 
a shilling* There is also a ferry to Tilbury Fort 
on the Opposite side of the river.* Gravesend is 
considered the termination of the port of London, 
the conservancy of which is vested in the corpora* 
tion of the city. 

Woolwich, eight miles below London, is a naval 
and military arsenal, and grand depot of the king- 
dom for ordnance. The naval yard is under the 
immediate superintendance of the navy board, 
j»nd employs 1,509 men in peace and from 3 to 
4,000 in war* 

Greenwich, four miles from London, is noted 
for its magnificent hospital for disabled seamen of 
the royal navy, and for its astronomical obsei> 
vatory, from which we reckon the longitude. 
The Thames is here 350 yards wide, and presents 
beautiful scenery. 

Deptford, one mile above Greenwich, is a 
large and busy town of 18,000 inhabitants, at 

the 

t In 1798, a plan was adopted for forming a communication between the 
two shores at these points, by an arched tunnel under the bed of tbe 
Thames, and this stupendous work was commenced at the Griwesend side» 
tyit the water *oon bpgan to impede the workmen, and at Jength obliged 
fbc idea to be relinquished. The tunnel was to have been constantly lighted 
py lamps, and to have bequ capable of the passage of waggoni. * 



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EHGLANO. 505 

the mouth of the little river Ravensbourne. There lum. 
is af King's dock yard tinder the immediate ihspec- 
tiofl of the Navy Office^ Which employe 1,000 arti- 
ficers in peace and 1,500 in war. * It has besides 
two large private ship-building yards, wftefe isevfen- 
ty-four gun' ships are somfetimes biiitt by ^ntract. 



> 



' The Thames separates the countiittif'Refliknd 
Essex ; the point of the entrance oh '*tfoe latter 
shore is named Shoeberry Ness, fbui* miles north 
pfSheerness. Ascending the river the places in 
'succession are Soithend a bathiug village*/ ^ a^ liitle 
above which a stone marks the* limits of the jtiHs- 
diction of the corporation of London, oh tHfa 
" side. Rayleigh an inconsiderable Village inhabited 
by oyster dredgers. Canvy isl&rtd separated fjfom 
the main 1 by Hadfey Bay, liavigable only by smaH 
fcraft. r '•'-'. '■>■'• "• " '*' 

Tilbury Port, opposite Gravesend, 1 fe&' regular 
fortress built in the reign of Charles Hj (, WtWfend 
thte passage of the river. Gniy'tturr6fcfc? V'tifadl 
town on a creek of the ThalriWev tkv%abi& Iftr 

}j y s- - /: ' •'-. .'.7 ,1.. 4 ., .MIX Ml/ 

The Port of ! I^ndon, ih thfele^a a^tefj^ tif 
the term, extendi l from '' J ift& Ndrth FoftlaW^tid 
Shbeberry Ness to London ^rid^e \ but ^thfe^^ott, 
as far as it regards thte Wading and difcchargftig bf 
ifcps,'is confined totfte reach of the five* beMfeeh 
tJeptford and the bridge, a distance of tfelir miles, 
iha k fr6ni i 400 W 6W <jar&& in b^adth ■ that space 
r- between Limehouse and tile brieve is named the 
**V Pool. 



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596 MAEITftCp a^CBAPH Y. 

Pool, and can receive 800 vessels who lay afloat 
at low water ; those of lightest draft nearest to 
the bridge. The Thames, in its passage through 
London, is to be considered more with respect to 
commercial utility than beauty, the latter having 
been entirely sacrificed to the former, and with 
the exception of some few spots, as Somerset 
House, the Adelphi, the Temple, &c. the maga- 
zines either project into the river, or it is lined by 
dirty coal and timber wharfs. Indeed, there can- 
not be a less engaging coup-cFceil than from the 
centre of Black Friar's Bridge, when the tide is 
out; the muddy tints of the shore covered with 
coal barges and rafts of deal timber, being the 
prominent feature. A nwnient's thought, how- 
ever, brings to recollection that it is in great mea- 
sure to her commerce that England owes her high 
place in the scale of nations, and the mind feeis 
satisfied with what the eye rejects. The wharfs 
being very inadequate to the increased commerce 
of London, various docks have been within a few 
years excavated to receive the different branches 
of the trade, and are the most superb works of 
the kind in the world. The first commenced was 
a navigable canal through the Isle of Dogs, and 
on the north side of the canal, docks, wharfs, and 
magazines, for the West India trade. They were 
begun in 1800 and completed in 1802. The 
homeward-bound dock is 2,600 feet long and 500 
broad, capable of receiving S00 vessels of 300 
tons and upwards. The outward-bound dock is 
also 2,600 feet long and 400 broad. They com* 

municate 



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SN0LAND. 507. 

municate by means of locks, but are separated and 
surrounded by high walls. In 1802, an afct of 
parliament passed incorporating a London Dock 
Company, and docks and warehouses were con- 
structed in the angle of the river below Wapping. 
The length of the dock is 1,260 feet and the 
breadth 690, containing twenty acres and capable 
of receiving 230 vessels of 300 tons and upwards. 
The warehouses for storing tobacco and. wiiifc, 
cover five acres, and the whole is surrounded by a 
wall. l 

. The East-India Dock act was passed in 1803, 
and the work commenced in 1805. The discharging 
dock is 1,410 feet long and 560 wide, containing 
eighteen acres and a half. The loading dock is 
780 feet long and 590 wide,:T(jntainmg nine acrifr , 
aftd a quarter* They are entered from the river ) 
by a basin of two acres and three quarters. The ' 
entrance lock is 210 feet long and the gates forty- 
eight feet wide, the depth in ordinary spring tidet 
is twenty-four feet, i 

, The following is a statement of the foreign trade 
of London in 1795 1 — 



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508 



maritime' geography. 




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ENGLAND. 



509 




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510 MARITIME GXO0RAPHT. 

In I79t> the exports of London amounted to 
j£14,742,000 } the French revolution reduced 
diem in the foHowmg year to 413,660,000. Thv 
effect was however but temporary, in 17961, the 
exports being ,£18,410,000, and the imports 
' .£14,719,000. In this year 2,007 ^British ships, 
436,843 tons, entered the port and 2,1 67 foreign of 
: 277,142 tons, besides (including repeated voyages) 
11,176 coasters of 1,069,915 tons. The rfvernavi- 
gation in the same year employed the following 
craft. j 

2,^96 barges of 33 tons each, 400 of which 

were employed in the 
deal, and the remain- 
der in the cod trade* 
402 lighters of 39 tons 
338 punts of 20 
57 boate of 24 
6 sloops of 27 

10 cutters of 71 chiefly pleasure vessels 
10 hoys of 53 

3,419 Total tonnage 110,156. 

In 1700, the number of trading vessels belong- 
ing to London, was 560 of 84,882 tons, and 10j06T 
men. In 1800, the number erf vessels was 2,66$ ; 
the tonnage 568,262, and the men 41,402 £ of L 
these numbers the East-India Company's shipping 
was 122 Vessels, 106,041 tons, and 10,000 &» 



JVom 

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ENGLAND. 511 

From the entrance of the Thames a considerable 
extent of the coast of Essex is formed of marshy 
iabihds, of which that named Foulness is the 
largest. Rochefbrd on a creek, named BroomhiU 
River, receives lighters j its population is 1,228. 
Burnham onthe Crouch is a village accessible to 
small craft; 

The Biackwater is a large estuary formed by the 
confluence of the Chelmer and Pant. It receives 
vessels of 460 tons, and those of eight feet ascend 
to Maldkn, a town of 2,500 inhabitants, at the con- 
fluence of the rivers. The Isles of Osey and Ram- 
sey in the Biackwater are covered with vast flocks 
of wild ducks in winter, which are shot in great 
quantities for the London market. 

Mersey Island, between the Biackwater and the 
Colne, is separated from the main land by a nar- 
row creek called the Pylfleet, in which the most 
esteemed oysters are taken. The island is entered 
from the main by a bank dry at low, water. 

Colchester, the principal town of Essex, is 
on an eminence on the Colne, a league from its 
mouth; it has 11,500 inhabitants, and receives 
vessels of 300 tons with the tide, and large ves- 
sels ascend to Wivenhoe where is a ship-building 
establishment from whence frigates have been 
launched. 

Colchester was a Roman station and quantities 
of Roman coins are dug up in it; near it are the, 
ruins of a castle built by William I. 

The Stour separates the counties of Essex and 
Suffolk, and is navigable with the tide to Maning- 

tree, 



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(12 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY* 

tree, a small irregular town. On the south potot 
of the entrance of the river is Harwich with a 
harbour capable of receiving 500 vessels ; its chief 
business is ship building, two deckers being built 
here for the navy. It also employs a, 006 tons and 
500 men in the North Sea fishery, and is the port 
of communication with Holland and Germany, 
packets sailing regularly to Helvoetsluys and the 
Elbe. It is also a frequented sea-bathing place* Hie 
entrance of the Stour is defended by Landguard 
Fort on the opposite point of the river to Har- 
wich and distant two miles and a half from it, but 
commanding the channel which is close under the 
fort, a great bank running from the south shore. 
This fortress, built in the reign of James I., is on 
a point of land insulated at high water, by an 
expanse of water nearly a mile broad j it is in the 
county of Essex. 



The coast of Suffolk is in general formed of low 
cliffs of sand and loam, upon which the sea easily , 
acts, and carries away a part of them every year, 
so that the encroachment since the epoch of the . 
Doomsday Book is found to be in some, places, . 
one mile, one furlong, and nineteen perches. The . 
greatest effects have been between the Deben and 
Southwold. Ipswich, on the Orwell, is the chief . 
town of the county, and is built on the side of a 
hill ; its population between 13 and 14,000 in^ . 
habitants. Small ships ascend to the town, but 
vessels of burden lay at Downham Reach, three 

miles 



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SKCIAKD. - *1#, 

nolefbekwrit: the port » «easly<fery ittotfwate* 
kit the tide mes twe**« feet Ipswich has twO 
ship building- estabttshawnto. Passage boats Mil 
every tide between it and Harwich. The* princi- 
pal trade* i» in cor* and malt to London.' • The 
Orwell is at»of th* most picturesque tfeersof 
Engtandtfnd has Many beautifbl eeett oaite banks. 

FeKxtow u an agreeable village south of the 
moutbof the Deb^ which forms the tide" hafrei* 
<rf Webdbiidge that receives small ships' W Its' 
auays. Holsely village, at some dfetattK mfaftfl, 
gives -name to a bay which affords one of Upbeat 
paads on ibis coast, being sheltered by the- prtljoct* 
iagpotot of Ovfoed Ness o« the noHh, eft Which* 
asetwoJlghlB. 

- (The ariver Aide f»ll# into ttolsely Bay, fire of 
CeUsidterabk siftt but of tfttie other use Alan a£ 
fording a pleasant navigation by pteasere- boats? 
and having a good oyster fishery, the town ni 
Qrfbtti is on it at the confluence of the Ore, and 1 
« «?dOdh*d place i'rota its port being <me*Retf up. 
Near it are tho ruins of a castle. A*lbe*ougb wasf 
to si emJ y a considerable town, but the frequent 
devastations > of* the sea- haste Washed away a great 
p*t Of* it end reduced it to an insignificant Ashing 1 
viMrtge; the resort of sea-bathers has however 
WteHy ceased- its improvement, and it has a 
good herring and sprat fishery; The bay is' de* 
fettled by a MaWeH© tower. North of AW- 
boreughls'a nioot or marshy lake Close to the sea. 

Ihorpey Sizwell, and Mismere Haven, succeed 
toAklboroeghj and thenlJunwiCb, anciently a Con- 

VOL. rv. Si siderable 



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6H Maritime geography. 

**>zk siderable commercial city,* but now a mean vil- 
lage of 184 inhabitants, situated on a cliff of con- 
siderable height, which the sea continually under- 
mines and washes away. 

The River Blythe falls into .Waiderjwjck Bajv 
and is navigable to Helesworth, a well built town 
of 1,.60Q inhabitants. Walderswick, now ap in- 
considerable fishing village, was anciently a con- 
siderable place, in 1451 having thirteen vessel* 

i trading to Iceland, Ferroe, and the north, and 

twenty r two fishing boats. 

South wold, on an eminence nearly surrounded 
by the Blythe* baa 1,000 inhabitants ; its havea 
is formed by two piers, and frigates are built here. 
It is defended by two batteries on the cliffs, ooa 
a regular fortification mounting six guus, abd 
the other two. It is a sea bathing place. In the 
bay before it, named Solebay or Sowile Bay, 
was fought the bloody and drawn battle in 1672, 
between the English and French combined Beets 
under the Duke of York and Earl of Sandwich, 
and the Dutch fleet under de liuyter, 

Eastern Bavent is the remains of a village nearly: 
washed away by the .sea, which pn> this part, of 
the coast has made such en croachn^eftt3, ^ that tfee 
point of Easterpness, formerly the east ppint of. 
England, has entirely disappeared.^ Cpvehithea 
sm$H fishing village. , ., , 

Lowestqff, or Leqstoff, is ^ handsome town 
on ; a cliff, . now the ^a$t point of England, ao& 

commanding 

* In 134T, it . : TuV:^o: ships u«d 1C2 milaas to the skga of Calais. . 



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ENGLAND* 515 

commanding a grand view of the sea. Its haven *y£j*- 
formed by two piers has five fathoms depth, and 
near it are two lights to direct vessels clear of the 
Yarmouth sands. The population is 2,400. It 
is a frequented bathing place, and has a good 
herring fishery. Opposite this town was fought 
the naval battle between the English and Dutch, in 
which the latter, commanded by Opdam, were to- 
tally defeated. 

Corton, a sitoall village on a cliff. 



" 'the coast of Norfolk is in general low, level, ****. 
and without indentations or promontories, Hun- 
stanton Cliff, or St. Edmund's Point,* being the 
most considerable projection. The shore in gene- 
ral presents sand-downs, with a low beach of peb- 
bles and sdnd consolidated by the matted roots 
of sea reed grass, particularly the arunda arenaria 
and arenaria peploides. The downs extend al- 
most without interruption from Caister, two miles 
north of Yarmouth, to Cromer Bay, where dom- 
tfienceswhat are called the Mud Cliffs, which 
form the rest of the coast to Lynn Regis. Nu- 
merous dangerous banks lie offthif coast far out 
at sea, particularly a large one parallel to the 
shore opposite to Yarmouth. Near Thornham a 
considerable track, now overflowed by the sea, 

8 l 2 appear* 

t •, Nam^d from the supposition that King Edmund the martyr landed here 
le take poaaeuioa of the kiefdom of £ast Anglia 



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516 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

#*rwc. appears to h*ve been formerly a forest, abundance 
of the trunks and roots of trees being found in a 
mass of black fibrous decomposed wood. The 
beach here is a, soft ooze. A great part of the 
hundred of TVeebridge^ on the west, has been 
gained from the sea by successive embankment^* 
the innermost of which is thought to have been 
raised by the Romans. 

The chief danger of the coast of Norfolk to 
navigation is from the configuration of the coast, 
for vessels passing Flamborough Head to the south 
if they meet with a hard gale between N.E. and 
S.E. get embayed in the dangerous gulf called 
the Wash, While those from the south with a gale 
from the N.E. if they are unable to weather Win- 
terton Ness, must go on shore. In seeking to 
avoid the dangers of this coast, ships have fre- 
quently been wrecked on that of Holland, and 
particularly on the Hake Sands, misfortunes 
Which probably have been generally caused by ig- 
norance of the tides and currents. 

Yarmouth, at the mouth of the Yare, is a con- 
siderable trading town of 15,000 inhabitants. Its 
haven is formed by two piers, and is the seventh 
artificial haven that has been formed here, and at 
present it requires an expeate of two to j£S>OQO * 
year to keep it from filling up witb mud. It has- 
aliandsome quay at which vessels lay to discharge. 

Yarmouth has from early times been a cocMwsr- 
cial place ; in 1346 it had forty-three ships and 
1,075 mariners at the siege of Calais. In 1730 it 
had 1,100 registered Vessels, and at present has 

* about 



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ENGLAND. Blf 

' about 300 exclusive of fishing craft, * but the su- Smftlkt 
perior size of the ships in some measure compen- 
sates the decrease in their number. Yarmouth 
Road, within the long sand already noticed, is 
the usual rendezvous of the colliers from the north, 
and during the late wars it was one of the an- 
chorages of the fleet of ships of war employed in 
this sea. The port is defended by three forts and 
two batteries, and there are barracks for 1,000 
men en the beach. The rise of tide here is five 
feet Boats ascend the Yare from Yarmouth to 
Norwich ; and the Waveney is navigable for 
barges from Yarmouth to Bungay Bridge, in Suf- 
folk. The navigation to Yarmouth Road is pointed 
out by two light-houses, one at Garlestone, on the 
south, and the other on the north at Caister. 

Winterton is a fishing village, east of which is 
the point named Winterton Ness* with many 
dangerous shoals off it, on which account there 
are three light-houses, the southern of which on 
Haseborough, has two lights j the middle one at 
Winterton Ness three; and that on Foulness 
one. 

The places in succession from Winterton Ness 
are Happisbuigh, or Haseborough, ^ndilesley, 
Cromar, a fishing and market town on a cliff, has 
no haven, but colliers of seventy tons discharge 
in its road, named DeviVs Throat, famous for 
its crabs. Cromar is also visited by sea bathers. 

8l 3 Nortel 

• See borne fisheries 



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5l8 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

y*w North of Cromar are Beeston-Regis, Seridghaifc j 
Cley, and Blakeney, little fishing towns on the 
same creek. Wells, a tolerable port, but difficult 
of access, from shifting sands. It has some trade 
'with Holland in corn and malt, and a good oyster 
fishery. 

Holkam, Burnham, and Brancaster Bays, are 
open roads, with villages of the same names, on 
creeks, accessible to coasters. 

jiunstanstone is a village west of St. Edmund's 
Cliff* which is 100 feet high, and has a light-house 
seen seven leagues. 

The Wash, Metaris JEstuarium of Ptolemy, is 
a great gulf filled with dangerous quicksands and 
receiving several rivers, the most considerable of 
which is the Ouse, remarkable for an occasional 
bore in high equinoctial tides, called the Eager. 
Its course is sixty miles, and it is navigable twen- 
. ty-four miles above Lynn for barges, and for small 
. boats to Bedford, forming a communication by its 
tributary rivers and by canals into seven of the in- 
land counties. 

Lynn Regis, the fifth commercial town of 
England, is on the Ouze, ten miles from its mouth, 
which is here nearly as wide as the Thames at 
London Bridge. Four small rivers run through 
and intersect it, and are crossed by bridges; it 
is surrounded on the land side by an old wall and 
wet ditch. Its haven can receive 300 sail. Its 
population is 10,000. Its trade is considerable to 
the Baltic, Norway, Holland, Spain, and Portu- 
gal* 



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ENGLAND. 519 

£al. It imports 100,000 chaldrons of coafc, and "^ 
2,000 pipes of wine. 

The Nene and Weiland Rivers also fall into the 
Wash. By the former, barges ascend to Northamp- 
ton, and by the latter to Spalding. The Nene 
separates Norfolk and Lincolnshire. 



The greater part of the county of Lincoln, bor- v^Min. 
dering on the sea, is composed of fens and marsh- 
land,, which in their most ancient state appear tp 
have been covered with forests, the trunks of great 
trees being found in the fens. At a subsequent 
period it was covered by the sea, from which it 
has been gradually recovered.* In the summer 
these fens present the rich appearance of luxuriant 
verdure and innumerable cattle and sheep grazing, 
but in winter they are in great part oovered with 
a sheet of water, and the resort of vast flocks of 
wild aquatic birds, as geese, ducks, widgeons, 
teals, and others of the duck species; grebes, 
god wit, wimbrels, coots, ruffs, reeves, &c. TW 

2 l 4 ducks 



* On the coast of Lincoln arc many bonks, called clay-huts, which dry 
at low water, the principal are off Aldethorpe and Mapletliorpe j they are 
composed of roots, trunks, branches, and leaves of tree 1 * and shrubs, in- 
termixed with leaves of aquatic plants. The kinds of wood are birch, fir, 
and oak. The opinion generally adopted and confirmed by the tradition 
among the inhabitants is, that an invasion Of the sea, anterior to historical 
records, had submerged a tract of wood land, and after a lapse of time 
again retreated, having covered the trees with mud and sand, which be- • 
came pasture land. A second invasion of the sea is supposed to have 
washed away this covering of mud, and to have exposed the original 
trees. 



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63Q MARITOK GEQtJUPHY. 

ducks are taken in decoys* and supply the txmkm 
market, upwards of 100*000 birds being sent tin? 
tber annually, the season for taking them iafroai 
October to February, and it is forbidden, by Act 
of Parliament, to take them from the fast of 
June to the first of October, under penalty of fiv* 
shillings for every bird. Great flocks of gees* 
are also bred in the fens, and afford a profitable 
branch of commerce, as well in* their, carcaaea at 
their quills and feathers. 

The fens are intersected by ditches, called 
- droves^ which separate the properties, and which 
communicate with larger canals, called dyke* and 
drain*, some of which are navigable by barges. 
All the fen-lands being below the high water mark 
of the coasts, when the drains are filled by the 
rains, 1fee sluice-gates no longer carry off the wa- 
ter to the sea, while the sea water oozing through 
the under stratum of sea sand, assists in flooding 
the country. In dry summers, on the contrary, 
this tract suffers from the want of fresh water, there 
being no rivers and very few springs. 

Boston, on the Witham, five miles from its 
mouth, has 0,000 inhabitants. The river having 
been recently deepened and the har^pur improved, 
vessels of ten or eleven feet ascend to tire town, 
and load corn for London. It afco communicates 
with Lincoln by a canal. . . 

Wainfleet is a market town of 500 inltabHants, 
on a creek through which the River Limb flows 
into Boston Deep. A portion of the waters which 
formerly emptied themselves by this river having 

been 



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UHGLAND. 521 

been conducted into the Witham, in the process 
of draining the fens the port of Wainfleet hat 
suffered a proportionate injury, though small craft 
•till visit it, chiefly for shelter* 

Skegness is still a poor fishing village, as it was 
When Lelatid wrote, who thus describes it,: " Skeg- 
aesse sometime a great haven town, was once 
wailid, having a castle ; the old town clean con* 
fumed and eaten by the sea* For old Skegness* 
is now boildid a poor new thing/' * 

Saltfleet, dr St Peter's, cm a creek, is a village 
of 230 inhabitants; and Tetney, also on a creek; 
lias 450. Vessels from sea enter this creek, and 
by a canal ascend to Louth, bringing timber* 
reals, groceries, &c. and taking off corn and 
wool. 

The Humber, *Abw of Ptolemy, is a great es- 
tuary which receives almost the whole of the 
Uratet* of Yorkshire, by the river Ouse, and ^ 
considerable portion of those erf* the southern mid- 
land counties, by the Trent At the confluence 
of these rivers it is a mile wide and increases in 
breadth towards the sea, into which it empties it- 
Self between Grimsby on the. south, and Spurn 
Head on the north. 

Entering the Humber along the south shore, 
the first place is Huraberston, on a creek one mile 
and a half from the sea; Cleathorpe, south of a 
point named Cleaness, a fishing village and water- 
ing 

* kto. vet *U. p*fft*o, 



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5S2 MARITIJ*fc GEOGRAPHY. 

^ rr tng place. Great GriAisbv, an ancient borough, 
market, and port town,* had greatly declined by 
the choaking up of its port ; but this having been 
latterly improved, and a dock built, it has again 
began to revive. 

Barton, a market town of 1,700 inhabitants,' 
was of some consideration before the foundation 
of Hull,t which has attracted its trade, though 
some corn is still exported to London. It also 
derives considerable advantage from being the 
usual crossing place of the Humber to Hull, well 
furnished passage-boats crossing every tide. 

Ferraby and Whalton are villages of 300 to 400 
inhabitants. 

The Trent rises in Staffordshire, and by means 
of its tributary rivers and canals affords a commu- 
nication with several of the inlafld counties. 

Vessels of 150 tons ascend the Trent to Gains- 
borough, and export its com to London; it has 
also some trade to the Baltic* 



urktKre. The S.E. part of the coast of Yorkshire is 
named Holderness. Entering the Humber at the 
Spurnhead, we find that the sea has 'greatly re- 
treated, and thereby formed considerable tracts of 
new land ;' that named Sunk Island began to rise 
above the water in the reign of Charles I., and as 
it increased it was embanked in, and^now contains 

4,500 

* It supplied eleven ships and 170 mariners to the siege of Calais, 
f Furnished five ships and ninety-one men to the siege of Cattla. 



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ENGLAND. 523 

4,500 acres of pasture land, and has a church r ° r ^? 
built on it ; 500 acres are also left dry at low wai- 
ter, and may be recovered by embankment. 

On the eastern sea-shore of Holderness the sea 
has on the contrary greatly encroached, and wash* 
ed away several towns and villages, particularly 
the famous sea-port of Ravenspur, whose site is 
even unknown. The last great catastrophe was 
in the reign of Edward III. when the sea rush- 
ed towards the shore with terrible fury, 
and the Humber swelled to an extraordinaiy 
height. 

Patrington, on a creek a mile from the Humber, 
is a considerable village, and receives small craft. 

Hedon, farther west, is a market town of 1,000 
inhabitants, which formerly had a harbour, but 
the retreat of the sea leaving it dry, ^a canal for 
small craft has been cut from the Humber to 
within a quarter of a mile of the town. Paul 
is a village two miles and a half from Hedon, and 
on the bank of the Humber ; it has considerable 
building establishments, and seventy-four gun ships 
have been built here. 

Kingston upon Hull, generally simply called 
Hull, has the privileges of.a county, and is one of 
the most populous and commercial towns of Eng- 
land, containing 42,000 stationary inhabitants. 
.Here are two wet docks, one covering ten acres of 
ground, and the other seven acres, with spacious 
quays for landing cargoes, besides several dry 
docks and building places. The sea trade of Hull 

may 



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5t* MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

*ii**- may be estimated by the amount of custom* col* 
lected at different periods. 

1700 .£26,287 

1778 ...: 7^8,229 

1785 91,366 

1792 199,988 

1806 350,000 

" 1807 300,000 

1810 290,000 * 

It is howerer to be observed, that considerable 
allowance must be made for the increased war du- 
ties of late years, which will much diminish the 
apparent increase of trade. *The reduction of the 
customs in the last yfears proceeded from the Bal- 
tic being closed, a considerable branch of the 
Hull trade being to that sea* Hull has also a 
great trade with the inland counties by canals. 4 
The Greenland fishery employs thirty ta forty 
ships a year, by which are imported from four to 
5,000 tons of whale and seal oil, besides seal skins, 
and sea unicorn's teeth. 

Hull hasa corporation styled the Trinity House, 
authorized to make bye-laws for the government 
of the seamen of the port, and to examine and 
Rceoce pilots* Every seaman sailing out of this 
port pays 6rf. per month to this corporation, and 
from this fund many disabled seamen and their 
families are supported* 

North 

• The total value ©# the object* of commerce bnwpht Into- and carried oat 
at the Humber is estimated at fifteen million* sterling. 



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KNOLANIh S%5 

North Ferfaby, opposite South Ferraby, in ****** 
Lincoln ; this is a pleasant village near the 
Ji umber. 

On the past coast of HoMerness, north of the 
Spurnhead are Kilnsea ; Hornsea, half a mile from 
the shore, has 700 inhabitants ; close to it on the 
yvest is Hornsea Meer, with one exception the 
only fresh water lake in Yorkshire ; it is two mile* 
long and three quarters of a mile broad. Skipses 
is. also a village half a mile from the sea. 

, Bridlington Quay is a small genteel sea bathing 
town, on a fine bay, sheltered by Elamborough 
Head on the north* while the Smithie Bank breaks 
tjhe fury of the sea on the east ; the north end of 
this, bank approaches to within a mile of Fhunbo* 
rough Head, and the depths over it are twelve to 
twenty feet Bridlington Quay is a haven formed 
by two piers, and is scoured out by a considerable 
stream of water that falls into it ; it dries at low 
water, but at high water springs the depth is fif- 
teen to eighteen feet $ it is defended by two bat* 
teries, whose fires cross and enfibde it This 
place ia one of the great rendezvous of the col* 
liers in foul winds or bad weather. Bridlington » 
a CQnsiderable market town sl mile inland from the 
quay. 

. Fbmbqrougli Head is. a vast promontory form- 
ing a triangle, the base of which is crossed by an 
aacieut ditch t>f great breadth and depth, appa- 
rently intended to insulate the promontory, and v 
*hich tradition ascribes to the Dates. The pro- 
montory towards the sea presents clitfs 100 to 150 

yards 



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526 MARimiE GEOGRAPHY. 

***** yards high, composed of mouldering lime stone 
as white a& milk, and the bottom worn into vast 
caverns, one of which is named the Dove Cot, 
from the wild pigeons that breed in it : another, 
called the Kirk Hole, is entered on the north side 
of the promontory, and is said to penetrate nearly 
through it ; Robin Lyth's Hole, a third cavern, 
has a perpendicular opening inland. Many vast 
ipasses of separated Tock lie round the promonto- 
ry, and, as well as the cliffs, are resorted to by 
innumerable sea birds to breed* Near the ex- 
tremity of the promontory are two light-houses.* 
Flamborough is a large fishing village in a hollow 
on the south side of the promontory, a mile and 
a half west of the new lighthouse ; it has 700 
inhabitants. 

Filey, a fishing village and sea-bathing place of 
500 inhabitants on a spacious bay, which is shel- 
tered on the north by a rocky ledge, extending 
one mile and a half from the shore, and quite dry 
at low water, on which the sea breaks with great 
fury in bad weather. On the beach of the bay 
are picked up cornelians, and sometimes morsels 
of amber* 

ScARBoaouaH, a handsome borough .town, is 
situated in the recess of a beautiful bay, and on a 
vocky cKff rising perpendicularly from the water. 
its haven, which is the only one fit for large ships 
between the Humber and the Tyne, is formed by 
two piers. The old one 1,300 feet long ; and the 
new one, which is constructed of vast blocks of 
stone weighing thirty Ions, is sixty feet broad at 

the 



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• ENGLAND. " 527 

tile base, and si*ty-three feet at the curvature, i 
*diere the force of the sea is greatest ; the breadth 
at top is forty*two feet, and the height forty feet* 
As there is no back water to scour it out, the sand 
from the sea that subsides in it in summer would 
soon fill it upv was the effect not counteracted by 
the agitation of the water in winter, which again 
disturbing this sand from the bottom, it mixes with 
the water,] and is* carried out byi the tide. Ttai 
depth at the pier head is twenty <t» twenty-four feet 
at high water springs, and at low water but three 
to four feet/ The repairs, of > the piers are provid- 
ed for by/a duty on coals exported from Newcastle 
and Sundedand. There is a hospital for seamen'rf 
widows, supported by stoppages from the seamen's 
pay. Scarborough is much frequented for sea- 
bathing and for its medicinal springs, which are 
chalybeate: and saline. Scarborough Castle is on 
a rocky cKff of 850 feet elevation, washed on three 
sides by the sea, presenting to the north, east, and 
south, an -inaccessible ,face of rock. Within the 
walls is a graas plain erf nineteen acres, with a well 
of pure water. This edifice was built in the 
reign of Stephen, and is now a vast ruin. 
: Between Scarborough and Cleveland the coast 
is composed of diflsy: generally from sixty to 
eighty feet high, biit between Scarborough and 
Whitby is Stoupbrow, a vast mass of rock of 893 
feet elevation. The peaked .mountain of Rose- 
bury Topping near this coast, serves as a land- 
Hark to'&eamen*' its heiglitSa 1,488 feet. ; 

Robin HootkBsy is a &hinj village six^m^es S.E. . 
.( of 



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£38 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

r*rk*hke. f Whitby, and has its name from the tradition 
that the famous outlaw and his equally celebrated 
attendant, Little John, frequented Ais place. 
The village is built on the edge of a perpendi- 
cular cliff; the toy is shoal and the sands left dry 
at low water a great way from the shore. The road 
from Stoupbrow to Robin Hood is along these 
sands, and under over-hanging cliffs ; and here it 
is necessary to be aware of the effects of the tides, 
which flow towards the shore with great rapidity 
covering the sands in a short space of time. 

Whitby is situated on the Eske, which divided 
it into "nearly equal parts connected by a di^w- 
bridge, which admits vessels of 200 tons. The 
town is croudedly and irregularly built, the streets 
narrow, ilUpaved and dirty, but many of the house* 
handsome. The chmate > from the position of the 
mountains, is almost as cold and stormy as Orkney, 
and hence it is by no means a pleasant residence. 
The outer harbour is formed by no less than five 
piers, and, nevertheless, its water is considerably 
agitated in storms. The western pier of square 
atones is £20 yards long, and terminating in a 
circular head, on which is a battery. Above the 
bridge is an inner harbour perfectly smooth, and 
here are considerable ship-building establishments 
on both sides of the riven The depth in the outer 
harbour is at neap tides twelve feet, at common 
springs eighteen, and at equinoctial springs twen- 
ty-three to twenty-four. 

In 1774* Whitby had ISO vessels of eighty tota 
and upwards. . Ita population Is 7*300* 

In 



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, „ ;fy tfffl)>:AaOiV*mds, iad m 1798, T**t«tttege **. 
j*f th^fiort -was 46,585,} and seamefl 3,452. It 
sends twelve to fourteen* ships tolHk Greenland 
fishery. 

In the neighbourhood of Whitby are vast alum 
works, and in the aluminous rocks skeletons of 
Various animals havfebeen found, particularly one 
of a crocodile* /.GfceAt hmhbers of cgrniia ammo- 
nis ate also found in thfcse tocks. 

ftunswkk is a fishing' village situated 1 onth0 
side of a steep rugged rock, three miles west of 
which is Staithes, aka a fishing village, in which 
Captain Cook, our great circumnavigator, wad 
bound apprentice to a tradesman. The fishermen 
00 this place are the itidst hardr and l intrepid of 
the coast % in winter they go out to sea irt small 
boats called cobles, which hold -three itipn each; 
but in summeir theyuiii boats of ten W twenty 
tons .with five n\en, iri wnich they ustialjy rgmaitt* 
at sea from Monday mortring to Saturday night, 
and on thfei* return the fish h cuf iipf'&rid skltecj by 
the women* In the herrfrrg season;' thk village 
sends 'fifteen fishing boats id Yarmbuth. . 

Red Car is a fishirig vif%e 'and ^-Whing 
place, south *rf the motrth of the Tfees. 

The Tees separates the countlfe^ of York 
a&d Durham, it is onfe 6f the most roinintic rivers 
oif England, iB navigable for sea vessels to Wassal 
three miles above Yarm, which last is a market 
town of 1*300 inhabitants. It exports corn, but-, 
ter, haifls, a«d bacon, to London. Above Stock- 
ton it receives the Ure and Derwent, the former 

, vol. iv. 2 m* navigable 



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530 MARITOtt 

£2- navig«blc to Rippon and the Utter to Maltoti ; be- 
low Stockton the riyer becomes very tortuous till it 
empties itself into a bay three miles wide. 



*^ Stockton on the Tees has 4,000 inhabitants 
and a considerable trade, having in 1795, forty- 
seven vessels of 5,733 tons ; it builds ships of 
burden, and manufactures sail-cloth. In the Tees 
is also a profitable salmon fishery. 

The coast of Durham is^in general bound by 
rocky clifls worn into caverns j the most conspi- 
cuous of which are those named the Black Holes, 
north of Hartlepool, which are supported by 
natural pillars, and resemble the aisles, &c of an- 
cient cathedrals. Between Sunderland and the 
Tyne, the rocks have been separated from the 
shore* and that named Marston is near fifty yards 
distant, though the chasm was formerly crossed by 
a plank. This rock is also perforated so that a 
sailing boat can pass through it. It is the resort 
of great flocks of sea-birds, whose dung collected 
every fifth or seventh year for manure, produces 
Jf 100. Seaton is a pleasant fishing and bathing 
village. Hartlepool is a fishing town of 1,000 
inhabitants on a promontory, sheltering a capa- 
cious bay on the south, but the harbour being 
unfit for vessels of any size, its trade is inconsi- 
derable, and the chief business is the fishery. It 
is also visited by sea-bathers. 

Hawthorn 



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ENGLAND. 531 

Hawthorn is a village on a hill a mite from the *>**«*. 
*ea, and Seaham a village on the shore. 

Sunderland, oft the right bank of the Ware* 
is composed of two towns united by the increasing 
buildings, and a third on the opposite side of 
the river, the whole population amounting to 
80,000. The haven is formed by a pier on the 
south side of the river's mouth, and another on the 
north : on the extremity of the latter is a light- 
house. The depth at high water is sixteen feet, 
and it is fit for vessels of 400 tons* which are loaded 
with coals by keels, — oval-shaped covered barges, 
with a large hatchway in the middle, and without 
sail or rudder; they are all of the same size and 
carry ten chaldrons or twenty-six tons and a half. 
The trade of Sunderland is very considerable, em* 
ploying 520 sea vessels : its chief business, is the 
export of coals, to the amount of 850,000 chal- 
drons, to London, France, Holland, and the Bal- 
tic. It besides exports lime, glass, grind-stones, 
and copperas. 

The stupendous iron bridge ovfer the Ware at, 
Sunderland, is well worthy of notice. 

The Tyne separates Durham and Northumber- 
land ; the tide ascends in it to Hedwin above 
Newburne, and the rise is eighteen feet at its 
mouth, and eleven feet and a half at Newcastle. 
It had formerly a great salmon fishery, but the 
locks that have been constructed 18 the river to 
improve its navigation, now prevent the fish from 
ascending, and consequently have nearly destroyed 
the fishery. 

2mS On 



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'«W. 



599 MARITIME OEOQJLAPST. 

j*^*-* On the south bank. of the Tyne » S*£th 
~~ Shields, an inbuilt town but the second of the 
County, Containing 15,000 inhabitants* JEts trade, 
including North Sfcirids, is very cot»denUe in tht 
export of glass and Salt Mbit of the colliers tfcrt 
load from Newcastle are buik at and belong to 
Shields, and the seamen of this port are the rant 
expert of the kingdom. Here was invented aai 
first brought into we the "Life Boat," by whkfc 
between 1789 and 1810, upwards of 300 pessoiit 
were saved from vessels wrecked in the mouth of 
the Tynfe^ 

Swalwdl on the Derwent, a mile above ks con- 
fluence with tlie Tyne, is a small town deserving 
notice for its icon works, the largest anchors and 
mooring chains, besides all kinds of iron qtmnl% 
being made here and sent to London* 



y ' ,, r^ Uf ' North Shield^ on the Northumberland bonk 
of the Tyne, contains 8,000 inhabitants, ninemdes 
above which ;is Newcastle, a town and county of 
80,000 inhabitants It is the grand emporium tf 
the coal trade, the greatest collieries being near 
the banks of the Tyne, from five to eighteen 
miles above Newcastle ; vessels of 300 tons tad 
at the quay of the town, which is TOO yards long. 
Besides coals it exports iron, lead, salt, bacon, 
butter, and sajmonof the Tyne, tafiow, grind- 
stones, and paving-stones. It has large mamdao* 
tures of glass. 

The corporation of the Trinity House ef He*- 
, j ^ > castle 



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flMtfoharflta t»nserv*tcdn of the river 'Tyiie, to *k$g*»- 
J*gU water mark on both sides of the river, from ite ^ 
month to Hedwin Stream above Newbmme. 
/ 1S» village k>6T5pwirao«rth^i aear the north point 
i*f the river's month, k ^fashionabk' sea4**hoig 
place* Near at is Cltffcwd For t commanding tKg 
#ntarahee,df th^riwr, fand two light>h<iw«efe under 
the Trinity House of Newcastle. . : 

: Hartfejr is a fishing village, before- whicK is 
Bfite Idand forming a small havener the fishing 
boats; Seaton Sluice is a little haven capable of 
receiving twelve or fourteen vessels of 950 tea*: 
it is entered by 4in artificial <qut through a free 
stone rock of 900 feet long, thirty broad, and fifty*, 
two deep. Blytli is a convenient haven for small 
praft, but as welt as' Hartley and Seaton, dries dt 
jfew waters . ■>/-*.; >wr, ;, . 

: Coquet Island lies before &t little riwr of the 
same name, on which is the village of Fdton ; 
and te it succeeds Atnemoifth; a village on another 
email river where small craft load corn. HThe mini 
of Dijnstanborough Castle are nc«t passed, a$d 
then Bamborough Castle, built on a basaltic rock 
130 feet above the sea, and inaccessible except on 
the S.E. wheqe it is defended by a deep d*y ditcte 
TisaAtion ascribes its foundation to Ida, <<rst 
Saxon king <rf the Northumbrians to 15*8. In 
iyfciy it came into the poft^eitiion^df Lor (* Crewe, 
Bishpp<rf Durham, wh^i bequWthed it with sot** 
oih^r pfbp&ty to trustee^ foitfhtfpfwposg of astftet- 
?pg idiif* in distttis *ffd shipwt^tked iiharinersi 
Inc^tTOuaneeof ttts^bequesti a e&nst*** patr«k?ft 
ji> 2m3 kept 



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AM MAEITIItB USO&RAFHY. 

kept on the shore in stormy nights, far the £s- 
tance of eight miles (the extent of the manor) to 
give notice to the castle of ships in distress or on 
shore. In the castle are kept cables, cordage, 
blocks, screws, anchors, &c. for saving the car- 
goes, or getting the ships off, as well as apart- 
ments ready furnished for the crews ; here is also 
a life boat 

The Faro or Fern Islands an two cluster <rf 
rocky islets, opposite to Bomborough Castle. Tie 
number above water is seventeen ; they all afibrd 
some grass to pasture a> few sheep, seaweed for 
burning into kelp, sea4>ifds feathers, and aeafc, 
which are taken foe their oil and skins; they*e 
rented for «£16. The nearest to the main is cailed 
House, Island, and was the retreat of SkCuthbert, 
during the last two years of his life. On his edl 
a Benedictine monastery was founded the ruins tif 
which are still seen. At the north end is a great 
cbasovfrapa the top to the base of the rock, oiled 
the Churn, through which the sea-water is timed 
op in storms with a horrible noise to the height of 
sixty feet There is a light-house on this island 
anda wett of fine water ; within Fern Island is a 
creek named Kettle with ten feet depth. 

Holy Island or &ndia&rne is two miles from the 
main land, but at low water dry quicksands unite it 
to the main j it contains about 1,000 acres of land, 
half of which is sandvbaftks^ bat the rest is a good 
soil 9 i|da%ds^ kW pstof £1,009*. ,Qa $#,$.£ 
a spit££]sn4 juns putas«tfe^n4w^8fp^U«g 
poiptof the tides : tftpppft abounds with rabbits. 

On 



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;* 686 

Ontfeewest sideogtheisieadras a fiihing v31agr«r ^&*~ 
#00 peeaons, with a small haven* On the north — 
end of the island is a light-house, and the rains of 
the castle and cathedral are still seen* this having 
tan the residence of. a hifhap whose see was irsitf* 
feired to Durham. 
The Tweed separates Enj^d and Scotland, - 
On its southern hank is Tweed Mouth, apleit 
sent village ; opposite to .wbichrik Bnwwtffc, a forti- 
fied town, long a sufcpeel a£ dispute between Sfcot- 
Jaad and England* nntit^t waa aVlast dedarad -a 
free nentsal tovn with srtenfeap of $000 acres 
p£ land round iV *nd it still retains some oft its 
juwaettt priyikges. It has 7,000 inhabitants, and 
is.aveffyco«mereial place, nmploying VXXfctone 
#f shipping in the aspect of wooi, corn (60,000 
j|twrtars> peas, beans, &c- Ita chief prosperity as 
however derived from the salmon ftbery in the 
Twted, Mrhichn«tsl«i:i6 f 0Ca« TheJiidsaiir 
ie difficult from sunken reeks, and is formed by a 
handsome pier fectatly constructed. Vessels of 
thirty tpns< go up to New Watgrford six miles abone 
Bewick. , There are barracks for 600 men, and 
the town has a nuUtary governor, whose aafery is 
£586. Passage vesaeta with good accommoda- 
tion (Berwick smacks) sad esrery weak to London* 



J ftttti *^entrah^^«tt^%*edHo ft^ j*.m»» 

Ptttt^^iA^I khd rbiky ; t!re 

.^iddm dnv/ eijnfjod^ft^^: c:\)u eat > ^9$fe 
.0 



• Scekoaieftsliariii, 



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586 MARITOB. WOBftAPHY. 

*™^n. shore fa coveted wfth sefctteed, dta^^meis^fA 
fiw/i«, which is used *s a manure and borafcinta 
kelp. ... / : i-;. . 

The cliffiarethetesort of a prodigious ramAer 
of sea birds, chiefly scouts and tottywakes ftona 
ms<i) which arrive in the spring and filer having 
rearbd their' young depart in the autumn ; they are 
taken for food by the poor cits*. The «id«s 'on 
thfecoart fftottoenty&ee. : • 

.The only harbour bettveen Berwick wwl the 
Forth 13 Eyemouth, a tide haven ibrmed by two 
piers, with twetrty feet in the springs and sixteen 
in common tides. Th<S town has 90O inhabitants, 
and befldfes a considerable bhaze in the fishery, 
exports 1*,000 qna*ters<of <gifrin ctnefty to Juath. 

Between Ey4tnooth^d' St. Abb*s Head is a 
fee bay with good" anchorage. St. Abb's is a 
noted promontory wfth the ruins of a chapel ;• it 
is said to have ltd name from a certain '*Lady Eteba, 
Abbess of Coldinghaw, who together with bat 
nuns on an itovtfftton of the Danes, out off ifcBfr 
noses to prefect their violation by tb* bsrf&tiftn* 
Cohdmgham Loch is fcft&sh wattt >lake, ^ne^initt 
west otf*he head* and a tbiie^ efrtafc < though i* 
receives no visible stfieatfi it jdw4y*4tttri*ins f«8. 

lUifisden f? atf &k^ 

£uJEXgL Dunbar, on an eminence, is a genteel and healthy 
— town with a castle on' a ledge of' rocks running into 
the sea, 1 and memorabk a> he scene of the simulat- 
ed outrage* on Mary Queen of- Scots by BotfriraH. 
It has a small pier have*i defended by a battery of 
.«•> • - -:i*\ • twelve 



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<**h*gdMt itsdaefte^iHfesis the fishaiy and »*j^ 

*fee(*port of corn. Ita population is 4,000. 

* The Ty«e River, the only one of any coosidera*. 

«fcm in the comity* empties itsetf below the village 

of JLiiftan; though in saovmer it is a torpid stream, 

ftbe melting ofctha snow* err rains ^causes it art tines 

toWefrtfom it has<saitfM>H and trout 

^ 9tatftflkiar OaNle, two miles east of North Bar. 

friet:, Is a rain <* a f ock avferbangiag tfee aea 

ffftfeh w^e**toto three aides. 

Nwth fiert^nk^s a suttfltttfwn >of 7Q£ ra|*bi* 
tt**s<; itha^^pi* hayen a»die»phrteoorii. 

^The ^Fr^Sh ctf Fowh (Bbdtfria) tie * gfeai 
Mftfttiy, Whom entrance between the coasts qf 
Haddington^ and Fifenaes» m Efeshire is seven 
miles broad. * *9h& braadtft deaf eases r*gula*ly to 
Queensfeny, where it jls contracted by two pro- 
montories to two miles. Above which it again 
expands to a*ina>ba^ four mile* b*oad, andepn- 
fcrnues thte,br<tf dthifoinaim*al leagues. 

di the J&iib are terafri i*ba& aad roetoiWpiHair 
of netiee*! :Uhe Isi^e£;Bai^iw^itbe sautbB^W% 
is iiroek joftgrd«toi*fcitotio)ti0\^^ 
ontheinmtfrstdeandantbt brtiw <*f tHepreaipwe 
is a& rdbandotaed; caa^ atJ oner period t^f^toAfl 
prwoirof Scotland, 'A ctereani ruhs quite f&totogft 
til© wwk; from N.Wut^ aE. This *H* t fc *ba 
raidrt of ^graa* number ofifiolwd gewftraB&kit*^ 
*tioea, L/whafce young f and' feafih^s a^H4;^apg 
n*eriue, ;Tfa*Me of.iMay^baar tiie,niiddteQ^a«J 
Artfe, riai tin** fnifc* i^airtjuit.^d ha^ *l^b^ 
hooter) dnch Gowry baa the ruins of a castle; 

and 



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£88 MARmHB OHMJLAFHY. 

«-^tai M d the riiins of a fort e&'ieen &:InfaM0k, 
near the Fife shore of, the Fritib. A. felt shaa^ «e* 
pastured on this island ; it abounds with rabbits, 
has three good wells and a licrhkhoiiae. The 
Other islands have nothing deserving mention. 

Both shores of the Frith of Forth are thickly 
dotted with towns and villages, from which a con- 
siderable fishery is carried on, and which export 
salt and coals. Those of the south shore are port 
Seaton, a dry tide . haven with twelve feet depth 
in spring tides. Pxesti» Panv fcawed. fixw fa 
salt pans, has also a tide heye&for sofelkcttft, and 
employs ten boats in the oyster fishery . It is. the 
grand rendezvous of Scotch pedlars, who meet 
here once a year to enact regulations for their 
community. Its population is 2,000. . 



Musselburgh, at the month of the little river 
Esk, has its name from die muscle banks before 
it Fine pearls are often' found m these fish. The 
town has AOOO inhabitants, And a small have*, 
i LiiTH, fiie port of Edinburgh, is two miles 
distant from the city ; but the increase of houses 
has now nearly united them. Leith is <m both 
banks of the little river of the same -name, whose 
mouth, inclosed by piers, forma a drjr tid*»h«9efl» 
with seventeen feel high water aptmg««!> ->3R* 
largest ships lay in the road one mfle attd^llalf 
from the town perfectly secure, itfthhjte a4aifcsi 
trade both foreign and warttag* pmiataty*it& 
: l< , vl^. asu; Lstoto>n, 



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SCOTLAKD. 539 

London; it also sends ships to the Greenland 
fehery. It has 15,000 inhabitants. 



Queensferry, the usual crossing place of the !*«*/««. 
-Frith of Forth, is-a considerable village, with some 
•trade, and shipbuilding yards. Burrowstoness, 
4tt the inner basin, of the-Prith, is a busy place, 
havtag a considerable herring fishery, a l^rge coal 
tmde* tt»d a trade to the Baltic. Its haven has 
^sixteen to eighteen feet spring tides, and is 
kept clean by a large basm with four sluices, 
which are shut when the basin is full at high 
water, and opened at low water, so that the rush 
of the streams cany oat the mud 



Tte pkces deserving notice on the North or **. 
fife shore erf the Frith, are Crail, on an elevation; 
it has same sloops, ami about a dozen herring 
smaoks. JKik^nny, Eaafc and W*sfc Aastrdther* 
are also fishing villages, with aome sloop trade* 
Pitteq wean has a tide Mien, with eleven to twelve 
feet springs. It export* grain, salt, and coals. 
Largo, oft a considerable hay w Dysart, a town of 
W^4»in<fipal street, .bwiidttmerchant ships for the 
Baltic trade j haa large manufactories of salt. 

Kirtaaldy, on a fine cove, has 1,600 inhabitants 
b&4t yeiyt # btflt^ principal tfieet being raw* 
*»gr«^ i »q^»e J and uarrotf. it ha* 4mr 
ritoiWi manufactures, and employs 4,000 tons of 

shipping. 



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540 MARITIME OTOGBAPHY. 

22' shipping. Kinghorn, opposite Leilh, and five -"miles 
from it, is on a cliff overhanging 'the sea ; its, port, 
named Pettycur, is a fine basin at some distance to 
the west, and is the usual crossing place to Leith. 

Burnt Island* is a- village on a peninsula* form- 
ing an excellent haven of easy access adapted for 
repairing or laying up ships; it has some trade 
and shipbuilding, Stanlybura has a pier haven. 
Inverkeithing is on the rising ground of a bay 
affording good anchorage ; it is- one of the qua- 
rantine harbours for Scotland; it exports coals 
and salt; as do Terry Burn and St. David's 
villages. . ,V 

St Andrew's Bay is between Fifeness on die 
south, and Redhead on the north, seven ieagues 
distant. Nearly midway is the dangerous Cape 
or Bell Rock, which nearly dries at low water, and 
on which a light-house has been recently built. 

TRie city df St ArtMEEw's is :©n the squtk side 
of tile bay on a .rocky points and. has. * haven 
formed by a pier, bmfc, dn a natural ledge of iree 
stone ruaning into die, sea; the depth* is se*n to 
ten feet high water ntops^ aqdfiftegnite sifitee^in 
the springs. The population is fitQQO. . . 

East and, West H^yens are fiehing arilkgesr or 
ereaka on the touth 4hote of St* Andrew^ Bay. 

The Tay; which carries a greater quantify of 
water to &e seal than any ofcker *iv$r of Bwt^ 
issuer from the letch of the same /name, a^etopiies 
itself by an estuary iijained^ tfe r Frith. of J^ay, .filled 
with shifting bank*; i^eweh of qcuuktapbte 
burden ascatd Jhe{ river rto &jmrtmiithtiahi*£Atmii 

of 



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. . r.7 SCOTLAND, ... 541 

of:PerfcJidkimi>andieiitart'!^ lined; KnseeiV 

o& and ialmon/the produce (rflbe flay fishery, 
whicfc.hem^icBLjGSiOOft .TiiM n^er had fbraierly 
3 irtuacle jpeaxl fehetyiha*- some: years produced 
JjlQtfXXh i but itrihaa .been entirely exhausted. 
Perth h«s i5,ftS»inhdbitanta, : < 



aDtf»i3«K,,iwrtbe north or Abgus shore of the *f». 
Tay^l^dhrfr iraitaa from its moutlj, where it is two 
miles bcoa<fc tt^flourishing town of £6,000 inba- 
bitfcftta. Iks!haveb r farmed by a 'pier, dries at low 
«atfci? tew nurajotrteii feet at High Water neaps, 
awd fcwnteee^at springs, : receiving vessels of flOO 
Urns*. h$ trader ia, wry ccmrideBable with the Baltic 
^nd London^ -jits exports are* sailcloth, leather, 
cordage, thread, buckram, com, salmon, and her* 
rings ; and its imports of various objects are es- 
timated at 80,000 tons. It also sends vessels to 
the Greenland fishery. Passage vessels sail weekly 
toiJ&pi&ifo QudBartohnms, tbfc north point of 

- ;. Aberbrothtc r#r AtbroMh, bt the mouth of the 
Brtrf&ck* ih&s * fitie tide h*ro* farwtsselaof 200 
tei$, defanfodbyt$katt£rf;o£ six twelve-poundcra 
It ei|)ort3 the Uften attt jwifclotk of its manufac- 
tories. Hem fitt tbb rains of a celebrated Benedic* 
tftneirtofwtfiy founded^ U7&. Population 5,000. 
rFr<wn the mwth of the Tiyta beyond Arbroatfc, 
the coast is sandy? and Hoed with rocka- Hetre it 
becomes bok* and precipitous, with large caverns 

worn 



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Kmcmr+ne. 



34% MARITIME OMMtAFHT. 

worn in the cUA. Redhead terminates <h*s ttwet, 
rising in red difis 900 feet high, mod bounding 
Lunan Bay on the south, the shores of which are 
sandy, with sunken rocks as &r as the North Esk 
river. In this bay is good anchoragePift southerly 
winds. On Redhead are the rains of a strong 
castle said to have been built in the twelfth or 
thirteenth century. " 

Montrose, the chief town of the county, is a 
neat and genteel place half a mile from the rtfrfth' 
of the South Esk, which at the town forms a basin 
250 yards broad, accessible to vessels of 400 tons. 
The town is built on a point of land surrounded 
on three sides by water. It contains 6 or 7,000 
inhabitants, and exports chiefly salmon of the 
river and lobsters (60 to 70,000 a year) to Lon- 
don. It has also a considerable coasting trade, 
and some to the Baltic j and builds vessels. 



Fiscal! is a village at the mouth of the Nwth 
Esk, which separates Angus and Kincardine strifes, 
to which succeeds Johnshaven. Oonrdon, a 'idl- 
ing village with a haven, property the port *f Tit 
verberie, two miles further north at die mouth of' 
the Bervie, which receives only fishing boats. 
Eight or ten sloops belong to this port 

Dunnottar Castle is on a high perpendicular 
cliff, almost surrounded by the sea, and towards 
the land defended by a deep ravine. 

Stonehaven, a fishing town of z Wt> streets, on ^ 

**the 



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SP03$ANB. 543 

tfjt Cowie, vii\%£opd haven formed on the S.E* 
by. a projecting rock, and op the NJE. by a pier ; 
it dries at low water, but has nine or teq feet high 
water neaps, and sixteen to seventen in the springs. 
There is a good salmon fishery here. 
t Girdlent^ss, a promontory eighty feet high, is the 
termination of a ridge of the Grampian hills. On 
the shores near it beautiful Scotch pebbles and jas- 
per are found, and most of the hills are composed 
of breccia or pudding stone. 



.The coast of Aberdeen is in general bold and 
rocky, the cliffs presenting many caverns of un- 
known extent.. Aberdeen Bay is limited by Gir- 
dleness on the south ; it affords good anchorage in 
.offshore winds. The Dee is a rapid and consider- 
able stream, descending from the Grampians : its 
mouth inclosed by two piers,* forms the haven of 
Aberdeen, which is crossed by a bar with but two 
feet, at -low water, and twelve and a half feet at 
high,/ Vessels . that can go over the bar lay 
at a handsome. quay., Aberdeen is a handsome 
city of S6 # OQO inhabitants, wi^h a large foreign and 
coasting trade, exf^rjting linen, salt provisions, 
thread v stockings,, and paving stones to London. 
It also' export* .to London the produce of the 
. . / . salmon 



• The North Pier 1a 1,200 feet long, and terminates in a reund head 
sixty feet diameter at the haae, aad thirty-eight feet high; the whole built 
of hug© block* erf pttiftt. Th«iBlra&e«isdeif>deA^twohatteritsoC 
tfrelre-ftinders. 



Aberdetw 



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$44 MARITIME GEOGKAPHY. 

salmon' fisheries on the Dee ami Eton* which pe*. 
duo* from £3,000 to £6,000.* year* Aberdeen 
is largely engaged in the herring fishery, and send* 
ships to the Greenland fisheiyv 

Old Aberdeen, on the Don, a mile north of the 
new town, is almost joined to it fey a long village. 
Small vessel* eptei?«tbe river's mouth.' * 

Newboriugh, on a rock forming* « good-haven, 
with twelve feet depth high water common tides; 
close to it on the north is Jhe river Ythan, in 
which the tide flows up to the pleasant village of 
Ellon. This river abounds-with pearl muscles. 

Slane's Castle, the seat of the Earl of Errol, is 
built on a cliff overhanging the sea j near it is a 
cavern named the Dropping Cave, remarkable for 
the quick petrifaction of the water that drops from 
its roof. The ward of Cruclen is a fishing village 
south of Buchanness, near which fern singu- 
lar natural curiosity called the Buller of Bu- 
chan ; it is a circular basin surrounded by a ring 
of frightful rocks, in which on the side next the 
sea the waves have worn an . arched opening, 
through which boats can pass into the basin, which 
latter has a depth of thirty fathoms $ r- the summit 
of the ring of rocks is. covered ♦ with- earth and 
grass, forming a narrow walk all round. 
. Peterhead, a league .north of Buchanness, has 
a tide haven formed by a pier, and sheltered by 
the little island Chalk Inch. It has some trade to 
the Baltic, is engaged in the cod and herring 
fisheries, and is visited for a mineral spring. 

Kinnaird Head is the south poiftt of the great 

• gvOf 



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Scotland; 4 545 

gulf formed on the N.E. coast of Scotland, ter- 
minating in the Murray Frith. A league from the 
head is Frazerborough, to which succeed Rose- 
hearty and Aberdour, fishing villages with little 
tide havens. 



The coast of Banff county is in general very ^£* 
bold, presenting in many parts a front of perpen- 
dicular rock 200 to 300 feet high. In the parish 
of Guarie is a steep rock, frequented by innume- 
rable kittywakes, who arrive in spring to breed 
and depart in the autumn. On the same coast is 
a natural abyss called HelVs chimney, communi- 
cating at its base with the sea, whose waves rush 
into and force a column of water through it, 
which breaks into vapour. A second cave is 
pierced through a neck of land,- and from an en- 
trance through which a man can only creep opens 
into a cavern 150 feet long, thirty broad, and 
twenty high, supported by vast natural columns of 
Tock. On this coast are many small fishing places, 
beginning with Gardenstone, to which succeeds 
Macduff, a little town recently founded by the 
Earl of Fife on the right bank of the Doveran, 
which has the best haven of the Murray gulf. On 
the opposite bank of the river is Banff on the 
declivity of a hill, a genteel town, but with a bad 
haven from shifting sand-banks. The Doveran is 
useless to navigation, but has a salmon fishery that 
rents for ,£1,000. The other exports are ale, corn; 
thread, cotton and yarn stockings, by coasters. 

vol. iv. 2 n Portsoy 



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546 MARITIME GEOGHAfHY. 

*nt- Portsoy is a populous town on a point of land, 
which forms a safe harbour for vessels of consider- 
able size ; besides the produce of its fishery it ex* 
pbrts thread and fine linen to London. 

The other places accessible to navigation are 
Cullen, which has only an open and dangerous 
road, Port Nockie, and Buckie, which receive 
•mall craft* 



M^fty,. j^ e Ri ver Sp e y separates Banff" and Murray 
shires; its course is about ninety miles to the 
Murray Frith, where it empties itself at Gair* 
mouth, forming a good haven for small vessels. 
Gairmouth is a neat tdwn of 700 inhabitants, and 
has a good deal of business, chiefly from the great 
quantity of timber floated down the Spey from the 
forest of Strathspey. A number of vessels of 500 
tons are built here of this timber ; and it has a good 
salmon fishery, several sloops being employed in 
conveying the fish to London* 

On the coa«t of Murray is a considerable tract 
of sand downs, called the Maviston Sand-hills, 
which, according to tradition, were formed by 
the same inundation of the sea that produced the 
Goodwin Sands. These downs are constantly in- 
creasing towards the N.E., and within the last 
century have entirely covered the fertile barony 
of Culbin ; and the same cause has also neces- 
sitated the removal of the town of Findhorn, 
whose ancient site is now obliterated by sandhills. 
On this coast are some fresh water lakps, which 

were 



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ACOtlANfK 547 

were apparently bays of the sea, particularly Loch *w«y. 
Spynie, three miles long and one broad, now sepa- 
rated from the sea by a fertile tract of land called 
Ross Island ; many beds of oyster ahfells tire found 
on the banks of the lake considerably below the 
level of the land. The lake abounds in perch 
and pike* and is frequented by swans. The Loch 
of Cots is described as a bay in the thirteenth cen- 
tury. 

The Frith of Murray is entered between Burgh 
Head in Murray, and Tarbet Ness in Ross, dis- 
tant from each other five leagues ; it contracts 
gradually to a strait between Fort George and 
Fortrose, formed by two promontories, within 
which it again widens to a lake nine miles long 
and three broad ; at the upper end of which two 
projecting points at Inverness contract it to a se- 
cond strait, beyond which it again expands, and 
forms a second lake nearly as large as the first, at 
the head of which the River Beauley empties it- 
self. The River Ness, which issues from Loch 
Ness, falls into the Frith at Inverness. 

Lossie Mouth, at the entrance of the little ri- 
ver Lossie, is the port of Elgin, and receives ves- 
sels of eighty tons, by which it exports corn to 
Leith, &c. 

Findhorn is a small town at the mouth of a 
river, which is navigable to within two iniles of 
Forres, five miles above Findhorn. In the river 
is a good salmon fishery. In the bay of findhorn 
is 1,000 acres of soil covered by the tide of flood, 
Which it is in contemplation to embank. 

2n2 Nairne, 



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548 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 



Naibik, at the mouth of a river, is the only 
port of the little county of Nairne ; it is neat- 
ly built, contains 2,000 inhabitants, and exports 
the produce of its salmon fishery. Its harbour is 
convenient, and capable of great improvement. 



Fort George on the Inverness side of the strait 
that communicates between the two inner lakes 
of the Murray Frith, is a regular fortification, on 
a promontory surrounded on three sides by the 
sea, and covering ten acres of ground, mounting 
100 cannon, chiefly forty-two pounders, and hav- 
ing barracks for 6,000 men. 

Inverness is a considerable town at the mouth of 
Ness River, accessible to vessels of 500 tons at 
all times ; it exports salmon, herrings, cordage, 
canvas, and sacken, chiefly to London. Popula- 
tion 8*700. 



The Friths of Murray and Cromarty are, sepa- 
rated by a peninsula named Black Isle (Ekn+du), 
through which runs a ridge of hills covered with 
heath, declining to both gulfs. TJie p§niusuja is 
twenty pules long and four bro^d, the south shore 
forming the county of Ross, and the north that of 
Cromarty. Fortrose aud Beavl^jr *r& in, Ross- 

Aire, 



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SCOTLAND. 549 

shire, on the Murray Frith, the former opposite to *£• 
Port George, has 1,300 inhabitants. 



Cromarty Frith is a deep inlet, called for excel- 
lence " the Harbour of Safety j" it is entered be- 
tween two high heads called the %Sutor$ of Cro- 
marty, a mile and a half distant from each other, 
within which it expands to three miles for a length 
of sixteen, and has good anchorage for the larg- 
est ships in every part, so that it is often run into 
for shelter in easterly winds. The south Sutor is 
a bold promontory topped with pines, and com* 
manding a magnificent view', over the sea and over 
Ross shire. Cromarty, on the south shore of the 
strait, has 2>200 inhabitants and a commodious 
quay, at which vessels of 400 tons lay j it has lit- 
tle other business than the fishery. 



CtaMity. 



The Frith of Dornoch, or of Tain, is separat- *£- 
ed from that of Cromarty by a peninsula of the 
county of Ross, of which Tarbet Ness is the ex* 
treme point. The entrance of the Frith is five 
leagues wide, decreasing gradually to Mickle Fer- 
ry where it is two miles j within this it again ex- 
pands, and forms a good harbour for vessels of 
considerable burden, though it is crossed by a bar 
with but four feet at low water. 

The south shore of the outer gulf is lined by a 
bank called th$ Gizzing Briggs, from the noise 

2 n S the 



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550 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

the sea makes on it ; in it are several breaks, ad- 
mitting small craft within it : but all this gulf re- 
quires a pilot 

Tain, on the south shore of the frith, has some 
coasting trade ; it is an old irregular built town, 
with a few new houses, and 2,300 inhabitants. 



A^fr*m* On the north, or Sutherland shore of the Frith 
of Tain, is Dornoch, a town of 2,500 inhabi- 
tants, the principal one of Sutherland, and the 
only one deserving mention. North of the en- 
trance of Dornoch Frith are Fleet Lake, Dun- 
robbin Castle, the seat of the Earls of Sutherland; 
in good repair, and Brora Haven, $t the mouth 
of the little river of that name* 



CtUkmm, 



The county of Caithness occupies the N.E. ex- 
tremity of Great Britain j its east coast is bold 
and rocky, forming many little coves into which 
the fishing boats run, and to which the fishermen 
descend from the perpendicular cliffi by dange- 
rous flights of steps cut in the rock. To secure 
theic boMs from the sea they hoist them to thfe 
rocjcs, into which rings are fixed for the purpose 
above the reach of the waves. At one of these 
coves, named Faligpj, a fine cascade falls over tire 
diflfe into the sea. 

At the bases of the rocks are many sea-worn 
caverp8, accessibly only in boats, and frequente4 

by 



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SCOTLAND. 551 

by seals, which are killed for their oil and skins. o«ww 
Many rocky pyramids also start up from the sea. 
The sea air prevents the growth of any kind of 
trees on this coast. It abounds in sea weed, which 
is burnt into kelp. 

The principal places in Caithness, are Dun- 
beath Castle and Wick, on the east coast ; the 
latter is the county town with 4,000 inhabitants : 
its haven is natural and very indifferent. Staxigo, 
one mile north of Wick, has a little dry tide haven. 
Freswick Castle, on Sinclair Bay, north of Noss 
Head, is strongly situated on a promontory. 

Dungis, or Duncan's Bay Head, Berubium of 
Ptolemy, is the N.E. point of Scotland ; it is a 
rocky precipitous promontory, eaten into caverns 
by the waves. The Stalks of Dungis Bay are 
two isolated pyramids of freestone, the resort of 
sea birds, and the breeding place of eagles. 

The north coast of Caithness, west of Dungis 
Bay Head, forms a fine bay, with a white sandy 
and shelly beach, near which was the celebrated 
John CGroat's house, noted as well for the tra- 
dition respecting its erection, as for being the 
northernmost habitation in Britain. 

Thurso is on a spacious bay, limited by Ihinnet 
Head {Occas Promont) the north point of Eng- 
land, on the eas£, and by Welbrow Head on 
the west, both of which shelter it from the fury 
of the waves and the stream of the tides. Dan- 
net Head is a broken rocky promontory, from 
100 to 400 feet high, joined to the niain by an 

2 n 4 isthmus, 



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552 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

isthmus, one mile and a half broad. It is one of 
the few places of Britain frequented by puffins. 

Thurso, on the river of the same name, has 
4,000 inhabitants ; the river is navigable two mild 
for vessels of sixty tons, and its harbour is about 
to be improved by Act of Parliament. 

Thurso has eight vessels employed in coasting, 
and several fishing boats. It exports corn and 
meal to the amount of £ 12,000, and fish to a 
greater amount, particularly salmon, which is so 
abundant, that 2,500 were caught in one draft, 
two miles above ±he town, in 1743. The annual 
export is estimated at 700 kits of boiled salmon, 
250 barrels of pickled, besides 7,000 barrels of salt. 
ed and smoaked herrings. 



Sutherland. 



The north coast of Sutherland is mdeated by 
numerous bays, forming good roads for shipping- 
The first is P#rt Skerry, at the mouth of the Hoi- 
lodale River, which separates this couoty from 
Caithness. Five miles N.W. of it is Stnthey 
Head, a long promontory, sheltering a cove, 
called Port Strathey, at the mouth of a riierrf 
the same name. West of Strathey Head, tbe 
River Naver, the most considerable of the county 
falls into a fine bay, after a course of tweflty-eig*' 
miles. Torrysdale River empties itself at s vil- 
lage of the same name, and has a good sito°^ 
fishery. Tongue Bay, farther west, is art ink* oi 
the sea five mites deep, skirted 'with fiuwl* 3 ^ 
and corn fields. Farther west the coast is fa% 
and rocky, with many little coves, on one 



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SCOTLAND. 553 

which, named Voisgag, a quarry of grey slate is «^- 
worked. There are here also many sea-worn 
caverns, supported by pillars, of which that 
jjiamed the Great Cave of FraisgaU runs in more 
than half a mile, and is covered with stalactites of 
different resplendant colours. There are some , 

islands here, of which the most worthy of notice 
are, Saints, Seal, and Rabbit Islands, in the en- 
trance of Tongue : the former presents a singular 
appearance, produced by the spouting of the 
waves of the sea through a natural tunnel. Ealan 
na Roan, or Seal Island, is two miles in circuit 
and inhabited by four families. Rabbit Island 
has its name from abounding in rabbits. 

West of the Bay of Tongue is Loch Eribol, 
a spacious inlet, on the west shore of which is 
Port Ruspin, a small dry haven. Next in suc- 
cession is Far-out Head, the point of a peninsula 
between Loch Eribol and the Bay of Durness. 

Cape Wrath, or Barvehead (Ebudiimi), the 
N.W. point of Britain, is a desolate rocky head, 
which apparently has its name from the furious 
beating of the waves and the rushing of the 
tide, which are increased by a rocky ledge 
Tunning off from the cape five or six miles, with 
sixteen to twenty-four fathoms on it. Nine miles 
; due north of the cape is a dangerous sunken 
. ?o6k.c6vered at high water. The Cave of Sino, 
ii^Ar the cape, is Seventy or eighty yar4s lkigh, 
^ and egftetids backwards in a lake of which the 
^eiterit is unknown. 

WEST 



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£54 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 

The coasts of Cornwall and Devon, from the 
Land's End to the Bristol Channel, have no port 
for a vessel above 400 tons, but there are many * 
good sandy bays to anchor in, in east and south 
winds. 

Pendean and Trean are fishing villages, be- 
tween the Land's End and St. Ives. This latter 
is a corporate and borough town on a fine bay, 
with a pier haven for small craft, but which is 
constantly encumbered by sands, driven in by 
N.W. winds. Its chief exports are slates and 
pilchards. Its population is 2,700. 

The bay of St. Ives, with Mount's Bay, on the 
south coast, peninsulates the extremity of Corn- 
wall, the distance from the high water mark in 
Heyl River on the former, to Marazion in 
Mount's Bay, being but three miles. The mouth 
of the Heyl formp a tide haven for vessels of 100 
tons, and small craft ascend to the village of 
Lelont ; from this haven are exported consider- 
able quantities of copper ore and limestone. 

From St. Ives to Padstow, with a few inter- 
ruptions, the shore is formed by sand banks, 
elevated sixty yards above the sea, and covered 
with a thin turf that pastures sheep. That this 
was formerly a tract of cultivated land, is evident 
from the vegetable mould under the superficial 
covering of sea sand and shells, and in which 
have been found the remains of fences and bouses. 
Tradition fixes the period of its being overwhelm- 
ed with sand in the sixteenth century. 

Portreath, 



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ENGLAND* $55 

Portreath, or Bassets Cove, and Towan Cove, com^n. 
are fishing villages. From the pier haven of Port- *~ 
reath is exported copper ore to Swansea, Neath, 
ice. ; a small battery defends the port. St. Agnes, 
-also a village in the neighbourhood of tin mines, 
had formerly a haven, but its pier has been washed 
away, and it is now filled up with sand. The shore 
is here composed of immense rocks, one of which, 
named St. Agnes beacon, is a hill 500 feet high* 

Padstow, on the Camel or Alan, is chiefly 
employed in the pilchard fishery, and in exporting 
dates to London and Bristol* The river is dan- 
gerous of access in bad weather, and can only 
receive vessels of 200 tons with the tide j 1,400 
inhabitants. 

Port Isaac, five miles from Padstow, affords re- 
fuge to vessels of 200 tons at high water. In 
case of urgent distress they may run on shore on 
the sands and save their crews. Portquean is 
a small fishing village, five miles south of Tin- 
tagal Head, a rocky peninsular cape, perpendi- 
cular towards the sea, and barely accessible on 
the land side. On its summit are seen some 
ruins, which the legendary tradition says, are the 
remains of a castle in which the British King 
Arthur was born. St. Gennis and Stratton are 
little fey tide havens. 



Dmum; 



Barnstaple Bay is five leagues wide, bet^eejq 
Haftf&ftd. Point pn the south and Bag Point on* 
the north. $outh of , Hartland Point is the small 

market 



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556 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

*rr~. market town of Hartlarid, with a pier. Blagdon 
pier haven is north of the point ; to which sue* 
ceeds Appledore, a village at the mouth of the 
Towridge, and on the side of a hill. 

Two miles above Appledore is Biddeford, 
a corporate town, with considerable coasting trade, 
exporting coals and culm, and oak bark to Ire- 
land and Scotland. It has also a good herring 
fishery, and sends ships to Newfoundland. 100 
vessels, of twenty to 250 tons, belong to it j and 
ships of 500 tons can ascend with the tide (the rise 
being eighteen feet) to the town, which is Kneel 
by a convenient quay* Biddeford is in genera) 
meanly built, of brick, timber, and clay, and the 
houses mostly thatched ; its population is 3,000. 

Barnstaple, on the Taw, is a neat, genteel, 
corporate town, with a considerable trade, ves- 
sels of 200 tons ascending to it, the rise of tide oa 
the bar being twenty-eight feet high water springs 
and seventeen feet neaps. Population 3,500. 

Clevely and Hole are fishing villages, with 
piers for the boats. 

Tl>e Bristol Channel, which with more propriety* 
Bnay be denominated a gulf, penetrates between the 
eoasts of England and Wales. Its entrance be- 
tween Mart Point and Oxwich is seven leagues, and 
its length to King Road twenty-one. 

Lundy Island, at the entrance of the Bristol 
Channel, and in the county of Devon, is five 
miles long and two broad, and so encircled by 
a rocky shore as to be accessible only at one small 
spot. The east side is clean, with good anchor* 

age* 



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ENGLAND* 5&f 

*gi, but the west is foul. It is inhabited by 
one family, is well supplied with water from springs, 
and abounds with rabbits. Rat Islet, on the south, 
has its name from the great number of rats that 
burrow on it 

Ufracombe, a neat built town of one principal 
street a mile long, has a good harbour, partly 
formed by a pier and partly by a natural cove siu> 
rounded by craggy heights cloathed with wood 5 
vessels of 230 tons lay land locked, and it is much 
frequented as a place of shelter by vessels that 
cannot get into Barnstaple. It has a light-house, 
a large share in the herring fishery, and is a sea 
bathing place, having a fine pebbly beach. 1,805 
inhabitants. 

Comb Martin, on a cove, is a little decayed 
town beautifully situated. Linton and Linmouth, 
on the little river Lin, aVe small straggling villages 
celebrated for their oysters. 



The county of Somerset presents a succession 
of bays and rocky promontories, generally lined 
by sand hanks, which by their increase now serve 
to break the force of the waves, which anciently 
washed over them, and occasionally inundated the 
shores. The difl& of the parish of Old Cleve, 
west of DunSter, abound with alabaster. 

Porlock is a small, straggling, and ill-built 
towri, on a bay three miles long, bounded on the 
east by ridge* of lofty rocks partly insulated at 
high water/ cftverned at their bases, dnd with 

veins 



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558 MARITIME GSOGRAPHV. 

veins of metal. Three or four sloops belonging 
to Porlock are employed in bringing coals and lime 
from Wales. 600 inhabitants. 
. Minehead has a commodious tide haven, but 
its trade is greatly declined, and its herring fishery 
has almost entirely ceased. The town is composed 
of three parts at some distance from each other, 
at the foot and on the declivity of a rocky hill* 
1,000 inhabitants. 

Dunster, a market town of two well built streets, 
is a mile from the shore, and surrounded by hills 
except towards the sea. It has one of the largest 
gothic churches in England, and a castle surround* 
ed by a noble park. 800 inhabitants. 

Watchet, a town of 140 houses, in afinevaliey, 
has a pier haven for small craft, which export coal, 
kelp, alabaster, and limestone. 

The River Parret empties itself into Bridge* 
water Bay, and is remarkable for a bore, the ele- 
vation of which is ten to twelve feet. The rise of 
tide in the springs is six fathoms. This river is 
navigable to Taunton and the Brent, which joins it 
at its mouth to Glastonbury. 

Bridgewater, on the Parret, three leagues from 
its mouth, is a corporate and borough town of 
3,000 inhabitants. It has a commodious quay to 
which vessels of 100 tons ascend. 

Bristol, considered the third city of England 
in commerce, is situated on several hills at the 7 
confluence of the Frome with the Avon, and eight 
miles above the mouth of the latter at King* 
road. Its population is estimated at 100,000 souls. 
Vessels of 600 tons ascend to it with the tide. 

Bristol 



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SNGLAKD. . 539 

Bristol is one of the ipost ancient trading cities 
of England, being described by William of Malms- 
bury in 1139, as a place much addicted to trade, 
and full of ships from Ireland, Norway, and every 
part of Europe ; and in 1347 it may be sup- 
posed to have been little inferior to London, the 
number of ships furnished by the latter being 
twenty-five and 662 men, and by the former 
twenty-two ships and 608 men. The voyages of 
Cabot, of Sir Humphrey Gilbert, and many others, 
also originated at Bristol. 

The modern trade of this city is especially with 
the West Indies and America, the Baltic, Spain 
^nd Portugal, and with the West Coast of Africa* 
and Ireland. The results of the trade for the year 
1787 were as follows. 

British. Foreign. 

Skip*. Tons. Ships. Tons. 

Entered inwards. . 41 6 *. 48,125. ...69 . . 11,112 

Cleared outwards . S82 . . 46,729 G6 . . 10,445 

In the same year the vessels belonging to the 
port were, 

Fo reign Traders. _ Coasters. __ Fishing Vessel*. 

Ships* Tons. Men. Vessels. Tons. Men. No. Tons. Men. 
328.. 53,491.. 3,971.... 30.. 3,078.. 142.... 7.. 340.. 30 

The customs collected at Bristol exceed 

jesoo,ooo. 

The inconvenience of the vessels laying on the 
ground when the tide is out, first caused a wet 
basin to be constructed for forty ships ; but a much 
grander plan has been recently completed, that of 

completely 



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560 MAKITIME GEOCfEAPHT. 

**«■*. completely damming the Avon across, and there* 
by converting its bed into a vast basin two miles 
and a half long, and covering eighty acres of 
land, which is entered by gates, and in which 
1,000 vessels may always lay afloat A new chan- 
nel has been cut for the river. An iron bridge 
of a single arch 200 feet high crosses the river, 
under which the largest ships pass. 

Pill is a large village at the mouth of the Avon 
where vessels receive custom-house officers, and 
where the Irish passage vessels usually land and em- 
bark their passengers. 

The Severn, the second river of England in 
magnitude and utility, rises in PJinlimmon-Hill, 
in Wales, runs past Shrewsbury, Bridge north, 
Worcester,Tewksbury, and Gloucester* and empties 
itself into the Bristol Channel by a large estuary, 
by the old writers called the Sea of Severn, at 
Kingroad. Its channel is rendered difficult by 
rocks, but loaded barges ascend it 160 miles. 
It is subject to a bore here called Itygre or eager, 
three or four feet high. Its fish are salmon, lam- 
prey, and chad. 

In the entrance of the Severn are the Isles Flat- 
holm and Steepholm ; the former is four or five 
miles in circuit, with a tolerable soil, but unin- 
habited except, by the person that has charge of a 
lofty light-house on it. 

Gloucester, on the Severn, thirty miles above 
Kingroad, is a well built city of 8,000 inhabitants. 
It is built on an elevation, and has a considerable 

trade, 



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SOUTH WALES* 5$t 

trade, vessds of SOD ton* ascewftag to it* (S*v 
canals.) 



The Rivdr Wye, one of the most picturesque .>*jgj*- 
of England, and also the most tortuous, empties — 
itself on the north shore of the Severn, separating 
Gloucester and Monmouth shires. Near its 
mouth is Chepstow, a flourishing town of 2,000 
inhabitants, with a considerable foreign and coast- 
ing trade, exporting timber, corn, oak bark, cider, 
coals, grind and millstones. It also builds small 
vessels. 

Newport, on the Usk, two miles from its mouth, 
is a narrow straggling town of 1,100 inhabitants. 
It is thought to be built of the ruins of the an- 
cient Caerleon. It has a large coasting trade, ex- 
porting coals, cast and bar iron, &c In 179V 
9Q5 vessels of 12,000 tons and 930 men entered, 
and 243 vessels of 11,000 tons and 1,000 men 
cleared out. The River Usk is a beautiful tor- 
rent stream, navigable to Tredennoc Bridge, and 
has a good salmon fishery. 



SOUTH WALES. 



The Rumney separate* the cduntteft of Mom gzmo** 
month and Glamorgan, emptyings itself at the 
village of Rumney, east of Cardiff The coasts 

vol, iv. £ o of 



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mariedifi. Cardiff, at the month oftheTtffv 
Tave, has 1,900 inhabitants ; it exports 30,000 
boxes of tin plates to Bristol. 

The Tare, at its mouth, expand into a large 
basin, called Peqoartb Harbour, but which at lav 
water is a sheet of mud, except a narrow channel 
into the river. Barry Island is separated from 
the main by a narrow strait, fordaWe at low 
water ever a bed of pebbles. Newton is a neat 
village on a fine sandy beach, frequented for se? 
bathing. Near it is a well th*t ebbs and flows in- 
versely with the sea. 

Swasska Bay has been compared, ty those who 
have seen both, to t^e B^y of Naples, for pictu- 
resque beauty. Aberavou, 3 small town with a 
tide haven, formed by the mouth of the Avon ; 
and Neath, a town of 2*500 inhabitants* <ds9 on * 
river of it? name, have son\e coasting trade, ex- 
porting copper from works in the neighbourhood* 
Neath has the ruins of an abbey and castle, 

Swansea* on the Tawy, a corporate and bo- 
rough town of 6,000 inhabitants, is tolewUv well 
though irregularly built. Its chief trade is the ex* 
port of coals j and p^kets. sail regularly between 
it and Dublin, Waterford, Cork, and Ilfracorab, 
It builds ships, and h»$ popper works. Near it is 
a mineral (vitriolic) spring, and it is visited for 
sea tetfckig, It* hug* mmmt <**rtte i* now 
oonvwted into * mmbom* wwtet, jail, #o**> 
***** fct* >■-..■..•.. 

.,;W#st 



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adur* wales. 66ft 

West of Swansea is the Mumble's Head, east ctmrga*. 
of which are the vast ruins of Ostermouth Castle, 
a gothic construction on a cliff. Ostermouth is a 
fishing village ; and on Mumble's Head is a light- 
house. Caswell Bay, west of the head, presents 
beautiful scenery, to which succeed Oxwich Bay, 
Port Inon, and Worms Head. 



Caermarthen Bay, between the counties of Gla- <*«******• 
morgan and Pembroke, is limited on the east by 
Worms Head, and on the west by St. Gowan's 
Head ; the former a high promontory with chalky 
spots. On the east shore of the bay is Llanelly, 
a small irregular town inhabited by miners and 
sailors. It has a good port for vessels of ten feet, 
formed by an inlet of the sea, called Burry River, 
and is the port of entry of Kidwelly and Caer- 
marthen. . Its exports are pit coal and tinned iron 
plates. Population 3,000. 

Kidwelly is a neat regular built town on {he 
Gwandraeth, which forms a little haven, but nearly 
choaked with sand. It exports cpql of the neigh- 
bouring collieries, which is brought to the town by 
a canal. 1,400 inhabitants. 

Caermarthen, on the Towy, seven miles from 
its mouth, is a genteel thriving town of between 
five and 6,000 inhabitants. The river is crossed 
by a bar, but vessels of 250 tons ascend to the 
bridge of the town. Its chief exports are tin plates 
and cast iron. 

2 o 2 Lauharne 



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664 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY*. 

Lauharne is a village on a creek* 



^ M'. 



*mi**k,. The coasts of Pembroke are in geifeit& hilly 
with steep cliffv and indented b£ 'a. nUmfcer <# 
bays*. Tenby* the moat eastern -place, ifrsitnated 
on«i irregular peninsula rising in rugged pi^fr 
pices, on the west side of Caermarthen Rajfi^ A 
was reduced to a poor fishing town until tfrffe 
years ago, when the capricious resort of settle' iek 
bathers brought it into notice, and it te n<*#* 
fashionable summer's residence. Its iradte'h*^ 
been greatly increased in the export of coafe w 
culm, which are shipped at Sandersfbot three 
miles to the west In 1803, 589 coUiar&^rf 
45,000 tons cleared out It has also laige he#h$* 
trawl, and oyster fisheries, thirty to 40,O0Qfcf *&£ 
latter being taken daily and sent to Brfefcrf *»^ 
Liverpool, as is also the produce of the trawl fi** ' 
ery, which occupies fifteen smacks of thirty was 
each from April to October. The aac&tf^e^ 
the road is sheltered by the jfeninsufoon the ^ert; 
bat is exposed to S.E. and E. Thehalten i#fbnfc#^ 
by a pier, and it has a good qoay. PopoldtiOT^ 
Close to th€f peninsula of Tenby, ^ri itefsoiftft' 
is St Catherines J?laad> a »asax>f .«4^tf^ 
and three miles farther is, Cajdy Island, ^vtfW */ 
mansion of its proprietor. St Ma*gat«*'i fiaafif 
is separated from Caldy oa ihe y^'fy*tgr& } 
chasm. Its only inhabitants are irtbife il ^^ 
the rains of a chapel. ^ :o \\ cioo f \ 

Broad 



x 



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SOUTH WALES, 3JS5 

Broad Haven, or Stackpole Creek, is a league *****.* 
east of St. Gowan's Head,, and is a sea bathing 
place. 

Milford Haven is the most capacious harbour 
of Great Britain, being ten miles long* and one to 
two broad, and having five bays, ten creeks, and 
thirteen anchoring places for large ships* It is 
entered between Nangle Head on the east, and 
St, Ann's Point on the west, distant two miles. 
On the former is a hamlet, and the ruins of a cas- 
tle and nunnery ; and on the latter two lighthouses 
apd a jblockhotise. The tide rises in the harbour 
thirty-six feet in springs, and twenty^six in neaps. 
The natural defects of this haven are the danger- 
ous rocks pear the entrance, and the being obliged 
to wait for an easterly wind to get out Pem- 
broke, the chief town of the county, is on a Creek 
of the south shore, contains 2,000 inhabitants, but 
is declining, it was anciently walled, has a castle, 
and custoqi-house for Milford Haven. 

Huberstone, on the north shore, is a village, 
from which the packets usually talde their depar- 
ture for W#erford. MiLPoaft, akd on the north 
shore, has been built since 1790. It is situated 
ofr a beautiful point of land, sloping gently to the 
water, which almost surrounds it;' Its streets are 
regularly laid out, east Aid west, north and south. 
It has a king's dock-yard, and a seventy-four gun 
ship has been built here* It hat also an astrono- 
mical observatory. Several vessels are employed 
from this port in the southern whale fishery, chief- 
ly by a colony of quakers, emigrants from Nan- 

2o3 tucket 

\ 

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306 MARITIME . OEOOHAPH Y. 

*^** tucket Island, Two batteries of seven guhs each 
defend the port, 

Haverford West is a borough town of 3,000 
inhabitants, on the navigable river Cleddbe* which 
fall* into thenotth aide, of Milfbrd Haven. 

§cooks*o, Scaupaore, and Grassholro Islands lay 
off Milford Haven, and have many groups of 
reeks round them. 

St. JJripe's Bay is formed between two peninsu- 
las at the .west extremity of Pembrokeshire; it af- 
fords sheltered anchorage in all winds, hut from 
west to S.W. According, to tradition, this bay was 
anciently a level plain, inundated by the sea. St 
Brides,, w the. south shore, and Sk« David's, on 
the north, are insignificant villages ; ^the Jatter< 
once a flourishing city, has now but 1*800 inha* 
bitants. It is two miles from the shore. It has 
the ruins of a vast castle. 

Solva, or Soliach, also on the north shore of 
St. Bride's Bay, is a new and very agreeable town 
built since 1800,. on a fiae trout stream. Its ha* 
ven is good, but in the entrance is a pyramidical 
rock, leaving a channel on each side. Twenty 
to thirty coasters of twenty to 250 tous belong 
to it, and export Corn to Bristol. Port Clash, 
a rivulet three miles. weftt of Solva, receives craft 
of seven feet at high water. 

Ramsey Island, one mile from St. David's Head, 
the west point of .Pembrokeshire^ is three mites 
long and one broad.. It riaes at each extremity 
to a high hill, but has a considerable quantity of 
arable and pasture land, aad is well watered, five 

of 



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SOUTH • WALES. 

of its streams turning mttfe. It is the resort of 
sea birds and of tire peregrine falcon ; and it is 
said, the rats have almost overpowered the rafe 
bite that forttnjrfy abounded an iL It has but a 
single farm-house, celebrated for its cheese. Off 
the east side are two rocky islets separated from it 

by a great chasm, 

The Bishop and: Clerks aite seven dangertrae 

rooks otitssde of Ranjsey Island 5 tbey are visited 

to collect sea birds* eggs- whrcb are sent to Bristol 

to fine wine. Thfe Smalls, seven leagues from £be 

coast of Pembroke, are twenty rocks, occupying a 

space of two miles long and one mile broad. On 

them is a light or lanthorn erected on eight pillars. 

The Hat* add Bafrrefc .-are * iXu^&*4pdti£*\x 

mites ftota the Smalls- . 1 > *.:<.•. c !. 

Aberthy Bay is on the Iwwth skfonof Sfo S)a*jd& 

Head, to which succeeds Ft&HVtJjcftto, e*At *tf 

Stftirtibk Head, It i& otiafe bay at ttoe mouth 

of the Gwaintij whibh forms & good port unutr- 

strutted by sands, for vessels *£ TOft "tilvb Thi 

bay isthrde mifes in estetft, witlj a depth of first© 

twelve fathoifts; s&ridatfd ifcMd bottorfi, \Tfcfe 

town contains 2>tffo Iwhibltahtss is* oh nn ymU 

nence, and is esteemed me. of tte rttttet heatlhy 

spots of Great Btfteiik Ite ttato employs «we«ty« 

three vesteels of twenty to 4hirty te*i§> &nd twenty*. 

fivd of fifty to Me htm Afed. The e^pdits aite oats, 

4M00 quarters; butter, 1,000 casks of aevsftty- 

four lbs.ea^h; ahd slates/ its vessel* a*e also 

employed ii* carry ki£ ebkls from 6tattto*gan, £ta*- 

maribefv aad Milfotd, to kebtf& • It ^fhptoys 

' ' . .'. 2 o 4 seventeen 



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568 MARITMB OBOGBAPHY, 

seventeen boats in the herring Ahery; has besides 
a productive fishery of tufbot, johi* doty, and sal- 
mon, in the river. *■ ■-. . ; >-i 

Newport* a town of 1,400 4nh^>itaats, at the 
mouth of the Ntevern, which <iaUt into a fine bay;; 
a bank Of sand rendars the harcn acoesriblejonky 
at high water. The depths are thirteen feet high 
water springs/ and seven or eight feet tiefcps. 
Eglwys Dinas, is * fishing village on Jthe west 
shore of Newport bay ; «*d further east is Penny 
inlet, also a fishing village on Aberkibor bay* 



^^ The great golf between St David's Head and 
the peninsula of Caernarvon, is called Cabcioajt 
Bay. Both tradition and present appearances lead 
to the certainty of its having been formed by an 
irmptioA of the sea, which cov^md tht fertile 
valley that formerly occupied its place. Among 
Other indications are several ledges of rock, called 
Santi or Causeways, running out from the shore ; 
they are in succession 1. Cadogav's Qeusewsy, 
.half a mile from St* DavkPs Head, stretchingxmt 
one mile and th*ee*quaiters, %. St. David's Cause. 
w»y* near the moutb of the Artb rivers r ens out 
a quarter of a mile. 8. StCymfdyn^Cimseway 
mt& Gwattog, sketches off seven milt*, wdafc its 
ex treaaity is very ro&y grounds ofr which* ittaiU 
titm :m#% stood a palace of the Welch prinoes. 
VOoMfo Causeway near Aberdyai^ in Merioneth, 
rum 0V% one mile md a halt & Sari Btottfe or 

St, Patrick's 



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St. Patrick's Causeway ;* this is by far the most 
-considerable; extending from within, a mile of the 
point of Mochras, south of Harlech, twenty-two 
infles into the jeo, iri H»e?pentine Une. It is a 
stupendous wall of rough stones, twenty-four feet 
broad, and at the outer end it forms a round he$4 
in which aze sixteen great stones, one four yards 
in diameter. N.W..of fcWlech apother causeway 
called Sara y Bwlchj runa off, and is thought to 
join the preceding* ; Opinion? we diyidjed wi^h 
respect to these fcvro Sums, soa^e supposing them 
a work of art intended to secure the land they for- 
merly inclosed from the attacks of the sea, while 
others believe them to be the bases of a ridge of 
natural rocks ffcbo^ which : th& Jgpwrtrafetff * of 
soil mm .washed away is the grfeat irr«gtiw ##t 
is traditionally supposed to have fck^ plape & 
ZKMX The trimkrof large trees fynnd in. a tr«gt 
of hard kxim aco^d^bteidfet^nee fixwftjhe 
shore, corroborates this tradition. ; ; 

The river; Taefi'or Tivi«epar»t^:P^^brok^aod 
Cardiganshire ; four miles from ite meuth, is <^tft- 
digan, a respectable town of 5,000 inhabitants, 
though its streets $|e genetilly?. earow. Vessels 
ascend to its quay,. and it b*5 a considerable trade 
with Ireland, and/ a good adliwm fishery. It lias 
'29$ registered vessels *f 15 to 2S2 tons (1CMXK) 
tons,) and l^OOO'seamtti* Off the rivet's mouth is 
a little fclancL East of Cardigan are Pennar, 
i Aberporth, 

* Frapjtf* IpeHef tbftt t|e Saint ^anacd it jo rise ^&$i|^Jfc passage 
. to «tod from Ireland ; within a cable's length of its. edge the compass needle 
looses Us polarity and turns quite round. 



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570 MARITIW Gf&OGljirHY. 

°~*? Atoqperth, New Quay 3 yillaga with a ruined 
pi$r, Aber>wtwith aplaasantlittte^own atthe coo- 
fiuepce of the Kheiddal with thp.Ystwith. It has 
latterly improved from the report, of sea bathers; 
its. haven receives vessels of twelve feet, there 
being<£?urteen feet in the springs over the bar. 
Its AKporte are oak timber and bark, lead and 
copper pre, iron,, corn, butter,, slates, and ale. Its 
registered vessels are 210, between 18. and 270 
tons (8,120, tons,) and 769 seajneo. It has a cus- 
tomhouse and an old castle. Population 1*800, . 
Broth or Borth, five miles south of Aberystwith, 
formerly a Roman station, has now but a angle 
cottage on the beach, resorted to by smugglers* ♦ 



NORTH WALES. 

The povey or Dyffi separates Cardigan and 
Merioneth shires, and forms a good haven to 
Aberdovey, in which vessels of nine feet may l^y 
afloat at all times close to the town, or lay agrqtmd 
on a fine sand out of the stream t of the tide which 
runs out four miles an hour; the rise, is thirteen 
feet springs, and ten feet neaps. 

Towyn is a genteel town of 8,000 inhabitants, 

finely situated, and visited for sea bathing. Aber- 

maw or Barmouth, at the mouth of the Maw or 

f Afon, is an ill built town of 1,500 inhabitants, 

r situa^ed on the dope of a rocky precipice, id thpt 

the houses are placed in eight tiers ^bove ooe 

; anQth?r. It is nevertheless frequented $s> ^ featjnng 

place^ A small island befttfe the titer 9 * mouth 

forms 



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KOftTH WALES* (Fl\ 

forms the ha?**, Vrhieh is cro*S6d by a fatt that 
oiriy admits vtasels 6f eight or nitte fbeti&t high 
water* It exports oats, barley, butter* cheesy 
oak bark, and tsabtr, besides flannels far «£40 f 000, 
and worsted stoektogs fbtf X10,000. . 

Harlech, the county town, is a miserable coi* 
lection of poor cottage,, remarkable only for its 
casde cm a rock overhanging the sea, and which 
is going fast to decay although k sttH has a coil- 
stable. v Mocris, a littte creek, in. fine wfcathei 
receives vessels dfsa add seven fast. 

Traeth Bach, and Traeth Mawr, are two inlets 
of the se*, having 6ne entrance, and each receiv- 
ing a little river ; the greatest part of the tn dry at 
low water add beootae quieks&nds* Two thousand 
acres of land have been latterly recovered from 
that of Traeth Mawr by embanking, and an afc. 
tempt is bow making to recover the whale by l 
dyke acmsrf its entrance, near' a mile in length. 
On this inlet is (he village <£ Fenmorfa, accessible 
only to boats* { 

Criceietsh is a poor place of 386 inhabitants, on cm**™** 
a neck of land jotting irito the sea, add otily 
worthy notice fc* a ruined castle. Pwthely, a 
•email market town on an inlet which receives three 
or four rivulets; it consists of one long ' tftre^t, 
and has a considerable coasting trade by vessels of 
twenty to sfoty tons, which can enter its haven. 
700 inhabitants. 

St. TiidweU bay, vulgo Stud^ell, fe sheltered 
t* a certain extent by the little islands St. Tudwefl 

and 



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5?2 MABITDIE GEOGRAPHY. 

and Mercross, Tb it succeeds the bay named 
HelPsMowth, from the height arid configurate 
c£ the shapes causing the Wod to Wow tontiiroaflf 
iqWityi»hilctlKiB»^^* f o6ast^ in*dntft of At 
current, » that k is almost always * dangerous 
leesboitu , ■ '-* ;:: c ! |V '- ; '■ 

St. TotramCpve and Atetdtoei* art? Bear the 
south ejrtxwnity of the promote rjr of Carnarvon. 
The south east point of which is Aberarbn petai 
and tfcft N*W. Braichy PwBfGMg*num Proi*j 
, Bardaey Island, one mde and hatfftwu the Pro 
sanatory, is two miles long and one m&e broai 
containing 370 acres* of which one-third is moan* 
tain, affording only a meagre pasture for a ie* 
steep and rabbits* The island rents for a handled 
(protean* year, and has eight homes and seventy 
inhabitants, who pay no rent or faxes, and subsist 
fay the cultivation of a little wheat and barky, and 
by jtfc* collecting of puffins eggs- On thelites 
aw, the ruins of an abbey founded in the sixth 
century, the monks of which, according to thctr 
historiatt, received from God the privflegeof tifiig 
ty temerity aa bng as they t3ontmoed to l&d a 
hfjy life; hot when they became corrupt tbey 
.wgwagaan subjected to the common kwof nattii* 
Tfte ttt* tun with gwatjapidity bet#iOT*^ 
sey W#ndand the pnooMtoty. 

^e giilf between the|feiiiii8ida of €Sfti#^* 
atf JShftisle of Anglesey is n*aed Gabbn^tvo^ 
B*v. It is lined by the bighjSdge demf^[ 
the British Alps, whose summits retain the .WF 



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tbi* sql^ > Jft^jr&i^ feowed by k 

loi^fjpi|&f£ J^ JHttwg^inta afanlaeaiiiiid 'dtafr 
te^^a ,sgvg o* tk» wfnbi It waajabnre time in 
contemplation to make a haven here for targets* 
sekby i^iyj^ a^ r a-pi*r tea mdOwWcbdridk'at 
low. w^t^ ap£ to tewwferth*^^ 
head*hi£ C J&* #*P Y^s^gaiilcabandpiiBdi «n» 

TbeJ^egf AnawisEA, the Gcdtu^sadred MokA* 
and the last retreat of the British JDtaads, ig sepa- 
rated from the coast of Caereaivon by the stmi* 
of. Mepai, which where narrowest ii half a filiate 
wide. The islsmd is ail oblong square *even leagues 
long and fivo brp^ containing 200,000 acre* of 
surffffi j, fli g$n*fld the soil. is. togged' and tidw 
totally without woorf> though its ancient Britfsh 
nv&e tf Ynis DoyyJJi % ;.:« shady, denotes sifci tfr 
hav$ bee» xjprf red with forests, it iswttter#d;by 
tw^e riml^bB, a#4 abounds in minerals** afrted 
andy?Uftw cpkres* m*tW*f/ alahator, tead,, 0O*fe* 
and^iwdef abio quantity of coppery which &<&i 
portpd as well as its grind and iadlfatop«w la 
oys^s 4m t celebrated and also* form: a* ebjtfctef 
expert* . PfeU$4 f A* i stiwn eftports pfe oats, hfi^. 
le^^^Q^^ito J4ve*paol, andmany thou*a*d 
head of cattle are swam flGmMa jthe Menai to skp^ 
pljr #$ a flfflgt^PRringi jnwriaets* 5Pheidtfa> lie 
cay^id cTOtfc>Mw^ fc*; 

weljl^ the birds' eggs, is the en$ltyiMnto&inaity : 

P^SOffi?^ it murji «dioiflitfz 9aorf^ v T '-* i^'^* 1 ^ 4i 
X^e Druidical monuments on the island are 
many cromiechs and ranges of stones set up an encL 

with 



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#74 MAItfTHfE GgOOffcAPHY. 

*£«•. with inscriptions in very rude and unknown cha- 
racters ; the vestiges of fcwo^ Roman* forte are also 
seen near Newburgh. The population of the 
island in 1730 Was 12,000, and in 1806, 8*,000. 
The island is indented by many bays aflbrdifcg 
anchorage, and several of which might be made 
good havens, at small expense. 

Beaumaris, the chief town, is a small place at 
the north extremity of Menai Strait, its popula- 
tion being 1,600 ; its haven haft seven fee tat low 
water, 'and the channel between it and the Leven 
quieksands forms a good road. It is a fashiomble 
Sea-bathing place. Redhead Bay, on the north 
coast, is visited by small craft for the limestone 
of its clifft. Amlwich, west of Redhead, from 
being a fishing hamlet, has increased to a town of 
0,000 inhabitant? by the vicinity of the copper 
minleSr Its haven is a natural creek of the sea 
between two rocks* its breadth being only stiff* 
citnt for two stoops to lay abreast, but it has 
length for thirty vessel* of fifty to 100 «ftfe ; H 
dries at law water* 

< Abe&aw on the' &W. one of*4te fettfetie rest 
AwceS'Of tfie Wefcrtv prinotesi » *fcw * Wlfcgedf 
*,00» ftihftbitants, ehfcly fishfehflfcfc; i& little 
faltte* admits vessel* of Afrty fb tffcttjr to*te, r Whfefc 
export some thousttfed birihfek of Oats and Parley. 
MaMteeith on the> stmth coast, k an Met of the 
tod "fifteen mlt& long, which appeare to havebeferi 
formed by some convulsion of nature, and dot 
frailer ascribed * wftkont arty hesitatwfe to the 
Deluge, 

There 



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• MOftftt WALES. #f$ 

- There are several island* rounck Anglesea de* 
aeryjpg notice j. the firafcis PriejtboUa off: the N.E- 
pewit, having it* nante from a religions edifice 
cta&icated to St* Serial, which waa a plane of great 
pltgKtnwge for wen, no women being permitted to 
8£t fbotoa the i^Und. Geraldus tells us- that 
whenever the monks of thia monastery quarrelled a 
legion of mice came and devoured .all their pro* 
visions, but wberi the discord ceased, the mice 
diaappefired J The island is about a mile long and 
is bounded by rocky precipices, but the interior 
QQYQred with a fine turf, affording pasture to some 
sheep, which together with rabbits, and sea birds, 
particularly puffins, are its only inhabitants. It 
rents fw£l$< - ' > 

Off the north coast of AngLesea a*e three small 1 
ciaknds, called The Mice, and a mile and half 
Own the N. W. point are the Skerries, which Vk& 
Fbtttboto, paatuire seme sheep and have rabbi**- 1 
addjaifiloa; oaone o£ the Tacksiaakght-hewa 
awarding Mtxeme of «£l,400. 

Hoiybefdiktaftd is separated from the west side* 
of Angles**, fyp a narrow qhannel crossed by a 
bridge* On. the north side is the haven frort 
whkk paefcekbnito sail to Dublin, the distance 
hmg tw/wrty leagues and the runfiom eight to* 
tw$y$ bongs wath a good wind i pix post-office 
p&dwta are eaiployed and one wife, every day tout 
TbuKtf^* The advantage of Heiyhead for *b* 
pN&qt atattpn^ conaista in being able ta qleta* the* 
shece with tukgr wind, apd thereby aroiAing *be/ 
danger of being embayed on ,the Welsh co*£ 
t * which 



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S76 JtARITDm GEOGEAPHY. 

which is a very dangerous lee shore. The haverf 
of Holyhead falling dry on the ebb, the packets 
were obliged to wait for half Hood to get out, 
which was a great disadvantages and hence a pier 
has been recently built which forms a haven with 
four fathoms at low water. On a rock west of the 
harbour, called the South Stack, is a revolving light 
200 feet high. 

The north extremity of Holyhead island is 8 
huge mass of rock hollowed into caverns by the 
sea ; one of which is called the Parliament House, 
from its being visited by all the travellers that 
pass this way. 

There is reason to suppose that Anglesea was 
anciently joined to the main by an isthmus, the 
remains of which are still observed in a ledge tof 
rock that nearly crosses the strait, over which the 
meeting of the tides at the beginning of the flood 
causes an agitation dangerous to boats. In spring 
tides the rise is twenty feet and the stream at times 
runs eight miles an hour. The northern entrance 
to the' strait, named Beaumaris Bay, is in great part 
filled by the Leven quicksand, supposed to have 
been formed by an irruption of the sea in the sixth 
century- At low water the ferry-boat from Beau- 
maris lands its passengers on this sand, whose 
edge is but a quarter of a mile from the town, and 
from hence they have a distance of four miles to 
walk on the sand io Aber cm the mainland, and 
as in fogs this road is extremely dangerous, the 
church bell of Aber is rung to directthe travellers. 
Besides Beaumaris, .there are four other femes in 

the 



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*0*TH WALES. 5Tl 

the strait, buk all more or fleas* incommodious, so 
that it is^jdt contemplation to thj^anira&'btidge 
acjcossit. ^ 1 ' 'j , >»<-. 

- Jtetoyaifig to the main laid of Caernarvon froin CMr SZ 
Angleaea, the first place is Caernarvon* oil *the "~* 
Setoff*, 1 itie best town of North Wales, the streets 
being regularly laid out though narrOtr, fetid 'the 
population 3(600. The bar which crosses the 
Menai Strait admits only vessels of 800 tbns into 
the haVen $ but it has nevertheless a considerable 
foreign and coasting trade. On an average often 
years, 1790-1800, ten vessels for foreign voyages, 
aed 300 coasters cleared out, and seventeen fo- 
reign and 886 coasters entered* In 1806, it had 
sixty-one registered vessels of 3,385 tons and £21 
mbn. The fort is under the custom-house of 
Beaumaris. The greatest export is slates to Ire- 
kmck Here are the ruins of a vast castle built in 
the, reign of Edward I; 

-Bangor at the north extremity of the Menai 1 , 
Stemtt is situated on a rivulet between two rocky 
Wis, mdjcoqsfets of one long street Of neat houses 
and 1)770 inhabitants. It is one of the Menai 
ferries. 

\ *Aber Cegid, a village on a small rivuletj which 
has been recently improved into a haVen for ves- 
sels of 800 or 400 tons and named Port Penfyfc 
It is the grand depot of the slate trade from tor 9 
Fenryn's estate to Ireland, London, Bristol, &c. 
Before l?as the export did not exceed 1,000 tons 
- vol. iv. 2p a year, 



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DtnbgoMrt. 



3fB( MARFHM» 6BMAA2HT. 

*ye#* wJhita at present 50ft tons aweejt is the 
uwiftl ex|KHt from Fort Bwuyo, 

Aberconwy, at the mouth of the Conwy, is* no* 
a poor deserted place of 8©0 inhabitants; it is 
s^ofmdf4 b# igaafiy *f *U»; W#* tjwwty-fottt 8*»i- 
lui?ar tywpra, aj: equal) die tapces, *ml is, v&teA for 
tfie picturesque ruias of ijto W3ile. Ai it* pier 
small craft load ds$ea aftd «qq one- The Cqwy 
ia half a mile ^yide *t tfcef tqwn, at high water, andj 
pot above fifty yards a( low* the remaining spaoe 
being sa^d banta covered with twelve feet at: high. 
yi^ieti t^ese sands still abound in the peart imscfei 
as they did in the tip>e of the Rpmaas* but they- 
h^ye^ Ioq& been neglected. TJhe dwgers. of the 
ferry fro^Gofiwy,. wfeiph* is tkfc gmi^. thorough 
fftr$ toH^lyhe^di hay* sjjggfijstfe&tbe propriety. o£ 
buildipg a. bridge across the river, which i3 now in 
CQri^pi^tMV ^ 

Qf^een Coqwy said Basgarthe post road paase* 
along a tremendous precipicft descending perpen- 
dicularly to tib^e s^smfcon* aide*, while on tte cfther 
the lofty « Peiajnaflmawr rises with equal abrupt* 
ness> and the masses of rock dislodged from its 
side, often r($ into* the toacfcae^ : bieek it eptirely 
up. 

Th# <^n^of Qa^nfHrvottisjt 
lofty i#yi$ pranwpto^^^ 
on the east, of #^(>§wy;I^ 
are, the resort of milUpw of saft<bjrdfc , 



The county of Denbigh, fwwvQmies JHcadt to 

the 



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' ' NORTH WAli&. tfft 

th6 ClWydd, is fronted by el^Vaf edf and 6avefhbui 
limestone clif&, ^ith Veins of l6s& titer. One tit 
tfrese caverns, named 1 Yt Ogo " 'Fhfe' Givirtf " fbi 
excellence, is a magtiiffcetit otfjefct. East <iff the 
Clwydd the' coast runs v low. 

t)eril)igh haia not a single port fit 6teh ft* 
coasters; Aberglew o!r Abtergaly on the Gftvydd* 
is the dtily otte that fefceivefc tite smaHe& craft. 



The shbres of Flintshire continue low, without 
any port to the Dee* on the west or Flint shore, 
off whifch is Holywell or Treflynon, a handsome 
town of 400 houses, fkmous for the well of St. 
Winifred, from which it derives its name, and 
which throws out twenty-one tons of water in a 
minute, forming a rapid rivulet at its mbuth,, 
which tutus many mills and steam-engines in its 
course to the D6e. 

Flint, thd principal tbwtf of the county, haa 
1,100 inhabitants and is only accessible to small 
craft through a channel in the banks ; on an isolated 
rock in the midst of which is a castle. Passage 
boat? sail froih hence to Parkgate and Chester. 



NORttl-WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 

The River Dee, Which separates Englattd md 
Wales, was held in the same veneration by the 
aficient Britons as the Ganges i# by tlifc Hittddos. 

2 p 2 It 



JtHafritr*. 



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580 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

a**** It empties itself into a large estuary (Seteid cstw 
arium of Ptolemy), filled with sand-banks, which 
rendered both it and the river almost useless to 
shipping, until a new channel was cut from the 
city of Chester ten miles long, and supported by 
immense dykes, -through which vessels pf 350 
tons now ascend to that town at high water 
springs. A great quantity of land has also been 
gained by embanking. The first place met in as- 
cending the Cheshire side of the river is Park* 
gate, a new town risen to notice from being the 
place of departure of the packets for Dublin, 
four of which sail every week. It has also become 
a fashionable sea-bathing place. 

Chester is an ancient city on an eminence, 
nearly surrounded by a reach of the Dee ; it is 
composed of four principal streets diverging from 
a centre, and each terminated by a gate ; these 
streets are sunk in the rock several feet below the 
ground flooring of the houses, which gives the 
town a singular appearance. The population is 
15,000, and the trade very considerable to the 
Baltic, Spain, Portugal, the Mediterranean, and 
particularly to Ireland, from which it imports 
a vast quantity of linen cloth. Its exports are 
coals, lead, lead ore, calamine, copper plates, cast 
iron, v and great quantities of cheese, chiefly to 
London. It also builds merchant ships of 500 
tons, entirely of British oak, and of excellent 
construction. 
The jurisdiction of the port of Chester extends 

on 



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ENGLAND. 581 

on the Cheshire side of the Dee to Wirril, and on 
the Frith side to the mouth of the Clwyd. 



The Mersey, which separates Cheshire and iwrwi 
Lancashire, empties itself through a great estuary 
filled with banks, and crossed by a bar with but a 
foot or two depth at low water, but the tides rise 
twenty-one feet at neaps, and twenty-eight at 
springs- The river is navigable for vessels of six- 
ty tons (by sluices) thirty-five miles above Liver- 
pool, to the confluence of the Irwell. The Wea- 
ver falls into the estuary, and is navigable for ves- 
sels of sixty tons to Northwich. 

Liverpool, now considered the second town of 
England in commerce, in which it surpasses its 
rival Bristol, is situated on the right bank of the 
Mersey, three miles from its mouth, where it is 
1,500 yards wide. According to the imperfect 
manner of calculating population in England, it 
contains 78,000 inhabitants. Its trade is with all 
parts of the world generally, but more especially 
with the West-Indies, west coast of Africa, and 
Ireland. From the flatness of the shore and other 
circumstances shipping were formerly subject to 
great inconveniencies, particularly that of distance 
from the town ; to remedy this various docks have 
been excavated, the largest of which is 900 feet 
in length, and they are together capable of receiv- 
ing 800,000 tons of shipping. 

2 p 3 The 



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f iniifcfri. 



582 MABITIJflE GEOGRAPHY. 

The following are the general results of the 
trpde of Liverpool in J801-2. 

1801. 1802. 

British ships entered 1331 ... 1783 

Foreign ships entered...... 641 ... 425 

British ships cleared out... 1694 ... 29.62 
Foreign ships cleared out.. 705 ... 461 

In 1805 the ships belonging to Liverpool were 
^41 of 111,227 tons, and the tonnage that entered 
the docks 463,482. 

The coast of Lancashire from the mouth of thd 
Mersey is generally low, and in some places the 
sea is encroaching on it, particularly between the 
Ribble and Morecambe Bay, where it is said half 
a mile of ground has been lost. 

Preston on the Ribble, three leagues from itj 
mouth, is a handsome and genteel town of 12,000 
inhabitants, but with little trade. The Ribble form? 
an estuary with many banks, dry at low water, but 
on which the tide rises six fathoms. 

Blackpool is a bathing village, from which the 
Isle of Man is visible in clear weather. The 
Wyre water is formed by several small streams 
and expands to a considerable breadth, but agM 
contracts before its fall into the sea. Codkerham 
has a little tide haven for craft. 

Lancaster, the county town, is on the L« ne 
or Lovne, five miles from the sea, into which the 
river empties itself by a wide estuary named Sun- 
derland Harbour, but obstructed by shoals that 

prevent the access of vessels above 250 tons. La 11 * 

caster 



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ENGLAND, £85 

cp&ter has 10,000 inhabitants, and cdttifes on & 
considerable trade, chiefly with the Baltic* Nor- 
way and the Wett-Indies. In 1799 fifty-twd ves- 
sels cleared out for the latter with cargoes Valued 
at two millions sterling. 

Moricambe Bay is a large gulf between the 
mainland coast of Lancashire And the peninsula 
of Fulness. The Lancashire shore is lined by 
extensive quicksands, across which lies the dan- 
gerous route to Furness. 

Amongst these sands, and neariy at the head of 
the bay, the Kent or Ken empties itself, which is 
ascetadahle by jsiiiall craft to Milthorp, the only 
point of Westmoreland having a navigable com- 
munication with the sea. From hence are shipped 
the fine Westmoreland slates for London; Liver- 
pool, Bristol, &c. . 

The peninsula of Furness is formed by More- 
cambe Bay on the east and the River Dudden on 
the west. Off its south extremity are Walney and 
seven other islands, which seem to be the remains 
of a connected tfact of land broken into islands 
by the sea, large roots 6f trees being found in the 
banks that surround them. Walney, the most 
considerable island, is ten miles long and one 
broad, and so low that it is often nearly inundated 
in extraordinary high tides. It has two hamlets, 
and at the south extremity a revolving light sixty- 
eight feet high. On Pile Island are the ruins of a 
castle. 

Ulverstone, on the east shore of Fhrness, re- 
ceived vessels of 150 tons by a cdnal from More- 
2 p \ cambe 



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584 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

cambe Bay one mile long. It has 3,000 inhabi- 
tants ; exports iron, oak, bark, barley, oats, 
beans, and limestone. Rampside, at the south 
extremity of the peninsula, is a sea-bathing village. 



ctadtrfaui. The Dudden separates Lancashire and .Cum- 
berland, and at its mouth forms a large shallow 
bay at high water ; it abounds in salmon, trout, 
and flounders. 

Ravenglass, at the confluence of the £sk, the 
Mite and the Ert, which nearly surround it, is a 
small ancient town with scarce any trade, but ce- 
lebrated for its oysters. 

St. Bees, an ancient village three miles south 
of the headland of the same name ; this latter is 
composed of rocky cliffs rising abruptly,, covered 
with samphire, and the resort of sea birds. On 
the summit is a light-house. The land of this 
head, there is good reason to suppose, was formerly 
an island, not only from its being still called Pres- 
ton Island, but also from the appearance of the 
valley that now joins it to the main, and which 
extends a distance of five miles from the village 
of St. Bees to the town of Whitehaven ; an an- 
chor was also found in this valley at a considerable 
depth. The filling up of this ancient channel is 
supposed to have been by the depositions of the 
Opposite tides meeting here. 

Whitehaven, three miles north of St. Bees 
Head, is a remarkable example of the progress 
of national industry.. Ip 1506 it contained but 

six 



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ENGLAND. 585 

six fishing cabins, and had but one small bark ; in a-**"* 
1633 it had increased only to ten thatched cot- 
tages; in 1693 it counted 2,272 inhabitants ; in 
1715, 4,000, and 1785, 16,400. It$ vessels at 
present are 230 of 74,000 tons, and it exports 
218,000 tons of coals annually, chiefly to Ireland, 
The town is neatly built, with regular and wide 
streets. The haven is formed by several piers, 
three of which project in parallel lines from the 
shore, and a fourth is crescent shaped, and has a 
battery and light-house. The haven runs quite 1 
dry at low water. Packets sail from hence to 
Douglas and Ramsay, in the Isle of Man, every 
Monday. 

The waters of the Wampool form at its mouth 
a sandy estuary of four or 5,000 acres, left dry at 
low water. 

Moresby is a pleasant village ; as is Harrington, 
on a small brook that assists in forming a littljs 
haven called Bella Port, from whence sixty ves- 
sels are employed in exporting coal, lime, and iron 
stones of the neighbourhood. 

Workington, on the left bank of the Derwent, 
has 4,000 inhabitants, and the best haven on this 
coast, formed by piers, and admitting vessels of 
400 tons. It has 160 vessels, the largest of 350 
tons, and exports 800 tons of coals a day, besides 
salmon, the pro(Juce of a good fishery in the 
river. 

Maryport, at the mouth of the Ellen, has 
3,000 inhabitant^, and is neatly built with wide 
street* j its haven is formed by a wooden pier at 

each 



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Z#6 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

to^fa«d. ^gch sidp <ef the river's mouth j it has 100 vessel^ 
the largest ninety tons, and exports chiefly coals* 
Allonby is a neat village, with a market and « 
gopd barring fishery j its population is 850 ; it is 
frequented for sea bathing. Between this village 
and Skinburnness the sea has greatly increased on 
the coast, and entirely washed away the ancient 
town of Skinbumess, which was used as a depot 
by Edward I. in his invasion of Wales* The new 
Skinbumess is a fishing hamlet. 



WEST COAST ©F SCOTLAND. 

***** The Solway Frith separates England and 
Scotland, and is nine leagues wide at its entrance, 
bat is much encumbered by sand banks, that in- 
crease annually in height and surface, thereby 
contracting its navigation. At its head it re- 
ceives the River Esk, which is also the boundaries 
of the two kingdoms ; and about a mile from which. 
on the Scottish side, is Gretna Green, celebrated 
in the annals of clandestine marriage. 

The other places of any note in Dumfriesshire 
are Anan, on a river of the same name, a nod 
town, with a small coasting trade afid considera- 
ble fishery; 2,600 inhabitants^ 

Dumfaies, on the east bank of the Nith* nine 
miles from its mouth, is a handsome town of &0Q0 
inhabitants, it haa three or four vessels employed 
ita the Baltic and Portugal trade, and tea or twelve 

coasters* 



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SCOTXAtfp. £$7 

coasters. The Nith separates Dunrfrfes and Kir- 
cudbrigbtshires. 

The River Urr, the most eastern in Kircud- »«»*M|i* 
brightshire, is two miles wide at it* mouth, spread- — 
ing to a large basin and forming a good port It 
is navigable eight miles for vessels of eighty toes, 
and by it lime is introduced into the interior ftem 
the opposite coast of Cumberland. 

Kibcudbrioht, on the west bank of the Dee, 
fiye miles from its mouth, is the county town, and 
has 2,380 inhabitants. 

The Dee flows through Kenmuire Lake, and if 
pavigable to Tongland, two miles above Kircud* 
bright, above which its bed becomes encumbered 
with rocks. It abounds in salmon, perch, and 
eels. In the mouth of the river is the little island 
of Ross, the entrance between it and the eaat 
shore being one mile and a half wide, safe and 
bold on both sides. Above this island are seve- 
ral good anchoring places, with sixteen feet water 
at low water, and forty-six at high, Opposite 
Kirpydbright the depths are eight feet at low 
water and twenty-eight #t high. On the sands in 
the river below the town is St. Mary's Island, on 
which the Earl of Selkirk has a mansion. Here are 
al$o the remains pf a magnificent castle. 

The River Fleet empties itself on the east shore 
0f Wigtoft Ba/i and is navigable for vessels of 
eighty tons to the village of Gatehouse. Cree- 
town, at the month of the Cree, which fells into 
the head of Wjgton Bay, is a: newly founded and 
t increasing 



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588 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

increasing place, having a number of coasters, 
and vessels of 500 tons caxi ascend to it. 



*%*****. Wigton Bay separates the counties of Kircud* 
bright and Wigton ; it is three miles broad for six 
-miles from its entrance, and has several good an- 
chorages- Borough Head is its west point. As- 
cending from which along the west. shore the 
places are Whitehorn, a town of 2,000 inhabitants, 
with t>ne chief street and some cross lanes. It has 
a good haven sheltered by a little island, and pas* 
sage vessels sail from hence to the Isle of Man in 
three hours, to Whitehaven in four, and to Dublin, 
Greenock, and Liverpool in eighteen. 

Wigton, the county town, is on a hill on the 
bank of the Bladenoch ; it has but 1,400 inhabi- 
tants, chiefly tradespeople. 

Luce Bay is between Burrough Head, on the 
east, and the Mull of Galloway, on the west. 
Nearly mid-channel between these points are the 
rocks named the Scars. In foggy weather this 
bay has been frequently mistaken for the open- 
r ing of the north channel, and vessels have ran 

on shore on the quicksands, which line several 
parts of the bay, and out of which it is impossible 
to extricate a vessel. There are, however, seve- 
ral good fair weather anchorages in this bay, but 
in westerly winds there is always a great swell in 
it. 

The peninsula of Galloway is bold and cavern- 
ous on th6 west. Its south point, or Mull, is 

also 



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SCOTLAND. . $8Q 

also the south point of Scotland. Fort Nessick, m****. 
on the west side, has a little pier for craft of five 
or six feet Port Patrick is a neat town of 
1,000 inhabitants, with a small haven and a hand- 
some quay and light-house. A packet sails daily 
between it and Don^ghadee, the distance being 
twenty miles. The principal trade is the import 
of cattle from Ireland. One mile south of it is 
the castle of Dunskery, on the brink of a frightful 
precipice. 

Loch Ryan is a deep inlet at the north ex- 
tremity of the peninsula of Galloway, ten miles 
long and two broad at the entrance,* widening to 
four miles within, and forming an excellent har- 
bour, the only danger being a sand-bank running 
off from the west shore, which makes it neces- 
sary to keep pretty close to the east shore. This 
sand-bank is covered with excellent oysters, and 
the bay abounds in cod, haddock, and other fish, 
lobsters and crabs. Stranraer, at the head of the 
loch, is one of the principal towns of the west 
of Scotland, having 1,800 inhabitants ; k is neatly 
built, and a small river runs through it. Vessels 
of 300 tons ascend to within a mile of the town, 
and those of sixty tons lay at its quay. It has 
1,400 tons of shipping, and trades to Norway and 
the Baltic. 



The Prith of Clyde i^ a deep gulf between the Ainu*. 
coast of Air, on the east, and the peninsula of 
Kintyre, oil the west. The Air coast towards the 

south 



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!t§6 MARITrirtl C&tfGRAPHY. 

scwttf arid north h rocky aiitf elevatted, bttf in the 
iniddfe BrtWeeti the Ritfer Dooti atotd Salt coSto, i 
dfttancteof twenty miles; is 4 sandy beachf, shoal- 
itt£ at considerable way off. As flie ports of Air 
srntf Irvine, ort tJhis coatf, can only receive ve£ 
jitfe of 206 tofis at spring tides, ships' embayed 
ill the curve dart onfy find shelter hi westerly winds 
trtidbr Lady Island fotir toilefc N.W. of Air. Tte 
proper marks for atichoririg here are tHe spires rf 
the two beacons on the island in one, where a 
cable's length off shore, thefe itf tea or twelve 
fathoms. 

Trtme is the only place on this coast where a 
good artificial haven may be fbntied as it isr natu- 
ral ly sheltered frorti all winds but N.W.by a rocky 
petiinsulk running a mile into v the seai A vessel 
taking shelter in it at present may aricKor half a 
cable's length within its extremity, in thrtfe ft- 
thorny at Half flood. It is a sea bathing place. 1 

Baflinhay, on the Stirtser, is a gdod village! 
Four miles north of which i& Ailsaf Island, in the 
middle of the entrance of the Frith of Clyde. R 
is a conical rock, with many goate and rabbits oil 
it; arid the resort of soland 1 geese and other sea 
birds; whose feathers', as Well aa> the rabbit skins, 
pay the rent of tile tenant, which is £<25. Gn it 
are the ruins of an old castle. 

Grivan, on the river tit the same name, is a 
poor village -, with a half dozen, boats.* Ia the 
river the depths are nine to eleven feet. 

Air,, the county town, on a river of its name* 
i* Ismail well built place of 5,500 inhabitants. 

The 



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SCOTtAOTT. 5$l 

Th* rive?' is* crossed "by a'' Iter with butt tWeVve '*?¥* 
feet high water springs: It seftdfc' some vessels: to 
the Beftic, and tfr Ireland with coalk, ancfbuiida 
vessels. # ' 

Irvine^ three tailes up a river of it^name, has 
4,500 inhabitants. Its haven; has? nine to ekv**B 
feet at common springs * } but with a gate ftonv 
S.W. the tide often rises to sixteen feet* Ife ft»a » 
small shipbuilding establishment; soore trade with 
the Baltic, and exports 24,000 tons ofcoals. 

Saltcoats, the most fashionable sea bathing, 
place of the west coast of Scotland, is btritf pir 
a. rock neat sandy hills. It ha^ a manufactory of 
salt, some chatting fradS, ship building, and a 
herring fishery. Papulatlot^2,300i Eargs, opposite 
the Iste of Bute, has i;4O0 r inhabitants, and iff the 
general market of the neighbouring • country: * 

Ther River Gl toE> supposing its entrance tor be 
-at the Isle of Bute, is four miles wide, but ttoer chan- 
nel is narrowed by the Great'and Little Cumbray 
Islands,, nearly, in the middle. The; ti4e flows 
above Paisley, and it abounds in saliaoai a&d 
trout 



Greekock, on the south. bank of the Cly4e* is ***r™**-< 
the emporium .of the north and west of Scotland* 
In 1700 it was a mean village, but now contains 
17>0OO inhabitants, and carries on a dir^t trade 
to, all. parts, of^the world. It also bi^lds^a great 
many merchant ships for sale, and has a share in 
the Greenland Whale* RsheTy. The harbour is 
. 1 nearly 



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592 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

*•*"**«. pearly dry at low. water, and vessels of eleven feet 
only can go in wRh spring tides. 

The movements of its trade in 1808-4 was as 
follows. 

Inwards. Outward*. 

Ships. Tons. Men. Ships. Tons. Mem- . 

Foreign trade 406. .53,546. . 5,183 352. . 50,366. . 3,673 

Coasting & 1 
fishing.. [730.. 35>532.. 3,147 1,016.. 47,009,. 3,32* 



1,136 89,078 8,330 1,368 97,375 6,999 

Port Glasgow, three miles east of Greenock, 
has 4,000 inhabitants. The Clyde here is two 
miles wide, but so filled with banks, as only to, 
afford a channel 200 yards wide close to the; 
Port Glasgow shore. The largest yessels lay here 
at the quays or discharge their cargoes into lighters 
to be conveyed up to Glasgow. 

The movement of its trade in 1803-4 waa as 
follows. 

Inward*. Outwards. 

Vessel*. Tone. Men. Vessels. Tons. Men* 

Forcigntradc 113.. 18,722.. 1,081 117.. 25,137.. 1,692 

Ck lSc Dg * } m " 7 > 226 - 551 U9.. 7,202.. 425 

295 25,948 1,632 236 32,339 2,117 

Renfrew, the chief town of the county, for- 
merly stood on the bank of the Clyde, but the 
river changing its course, deserted it* At r .jace- 
sent it communicates by a little canal, but has 
neither trade nor manufactures. £,000 inhabitants. 



Glasgow, 



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SCOTLAND. 999 

Glasgow, the principal town of Laaerk, and ^*- 
the second of Scotland, contains 90,000 inhabi- 
tants. It is fifteen leagues above Port Glasgow, 
vessels of seventy tons ascending to its quays, 
the rise of tide being seven feet A board of 
commissioners has been appointed to improve the 
river, and operations are constantly carrying ctn 
to deepen it. This city receives the greater part 
of the merchandize imported by the Greenock and 
Port Glasgow vessels. 



The only port town of Dumbartonshire is Dum. 
barton, on the Leven, which issuing from Loch 
Lomond, falls into the Clyde. The town has 
%500 inhabitants, and some brigs belong to it. 
Near the town is a castle on a two-headed rock, 
washed on one side by the Clyde and on the other 
by the Leven. 

Gare Loch and Long Loch are the first of the 
numerous sea lakes that intersect the N.W. coasts 
of Scotland. Gare Loch is seven miles long and 
two wide ; and Long Loch, twelve miles long, 
approaching the celebrated fresh water lake of 
Lomond, within one mile and a half. It separates 
Diwbarton and Argyle counties. 



akire. 



The county of Argyle is composed of several ^n****. 
peninsulas formed by sea lochs : the first of the 
latter is Loch Fyne, thirty miles long and three 
wide, in which a great herring fishery has been 

vouiv, 2q carried 



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594* MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

-Argyu. carried on at different periods. At its head* is 
Inverary, the principal town of the county, hav- 
ing 1,000 inhabitants, chiefly fishermen. ' 

The peninsula of Kintyre is united to the main 
land of Argyle by an isthmus a mile broad,) be- 
tween the east and west Lochs Tarbet ; the far- 
mer is a safe and capacious basin, with an en- 
trance only 100 yards wide. On the south point 
of the peninsula, named the Mull of Kintyre, is 
a light. Cambletown, on the east side, has 
7,000 inhabitants, and an excellent natural har- 
bour, within the little island Dever ; it is sur- 
rounded by high hills, and has a depth of six 
fathoms. Here is the grand rendezvous of the 
herring busses. 

Sanda Island, two miles N.E. of the Mull, is 
celebrated in the Scandinavian annals by the name 
of Avona, as the rendezvous of the Danes in their 
desents on Britain. 

The circuitous and difficult navigation round 
Kintyre, from the Clyde to the Hebrides and 
north-west coast of Scotland, is now avoided by 
means of a canal, nine miles long, cut from Loch 
Gilp (a bend of Loch Fyne) to Loch Crinan. — 
(See Canals.) 

Having rounded Kintyre and passed West 
Loch Tarbet and Loch Crinan above mentioned, 
we come to Loch Fellam, on which is ,Oba& the 
principal place on the north-west coast 6f Scot- 
land, though but a village. * The Loch forms a 
harbour capable of receiving 5(Xf mefcnant ' ves- 
sels. 



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SCOTLAND* 595 

sels. Dunstafihage, on Loch Etive, the place ***. 
next in consequence, is a small hamlet, with an 
ancient castle. 



Lochs Linne and Lochabar, which communi- 
cate by a strait, penetrate into the heart of the 
bleak and dreary county of Inverness. At the 
head of the loch is Fort William, a triangular for- 
tress, with two bastions and barracks for 800 men. 
The little town of Maryborough, adjoining, has 
6 00 inhabitants, chiefly fishermen. Castle Duart, 
on Loch Linne, has a garrison of forty men from 
Foirt William. 

Glenely is a poor hamlet opposite the east end 
of the Isle of Sky. A mile north of it are Ber- 
neira barracks for 200 men, but which are usually 
occupied by a Serjeant's guard. 



The western coast of the county of Ross has 
no place deserving even the name of village ex- 
cept Ullapool, on Loch Broom, a fishing station 
established by the British Society in 1788 ; it may 
contain 500 persons. The loch is one of the most 
abundant in fish, and forms an excellent harbour 
for the largest fleets. 



The west coast of Sutherland, which terminate? ^^j*^* 
at Cape Wrath, is worn into many sea lochs and — 
inlets, where shipping can find shelter in all 
winds, but has not even a hamlet. 



2a 2 



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596 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

CANALS. 

<^'»* The utility of canals for commercial comOHHi- 
cation, is thus described by Mr. Phillips, in bis 
History of Canal Navigation. " All canals may 
be considered as so many roads, on which one 
horse will draw as much as thirty horses on an 
ordinary turnpike rood, or on which one man wijU 
transport as many goods as three men and eighteen 
horses usually do on common roads ; the public 
therefore would be great gainers, were they to lay 
out upon the making of every mile of a canal, 
twenty times as much as they expend upon a mile 
of turnpike road : but the mile of canal is often 
made at less expense than a mile of turnpike, con- 
sequently there is a great inducement to multiply 
canals* " 

This reasoning has been duly appreciated in 
England, and in consequence the canal navigation 
is carried to a greater extent than in any other 
country, China and Holland excepted, and in 
the latter the canals are chiefly the offtprmg of 
necessity from the nature of the country. 

As our limits do not permit us much more than 
an enumeration of the canals of Great Britain, we 
shall confine ourselves to those which derive di- 
rectly from the navigable rivers j following the out- 
line of the coasts, as in the preceding description. 

The Grand Western canal is to commence in 
the Exeat Topsham, and to terminate at Taunton 
in the Tone, a confluence of the Parffet, thus 
forming a navigation between the English and 

Bristol 



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ENGLAND. 597 

Bristol channels. Length of the canal thirty-five <*»«*. 
miles. 

Arusdel canal, from the Arun to Midhurst, 
eleven miles. 

Andover canal begins at the tide water of South- 
ampton at Redbridge, and terminates gear An- 
dover, twenty-two miles and a half; its greatest 
elevation is 176 feat. Its principal object id to 
supply coals, to the inland country. 

Southampton and Salisbury canal commences at 
the Itehin River at Northam, and extends parallel 
with the Southampton Water to the Andover canal, 
seventeen miles ; its object is the trade between 
Southampton and Salisbury. 

ShorncJtff Canal is entirely a tide canal, com- 
roencing at Shew nciiff near Hytfae, and terminat- 
ing near Rye, eighteen miles through Romney 
March; its intention is both for a military defence, 
being flanked by several batteries, as well as for 
the import of coals and sea beach for repairing 
the roads, and for the draining of the marsh ; it 
is navigable by vessels of 200 tons. 

Thames and Med way Canal, from Gravesend to 
Chatham, eight miles and a half fin: barges; its 
object is to avoid the circuitous navigation round 
by the Nore. 

The Grand Junction Canal commences in the 
Thames at the tide water in Brentford Creek, and 
terminates in the Oxford Canal at Braunston, ninety 
miles: it rises and descends several times, the 
highest point of elevation being 895 feet. Through 
Btteworth Hill is a tunnel 3,080 yards, and another 

2 q 3 near 



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$9$ MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

an*. near Braunston 2,045 yards ; it has besides several 
stupendous embankments, reservoirs of sixty- 
eight and forty acres, and steam engines for pump- 
ing up water into them. It cost near two millions 
sterling, and though its tolls produce «£7i000 no 
dividend has yet been made to the proprietors of 
•hares. 

The Grand Surrey Canal commences ia the 
Thames at Rotherhithe and terminates at Mitcham, 
twelve miles. 

The Oxford Canal extends from the Thames at 
Oxford to the Coventry Canal at Leyford. 

The Basingstoke Canal commences in the Wey, 
near its junction with the Thames, and extends to 
Basingstoke, thirty-seven miles: its elevation is 192 
feet. It has twenty-nine locks, a tunnel three- 
quarters of a mile, and a large reservoir and feeder 
from the river Lodden j it is crossed by seventy- 
two bridges, and navigated by forty-five ton boats. 

Wisbeach Canal extends from Lynn Regis to 
Wisbeach, six miles j intended to obviate the loss 
of navigation by the choaking up of Wisbeach 
River. 

Cam River commences in the Ouse at Harri- 
more, and terminates at Cambridge, fifteen miles-, 
for whose use it was chiefly constructed* 

Wainfleet Canal, from Wainfleet to Alford, twelve 
miles. 

Ancholme navigation commences in the tide- 
water of the Uumber near Winthringham, and ex- 
tends to Market Raisin, twenty-six miles ; it was 

constructed 



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ENGLAND. $99 

constructed as much to drain the fens as for navi- 



gation. 



The Trent River is the commencement of more 
canals than any other of England except the Severn * 
The first in ascending it is the Stainforth Canal, 
extending from the Trent at Keaddy to the Don 
near Stainforth, fifteen miles. 

The Foss Dyke, from the Trent at Torksey to 
the Witham near Lincoln* eleven miles. 

Chesterfield Canal commences in the Trent at 
Stockwell, and extends to Chesterfield, forty-six 
miles. Its greatest point of elevation is 4SJ0 feet. 
It has sixty-five locks ; a tunnel 2,850 yards 
through Hartshill and another of 153 yards ; its 
boats are 150 tons, the exports coals and lead of 
Derbyshire. This canal cost .£160,000. 

Derby Canal, from the Trent to Derby, nine 
miles, to supply this town with coals. 
1 Nottingham Canal in the Trent, joins by a side 
cut with the .Trent and Mersey Canal. 

Eronthan Canal, from the Trent near Holme 
Pierpoint to Grantham, thirty-three miles, rises 
eighty-two feet in the first six miles and a half, 
then a level of twenty miles, then a rise of fifty- 
eight feet ; it has two large reservoirs. 

Erewash Canal commences in the Trent near 
Sawley and joins the Derby Canal. 

The Driffield Canal commences in the river Hull 
and extends to Great Driffield, eleven miles. 

Market Wrighton Canal, from the Humber 
opposite the Trent by a sea loek, extends to 

% q, 4 Market 



Cmmlx. 



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600 MARITIME GJEOGttAPHY. 

Market Wrighton, eleven miles j it is chiefly a 
drainage canal. 

Stover Canal commences m the River Teign at 

Newton Abbot, and extends six miles and a half. 

, Burrowstownes6 Canal, from Buirowstowness to 

the Forth and Clyde Cinal, seven miles, to avoid 

the dangerous navigation of the Forth. 

Forth aad Clyde Canal, though not the largest 
is one of the grandest undertakings of the kind 
in Great-Britain ; it commences at Graingemouth 
in the Spey, and terminates at Bowlings Bay m 
the Clyde, thirty-five miles. The rise in the first 
eleven miles is 165 feet with twenty locks, then 
<* summit level of sixteen miles, and a descent 
to the Clyde of 156 feet with nineteen locks. 
The breadth of the canal is fifty*sfx fret at top 
and twenty-seven at bottom* depth eight feet ; 
each lock is Beventy-five feet long and twenty 
broad. It has a reservoir of severity acres, and a 
second of fifty, with ten large aqueduct bridges: 
it carries seventy ton vessels, and in Bowlings 
Bay are docks for their repairs. 

The canal of Aberdeen commences at the tide- 
water of the Dee in Aberdeen Harbour, and fol- 
lows the course of the Don, in which it terminates 
at Inverary Bridge, nineteen miles. Its highest 
point of elevation is 170 feet by seventeen locks, 
the breadth is twenty feet and the depth three 
feet and a half; its chief object is the convoying 
of paving stone to Aberdeen for export to London. 

Th^ Caledonian Canal, not yet finished, is in- 
tended to connect the two seas by the Murray 

Frith 



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Frith and Loch Iinne, and thereby to avoid the 
tedious and dangerous navigation round by the *~ 
Pentland Frith. It is to have twenty feet depth ; 
it commence* in the tidewater of Loch Beauly 
and terminates in the tide-water of Loch Eil, 
being formed of several canals uniting inland 
lakes. These canals are 160 feet wide at top, fifty 
at bottom, and twenty deep : they require twen* 
ty-three locks, each 158 feet long and thirty widet 
Thirty*two miles of the navigation is through Loch 
Ness, whioh is one mile and a quarter to three*, 
quarters broad, with a depth of 120 fathoms 
muddy bottom; it never freezes: government 
has a galley of thirty-eight tons employed oft 
this lake. Lock Lochy, which also is included in the 
navigation, is ten miles and a half long and one and 
a quarter to three-quarters of a mile broad, and 
seventy-six fathoms deep. Loch Oich is three 
miles and a half long, and 100 to 200 yards wide* 
and twenty-six fathoms deep y and Loch Dufour, 
one mile and a quarter long and one quarter wide* 
with twenty-six feet depth. 

The Ilchester Canal extends from the Parret 
River below Longfort to Ilchester, twelve miles. 

Rennet and Avon Canal commences in the 
Avon at Bath, and terminates in the K«nnet at 
Newbury, fifty-five miles and a half; it has two 
basins and two stone aqueducts ; fifty ton boats 
navigate it. 

The Wilts and Berks Canal joins the above at 
Lemington, and extends to the Thames and Isis * 
navigation at Abingdon, forming a communication 
between the Thames and Severn. 

Leominster 

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60S MARITIME • GEOOfcAPHr. 

Leominster Canal commences in the Severn at 
New Stourport, and terminates at Kington, forty- 
six miles j it has a tunnel at Pinsax 3,850 yards, 
and another at Soussnont 1,250 yards, with several 
aqueduct bridges j it cost ,£370,000. 

Gloucester Canal commences at the Severn 
tide-water, at Berkely Pill, and terminates ia a 
large basin again communicating with the Severn 
at Gloucester j it has several tide locks, is seventy 
feet wide and fifteen to eighteen deep, admitting 
vessels of 300 tons* Its object is to avoid; the 
tortuous 'and tedious navigation of the Severn to 
Gloucester, the distance by the canal being but 
eighteen miles. 

The Hereford and Gloucester Canal commence! 
in the Severn at Gloucester, and terminates near 
the Wye at Bysters-gate, ipi Hereford, thirty-five 
miles. In the first eighteen miles, the rise is 195 
feet and a half, then a summit level, of eight miles 
9#d a half, and a depcept tQ its termination of 
thirty feetj it has three large tqpnek, at Oxenbal 
2,192 yards ; at Cano Frome 1,320, and near 
Hereford 400. 

The Stroudwater Canal commences in the 
Severn near Stjroud, and terminates in the 
Thames aqd Severn Canal, eight miles, its elevation 
is 168 feet j the Severn River boats are i^sed on it. 

The Thames and Severn Can^l commences 
in that of Stroudwater, and terminates in the 
Thames and Isis navigation, thirty miles. Its 
total rise is 343 &et, and it h&s thirtyrtwp as- 
cending and descending locks, with a, tunnel two 
, miles 



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ENGLAND. 60$ 

miles and three-quarters in length, atSapperton, 
250 feet beneath the external surface of the hill, 
and fifteen feet wide. 

The Worcester and Birmingham Canal com- 
mences in the Severn at Diglis, and terminates at 
Birmingham, twenty-nine miles. * 

The Droitwich Canal commences in the SteVem 
at Hawford and terminates at Droitwich, five mi1e& 
and a half. Its chief object is the export 
of salt. 

The Stafford and Worcester Canal commences 
in the Severn at Stourport, and terminates ih 
the Trent and Mersey Canal, forty-six miles a6& 
a half. Its elevation is 166 feet, with thirty. 
one ascending and descending locks. It has three 
short tunnels and basins, is thirty feet wide at 
top, and five feet deep, and is navigated by 
twenty ton boats. 

Stratford Canal commences in the Avon, at 
Stratford, and terminates in the Worcester Canal, 
at King's Norton, six miles from Birmingham, 
twenty-three miles and a half. 

The Monmouthshire Canal commences in the 
tide water of the Uske River, and communicates 
by railways with Pontypool, &c. The highest 
point of elevation of the canal is 805 feet, and 
the railway has 1,230 feet more, making the 
whole elevation 2,035 feet above the entrance 
lock. Its chief object is the export of coals : it 
coat ^275,000. 

Glamorgan Canal commences in the Severn, 
near Cardiff, and terminates Dear Merthyn, twenty. 

five 



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604 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

five miles. Its object is the export of coals, iron, 
and Uncle. 

Swansea Canal, from Swansea Harbour, through 
Brecknock and Glamorgan, seventeen miles and 
a half} for the export of coals and ironstone. 

Neath Canal commences in the Neath River, 
and axteftds fourteen miles. Its object is the 
export erf coals, iron, and limestone. 

Chester Canal, from Chester to Northwich, 
eighteen miles j rise, 170 feet 

Liverpool and Leeds Canal is r the largest in 
England, being 130 miles long, commencing at 
Liverpool and terminating at Leeds, forming a 
navigable communication between: Liverpool and 
HuH. It has iiinety-one locks ascending and 
descending, each seventy fe*t long and fifteen 
and a half wick. The breadth of the canal at 
top is forty-two feet, the depth four feet and a 
half, and the boats thirty toss. At Tone is a tun- 
nel of 1,090 yards, eighteen feet high, and se- 
venteen wide. It has also several aqueduct 
bridges. It cost .£($00,000. Passage boats from 
Liverpool to Leeds travgfce this canal. 

The Elesmere Canal commences in the Mersey, 
nine miles above Liverpool, afid terminated in the 
Severn, at Bagley Bridge, fifty-fare miles. A cut 
alto forms a communication *ith the Dtee. It* 
chief object is the export of coals, lime, and slates 
of the Welsh mountains. 

The Bridgewater Canal begins iti the tide "Way 
of the! Mersey, and terminates at Manchester, 
forty miles. Its rise is eighty*t*o feet, by ten 

locks: 



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ENGLAND. 609 

locks : it is fifty feet wide at top, with a depth of **!*• 
five feet, and is navigated by fifty ton boats. It 
has seven tunnels and three l^rge aqueduct 
bridges. 

Lancaster Canal runs seveaty-six miles through 
JLaocasbire and WestmoDeJattci commencing at 
Houghton and terminating . at Kendal. 

Glenkennis Canal commences in the tide water 
of the Dee, jiear Kircudbright, and terminates at 
Dairy, twenty-seven miles. Its object is the ex> 
port of coals, lime, and stone. 

Loch Crinan Canal has been cut across the 
isthmus that separates Loch Gilp and Lock 
Crma, nine miles. Its rise is fifty-eight fee*, 
$nd its depth twelve to fifteen feet, so that it is 
pavigated by sea vessels. Its object is to save 
the tedious passage round the Mull o£ Kintyre, 
which often takes three weeks, while the pas* 
•age by the canal is effected in twenty-four 
hours. 



SC1LLY ISLANDS. 

The Scilly Islands belong to the jurisdiction saihiMmmii* 
of Cornwall, and are seen from the Land's End, 
from which they are distant ten leagues due 
west. 

The cfimate of these islands is mild and pitf 6, 
there being seldom frost or snow in winter, and 
the heat of the summer is tempered by sea breezes. 
They are, however, subject to fogs, but these 

are 



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60(5 MARITIME 6SO0RAFHY. 

*^fLr* are not unhealthy, and in general, the inhabitant* 
who live temperately, are free from disease* and 
survive to a great age. The islands produce 
abundance of vegetables and some wheat, but 
have no timber trees and very few fruit trees, 
the sea air preventing their growth. Their cattle 
and horses are small. They have abundance of 
game and sea birds. 

St. Mart is the most considerable, being about 
three leagues in circuit. It is principally com- 
posed of elevated rocky hills, abounding in mi- 
neral ore, but has some fertile spots, inclosed 
with stone fences. There are also two tracts 
of morass, in one of which is a lake. Heugh- 
town, the only town of the islands, is on the west, 
in St. Mary's Sound Here is a castle strongly 
situated, which commands the port. The po- 
pulation of the island is about 700. 

A mile S.W. of St. Mary is St. Agnes, ob 
which is a high light-house. The island has 
some fortifications, is tolerably cultivated, and 
has about 300 inhabitants. 

The other inhabited islands are Tresco, with 
a village called the Dolphin, consisting of a 
church, and ten to fifteen stone houses. On this 
island are the ruins of a monastery. 

St. Martih contains thirty to forty families, 
At one extrenjity of it is a white befipon* built of 
rock stone, to direct ships through the spunds. 

Bbyer, a very hilly little island, with a few 
families. 

Sampson, 



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. < ENGLISH ISLANDS. '607 

Sampson, forming in two circular hills, has but * tt/ *f^"*' 
two or three families. 

These islands form several good harbours, 
particularly St. Mary's Sound, between St. Mary 
and St; Agnes, which is often ran into for shelter 
by vessels unable to get up the English Channel. 
New Grimsby, between the islands Tresco and 
Bryer, is also a good but small harbour. And 
there are many other safe anchorages among the / 

islands, but narrow and intricate, and even St 
Mary's Sound requires a pilot. 

Before navigation had arrived at its present 
state of improvement, the Scilly Islands and 
Ushant on the French coast, were the Scylla 
and Charybdis of the English Channel, and in 
endeavouring to escape the one many ships were 
lost on the other. The most noted and melan- 
choly shipwreck on Scilly was that of Sir 
Cloudesley Shovel, with four ships of war, who 
ran directly on them before the wind, in a dark 
foggy night of 1707- Of the four ships crews, 
two of the commanders and twenty-five men only 
were saved. At present these rocks are little 
feared, and ships instead of, as formerly, cau- 
tiously laying to for several nights previous to 
making the land, now boldly run for the en- 
trance of the channel, and the first land they 
see, if bound up it, is often the Lizard Point, or 
even the Isle of Wight. .'"'-''* 



Ah* ^ 



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MARirora G&tokkthr, 



Ms'.. .: » i 



ISLE OF MAN. ,, 3 , ou , 

***- The ItLBiw Maw is situated inthe Irish <?fc&?iel 
within sight of the three kingdoms, the distant^ 
from the point of Ay re, its north point, to Bees- 
he&d in Wales being ten leagues ; from the same 
point of Ayre to Burrowhead in Scotland five 
leagues ; and the distance from the 8.W. coast to 
Kerry Point in Ireland nine leagues. Snaffield 
Hill, near the east coast, is the highest point of 
the island, being 1,740 feet above the sea* 
. The island is ten leagues long and three to four 
broad, containing 30,000 inhabitants in seventeen 
parishes. Hie hilly tracts aflbrd only pasture, but 
the law land is well cultivated. It has mines of 
iroa, lead, and copper, none of which are work* 
ed, and quarries of marble, slate, and building 
gbofte* The climate differs little from that of ttte 
north of England, and is generally healthy. 

Int. the middle ages the Isle of Man was the ren- 
dezvous of the Scandinavian pirates, in their des- 
eefttp on the neighbouring coasts of Great Britain 
wd Ireland, and the kings of Man were for some 
centuries masters of these seas. About 1633 
Alexander king of Scotland having defeated the 
Danes, obliged Owen, or John, king of Man, to 
do homage, and the island continued tributary to 
Scotland till reduced by Edward I. ; 'since when 
the kings of England have been the paramount 
sovereigns, though it continued to be governed by 
the descendants pf its Dahish prinbes until Ed- 
ward 



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SKOLISH ISLANDS. 009 

ward III. dethroned the last queen, and bestowed »««■•• 
the island as a fief on Montagu Earl of Salisbury, 
whose honours and estate being forfeited, Henry 
bestowed Man first on the Percy fenrily, which 
being also attainted, then on Sir John Stanley^ 
Earl of Derby, whose doteendant Earls of Derby 
enjoyed it till by failure of heirs mate it devolved 
on the Duke of Athol, as husband of the sister 
and heiress of the last Earl of Derby. ' 

The position of this island between the thred 
kingdoms long rendered it the emporium of smug- 
gling, on which account the British government 
in 1765 purchased the regalities of the island from 
the Duke of Athol for j£70,000, the duke retain- 
ing his territorial property, and the island some of 
its privileges, particularly that of freedom from 
arrest for debts contracted in England, ana hence 
it is the asylum of many insolvent debtors. The 
Hanks language, still spoken by the common 
islanders, is a corrupted Erse. 

The island besides herrings exports some corn, 
cattle, butter, bacon, lead, kelp, coarse linen, 
and spun cotton. All exports to Great Britain 
and Ireland are duty free, las are all imports for 
the use of the manufactures* 

Castletown, the seat of the government, is it 
the S.E. extremity, and is a neat town with wide 
and clean streets; in th$ ipiddle of the town is 
Castle Rusher, a magnificent fortress of free- 
stone, the ancient residence of the kings of Man. 
D< uglas, at the mouth pf a rivulet* jsrtbe most 
populous and commercial pl^cf jnt^iialbffl^hww 
vol*" iv. 2 r ing 



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0fr MAttttH* ^t*6S**»Y. 

jmmtm.. fag 4,000 inhabktoU» and a good |»frHma n fa 
Vessels of «X) toils. The ba^:a|e* eferttorahtftfr 
& winds from N.W, to souths Theaetv^fanfe 
sbrneligbt-houseon the pier. ;.. :. hateidtf 

Ramsea is a neat tywn of $00 housda^afcthrf 
NiE. side of the islands at the mouth <rf the river 
8ett>y, which falls into A fine bay sheltered from 
all winds but N.E.,. having <m tjie south Maug* 
hold's Head, a bold rocky promooUry, voder 
which is a celebrated well. In this b^y m<axcel- 
lent port might be made for the iasgast skip*, iby 
running out a mole to a rock* SmaUdtgrtitulm 
tbe Selby, and lay dry at low water, nHwe is* 
light-house. i i ; 

- Laiey is a group of cottages in a glen at the 
Bottom of a creek, opening into an extensive bay, 
which iffght be made a good harbour. 

Peel, on the west ode of the island on the river 
Neb, is a neat town of 380 houses ; tie: Saudi 
extremity of its bay is bounded by Peel Island, 
with a castle and the ruifts of a cathedral 

Derby Haven, on the S.E. end north n£ Castle* 
town, is formed by St, Michael's Island, joined 
to the main island by a causeway 100 ywds lon&. 
J Off the south end of the island is the islet cak 
led the Calf of Man, three mites in circuit, and 
Surrounded by rocks* 



GUERNSEY* JBR£BY>.*c 
The group of islands m die English channel, of 
rhioh Gummy, Jersey, agd Alderney are the 

moat 



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vW&rfrle, p^a dq*^teqffi 4$ $«dNta 
ofNorroapdy* *rf the only * cgpatgft of tl^^i«V 
**^igijty ^f England aver Frqpp^y ;Th$ft£gk 
tifaiateg i 9 the gi# of Sj, M^vJ^jtaiiK 
lwgue^^^^eFre^dt)ci?ast. , , ,^ |l/ r 

Guernsey,* the largest, is ^ ift ^%n wMg ?^ g 
sod eight brotyd. On jty^.squth aqd S.W* tjx* 
shores are hpgh, pretipjtous, and brak^u ky de^ft 
ravines. On the north and east the coasts pr$ lo^ 
indented by bay 3 separated by rocky. head-lands* 
and lined with sunken rock^, which together with^ 
the ^HUftib of tjie currents are a grand natural 
defence to the inland, preventing the approach of 
a naval force. 

Among the cariosities of the coasts is La Cave 
Mahie r on a level w£th the sea ue%r Prevolet Pointy 
ojx the souty ; from aa entrance of nine feet wid$ 
and six high, it expjapds to, fifty feet in height qnd 
breadth and 200 feet in length* ending in granite 
pointy. The base of ^he island is, entirely of this 
substance, and several qf its heights cqnspst qf 
conical ascents of this grand substrata, pisec^ *F* 
paren^y by a power acting vertically.. 

The climate is humid, and the wvptep$ s^opnyv 
The face of the island is diversified ky moderate 
hills, and watered by numerous streams, a^vigg 
to turn mills and fertilizing the v*Uic$t every ^P^, 
of which is cultivated with tlje greatest care, af* 
fording the pleasing appearance of industry and 
its attendant comfort, which is conspicuous in the 

# a $> npat 

' * Sarnia of the Itinerary of AnUmSne, whence eufnweytriwtftiV 



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ft^B MAflftTMi «feo<*RAPH\\ 

rtefctteatfr of the geritty surrounJied^cSrcliarcb 
afett gkftftfcs, 1 adtf theclean hafatatfcms of the pea- 
rtnttyi 111* Inhabitants are, however, not cele- 
fefrafced fbt tfceir hospitality, 'fcrid (more partieulaify* 
in Jersey) the pride 6f ancestry is as invetferate to& 
Ae*wfof(*iettindoos. ^ 

- Among the marine £todiWtions found on the 
aB&rfes are'flte sea auVe,' delicate shell-fish, the sea 
nfBQse, apkrottila aculeator, and the sea anemone, 

«<The prdduce of the island is' chiefly corn and- 
apples; and the principal btahufacture is thsft of 
worsted jkckets, caps, and stockings, oWB8*first 
oF which thfcre is a great consumption by s£8taen n . 
Guernsey sends vessels to the Newfoundlatoll fish- 
ed, 'and hi war fits out many privateers ; in peace 
smuggling with the coast df England is 1 an orga- ^ 
ribsed business, the objects being French brandies 
artfHacfc, &c. Some emery stone is also exported, 
there being a rock of this substance on the island* 

* The Gorman feudal laws are still in use in these 
islands, bdt meliorated by time, which has worn 
down their oppression ; they are collected in a 
book called " le grand Costumier." The king's 
writs "from Westminster cannot be executed in 
tfoese island*, and consequently they offer an asy- 
lum for insolvent debtors ; neither are they bound 
by any act of the British legislature unless sbeci? 
flcally named, nor can these acts be put in force 
utitil sanctioned by the civil government of jthe 
islands, 

* The JsTorman French is the language ipo^t; gene«% 
Willy spoken, and many Nprman customs are ob- 
served 



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^rve^^mongst -the low$fi pfcss,' Tte£*#*ty jjgy _ 
k not established nevertheless , tjbp ifj3ffBirt\a| ftfr 
^nis^tioa of justiqe ^nd the piy^fesei^rf^ 
^rim^s is adequately prpyi|d^d £q£ ; t ( *n appet^dw* 
in the last resort from the island t^un*4%£fetita 
lung in council. The popi^lation q£ the islafl^H^ 
Guernsey is 15,000. ., ., . < . >< \ 

The on\y town of Gperosey is t St Pierre,, Qj^fr 
Peter, on the east, composed of one Jtwg ateet, 
vrith some good houses, and several dii^jr lappa. 
Its port is between two stone .piers thirty-five fyet 
high, and forming an entrance 100 feet witfp at 
top and sixty-eight feet at the surface of the leaf 
the piers are of rough masonry, and formed of 
vast blocks of granite run out on arches j they ip* 
elude a. space of several acres ; the spring tides 
rise twenty-eigbt or thirty feet, and the neaj» 
twelve to fourteen. The road to the S.E. is much 
exposed; 

Castle Cornet, which commands the port, is 
on a steep rock, insulated by a channel (500 yards 
wide; it is , accessible only at one, point, and i^ 
entirely of granite. There are three pther cashes 
on the island, which is besides fortified in every . 
accessible p^rt , , ., . 

Jersey is, twelve miles long and six broad. The,, *%* 
north side ^s composed of rocky, cliffs fprty to ftfiy : 
fathoms high, while the south shore is nearly, lev^l >. 
yvith the sea j & ridge of hills runs through the 
centre, whose sides are covered with orchaflfo , 
Irom whose produce 24,000 hogsheads of, cyd^r 
have been made in one year. The other indii#- 
: S r 3 'trial 



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$14 , MAttflM* GEOGRAPHY. 

W irki pursuit & t^ 6 bearing cattle, particularly 
sbfcep, whofe wool together foitlh cyder form the 
only exports, and the island is obliged to import 
corn from France and England. The number of 
inhabitants is 30,000. 

llietwo towns of JFersey are St Heliar and St 
Aubin. The former is the chief place, and is situ- 
ated in the bay of St Aubin, nearly m the middle 
of the south side, the best road of the island, but 
still dangerous, from numerous rocks scattered 
round the entrance. 

Hie town consists of Several good Streets, and 
is defended by numerous batteries, but* chiefly 
by lElizabeth Castle, on a rock insulated. at high 
water, but accessible at low. 

On the west side 6f the island is St Owen's 
Bay, and on the east St Catherine's Bay, wM£h 
are safe roads according to the wind. All fMe ac- 
cessible parts of the island are defended by batte- 
ries and towers. 
Mrm. s Aldernet is separated from Cape Ik Hague by 
a channel three leagues Wide, called the Race or 
Alderney, from the velocity of the tfde^ 'wWfch in 
the springs is six or seven miles ka hour. Tftierfc 
is depth through the channel for the largest 'iWps. 
Alderney is four miles long and two tirowl, is 
fruitful in corn and pasture, arid ho£&d v fqrf& &i&A 
of cows. The population is 1,600* cTR&JJ 1 Col- 
lected in a little town 6f the saine itfiime ' Ss* ^Ke 
island, of 200 houses; its harbour, nMed ; lOrato- 
by, is two miles south of fli6't6^,itf^i^ fit 
, *r small craft. :i ^ f * 

Sark 



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• re&mstr inlands. 0&& 

SaWc Island is two miles long, and jurroimflea 
by steep rocks> brit produces corn enough Yo**4»l 
500 inhabitants, ' v ■-* 

Among the numerous rock's roiirid these fshurffc 
the most considerable iff Jethou, wfech teferifs-lfc 
be of volcanic formation, and ttieifc are otlter *<*- 
fcttnic indications in th^ese islands. TKe Casket* are 
a cluster of rbcks above and und& wifcfer, <m '4foe 
Jargek of which is a hght-hcm^, shewing tfcftt 
lights in a triangle. . j )i 



:mt 



SCOTTISH JSIiANDfc 

Hie first Scottish islands we are to notice are 
those of Bute and Arbak, forming th& tJiirteeiltik 
county of Scotland under th6 name of Bute- 
smw:/ Bute is separated from the coast of At- 
gyle hy the strait of Kyle, from one to half a 
mile wide. The island is seven leagues long 
v &nd one to two broad, containing £0,000 acres, 
and having 7,*000 inhabitants. Its centre is tooun- 
tafnoiis 5 the only minerals deserving mention ate ' 
fitters earth, topazes, and Scotch pebbles. ft has 
some fresh water lakes and rivulets abounding in 
fish. The shore is worn into many caverns, and 
thi ruins of ancient dniidical temples are still seen* 
The chief industry of the inhabitants is rearing 
Rattle, • sheep, and goats. 

Hothsay, *he chief place, is a neat little town on 
thp east coast, with a pier haven i it is engagfed in 
die herring fishery. 

VkT* Close 



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616 MARITIME OEOG&AFHY. 

Close to the west side of Bute is the little island 
Inchmarnoc, a mile in circuit, beautifully diversi- 
fied with hill and dale, and inhabited by its pro- 
prietor. 

Aaran Island is separated from the peninsula 
of Kintyre by Kilbrannan Sound; it is eight 
leagues long and from two to three broad, with 
7,000 inhabitants. Hie interior is rocky and bar- 
ton* but it abounds in coals, fullers earth, crystal, 
&c The cock of Arran, a hill near the *noftk 
end of the island, is a noted sea mark ; it has 
four fresh water lakes and several rivulets, aboundr 
ing in salmon, trout, and other fish. It export* 
barley, 100 tons of kelp, and has sixty boats in 
the herring fishery. The Duke of Hamilton is 
proprietor of the greater part of the island. ^ 

On the N.E. coast is Lamlash, an excellent 
harbour, formed by Holy Island before it, a great 
mountain covered with heath. Ranza, on the 
north, has an ancient castle. 

The Great and Little Cumbray Islands lay in 
the middle of the Frith of Clyde, between Bute 
and the main. On the S.W. side of the Great 
island is Milnport Village, with a conveniently 
tide harbour with eleven feet in the springs Y±his 
island is chiefly composed of lime and free stone* 
and the latter is exported for £9,00 a year. On 
the Little Cumbray is an ancient castle andna 
light-house ; it has seven remarkable tiroes* *. The 
pqpulation of the two islands (which aseincimted 
in Buteshire) is 506. ( 

., u. •.. . rTbe 

-. '?• I ' ■ ,. " ' . 



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stofttfbH ISLANDS. 6 J7 

THE HEfiRIDES. 

Off the N. W. coast of Scotland are two archipe- 
lagos^ koown by the general name of the Hebrides 
or Westj§»n Islands j thfe first lays close to tfce 
main land, afcd is attached to the county of Argyle* 
The second lays at a considerable distance to the 
west, and belongs to the county of Inverness. 
Upwards of -300 islands are counted in the two 
groups, but not above thirty are of any conse- 
quence. We shall commence our notice with 
those nearest the main, going from south to 
north. 

Elsa or Ailsa is a perpendicular rock of great 
height two miles in circuit, with only one landing 
place at a little beach on the N.E. It pastures 
4some goats, abounds in rabbits, and is the resort 
of Soland geese, whose young and feathers, as 
well as the rabbit skins, pay the <£33, at which it 
is rented from the Earl of Cassilis. On the N.E. 
site i&a square tower of three vaulted stories* 

GiJia, two miles/ from the west coast of 'Kin*- 
tyre,yis <six miles long and one broad, with 500 
inhabitants j it producer barley, oats, and fla&, 
#nd in 1772 afforded a rent of £600. 

Car*, south of Ghia, is three miles in circuit* 
and inhabited by a single family. . 

Ila% 0M of the most fertile of the islands, ift 
twenty^eight miles lpng and sixteen broad; On the 
north it forms the deep Loch Indal, a good harbour $ 
it contains mines of lead and other minerals, and 

has 



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*SiJ* has several lake** The population is 7/fOQt^ and 
in 1772 it afforded a rent of ,££,300. Bowmore, 
the chief place, is on Loch Indal, and is a good 
^Ulagfe with a feir and market. 

JutA is separated from Jla by Ha Soond, 
tnfle broad. The island is ten leagues long and 1 
4otW6 broad, forming two peninsulas; it iaefcfe 
^f the most roeky#nd rugged of the Hebrides, ris- 
ing near the south erid in several conical summits, 
tailed the Paps of Jura, the highest of which, 
named Btn~an*oir, or the Golden Mountain, has 
$,000 feet elevation. Red deer are still found in 
<the mountains, and abundance of growse and 
moor game. There are two good harbours on 
the east side, but the whole business of the island 
employs only a few open boats. The population 
fc 1,800. 

Colonsay, a rocky island three leagues kmg 
tod two broad, has 500 inhabitants. Oransay is 
separated from Colonsay by a channel dry at low 
'water; it k three miles long, and the population 
is 300. These islands have great numbers of tab* 
feits, but no hares. 

Scarba is separated from Jura by the strait of 
Corryvteken, already noticed for its whirlpool. 
The island is three miles long, very rugged, aad 
mountainous. 

Low Island and BALHANAicfa are email J*. 
lands, composed entirely df date. Su&i ifr sepa- 
rated from the main land of Argyle by a channel 
to narrow, that a bridge of a single ai*h hasbfpta 
thrown across it r 

Easdale 



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* %4%>aW ft lh etitiife rt»fc*f *rte, ftOtti^li^ t^^A 
iiVe millions of slates are exported to EngtetoklJ 
l&i%iyy iShA Oana&u 

JCERREfeA, ia mite frdtai fHe^tfain land «f Ia*AJ 
& foi* toifes long and WW) brd^d ; it has twfc gjtood 
liaifotthrs. - 

M^tll is'tepktfetted from the penfrrftda of Mefc. 

vern, in z Argyle, by a strait tme mile and * half 

Broad. It is eight leagues long and five bfrofcd; 

rugged and mountainous, but with goocl pfegfttfi 

knd some torn land ; it has 6,000 inhabitants, tod 

is the joint property of the Duke of Argjrle fcftfi 

the M<Leatis. Toberinortiy, the chief plafefe, is a 

ViHagfe on the N.E. with a good haven, where n 

fishing station has been founded* 

J UlVa 'ifc *a small island in Loch Tiia, dti the 

fee*t : -of 'ifoill, the property of the ftmily df 

TSf ^Qaarrie. Inch Kemieth, fn the same 7 tbch, fe 

a littlfe fertile islAnd, With 4he vestigds of a eh* 

jiel. " ■ "' •• - ; 

Ic6tuMkiLL, Iona 6r Hfi, bne of the inttSfc 

fertile ind rbrilatltic of the Sottish islands, j fctW6 

miles and a half long &nd J one tabid, "frith 150 

ItihSbitants in ttfo or three h&mlfets* whb export 

some cattle and -graffr ; it is ' the property ' of the 

Dnkfe 'd^Arjgyle, *fad fe celebrated for having 

Mtarflted an asyhirtr to St. Coliimba tfnd* othfer toiy 

Aleri^iffferHhefritrcWluction rf Christianity, The 

tfi^nt '^ttetarf etf fet M^y is aT^u^ftil^ttiic. 

fiiWf, ( ttttd 'fcdribdns the a#Hfc «f *^'«dkttft, 

<ri*,iiAf Nto&grair1tftig», W%^^*ritf*>t«b 

WSt.^Columba, and many inscriptions relative to 

the 



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6t0 UAM&Ba GBOGiAnnr. 

the religions cefrefnonies of the primitive Britub 
Christian ?;*. ' : *;-~ '/'J 

Staffa, one mile lodg and half a mile broad/ 
is atv-hiimetfsfc pile of basaltic columns arranged in, 
naterai cokfliades, and exceeding in magnificence 1 
anything of die kind in any other part of tlrtP 
world. The cave of Fingal is a natural caverti/ 
371 feet long* fifty-three broad, and 117 high/ 
supported by pillars of this substance. A stogie 
family inhabit this island. 
. The Threshaoish r are three islands between 
Mull and Coil. 

Coll is four leagues long and one broad ; it is a- 
great rock thinly covered with soil,producing a quan- 
tity of kel$T whiqh is exported chiefly to Ireland/ 
It has not a single tree, and several tracts of tend 
formerly cultivated are now rendered banrenby 
the sa*d blown from the shores. The streams aire 
munerous, and it has forty-eight lakes, abounding 
in trout. It has a lead mine, not worked; has 
no foxes* which are met on the other islands, but 
abundance erf rabbit* 3 contains 1,000 inhabitants, 
and is the property of the Duke of Argyll and 
Maclean, and with Tirey forms a parish/ toche-" 
era on the east it a good harbour* 

Timy is four leagues long and drife btead ris 
generally level and fertile, and has quarriehof i A 
fine rpsft coloured marble It has tt> haven f of 1 
arty thing else but boats j his twenty-four lakes, 
and 3b said to be unhealthy. It rears cattle, bort* ( 
as and sheep* and export* 900 tetta of kelp; a 



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SCOTTISH ISLANDS* , . T ^,6^1 

regular ferry boat crosses between this island arid 
Coll, and between t^e latter and Mull. 

Lismore Island, before thq entrance of Loch 
Liflne, is a vast mass of limestone, but covered 
with a good foil. Tradition says it was anciently 
a deer forest, and very large deer and ox horns 
are found in the soil. It was also the ancient re- 
sidence of the bishops of Argyle ; it has 1,000 
inhabitants. ■ -\ 

Rum is three leagues long and two broad? has 
not above 200 inhabitants, who rear cattle and 
sheep; it has several rivulets, in which 'are sal- 
mon. Loch Serefort on the east is agoodhar* 
hour, 

;JLaa t four miles long and two broad, is hilly 
and generally reeky, ' * 

Muck, two or three miles long and one broad*! 
is low with a good soil, but withbut port, except 
for boats. Cannay, three miles Jong and one 
broad, is only worthy of notice for a hill, near 
which the magnetic needle takes a reversed direc- 
tion,, whence it is cfaUed Compass Hilt It has a 
good hasren formed by the little idand Sanday, on 
the N.E. Basaltic column* are seen baits shores. 

jj3ky, this largest of the islands near the main, 
is fifteen leagues long and from two to six broad $ 
the strait between it arid the main is only a quar- 
ter of a mile broad in one place, and is the usual 
track) rpf slaps bound to arid frdm Ndrway. The j 
wljple island is composed of rocky mountains, and ^ 
4h*Hcoaste are so indented that every mile presents 

a harbour 



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***£* a^tyttoufc -I^ <%}§te is cojd w«l ^p^fc* 
riven abound yiifli salmon, apd, tiie fgftjocba *&Jt; 
sf$4bh* In 1750 tUe pop.ula#oq w^ estinafl^-at 
IfSMWPw tyfc"? 1772 w* reduced tai^QCV ctyefiy 

thaSJE* 

w J&P^WBP 11 Ca^J?, *t the bead of Locfc F4Iajt, 
on the north, is the residence of Macleod, ipbe 
!jQ#th*h<^i^able title of laird of Sky* 

QC tfce great mjntfjer of, *pcky islets raq«£ SkjFr 
or? ottly ia jK>fced by travellers: it is n*m«i 
B&rdCrWk «r the R^nd Talkie, and, is the e**r 
eramost of several islets off the point of Slat% 
*>*#•¥• PWfttf $kyj itia^yardsw <&wh> 
with perpendicular sides, leaving but one landing 
fiaftt from yhich the ascent t? &e top is by a 
fpira) path fhat admits but oqe person. In the 
«*ddlp of tbe pUtfo<m<M> the summit is a well of 
fyikytottu ...,., 

JUut, between. Sty and, the main, ..is, foot 
feegws long and on* brad j though geperattp 
focky, k produces pasture aad cop* and hat 
^otm plane* ash and fir trees ; the highest )oi&t « 
named by the people Duqlan, and by qeomen 
Itaay'sCap* The island ha* lime and free ctoae ; 
it is considered the moat humid ftf the chain, ha*» 
log near SQQ rainy days in the year. 

JfeoNAt north of JResay, t)u«e miles long *nd 
one broad, though very atony baa »ome pasture. 

Xbelittle island EUdda-huw, on tfeeuor^h side 

-> ... v Of 



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^«bj^ te r^»rk*ble for the awual pmodani 
arttval of flocks of plovers from Sky ia Septrwshmy 
and their rtrturn in April. 

The western Scottish islands, 4ft JftMftt 
of the ancients, lie in a semicircle front S.W, 
to* N.E., and are separated by narrow atonte 
filled with rocks, having the appearance of origi- 
nally forming one land. Hie physical ooastnjc* 
tkm of this chain is worthy of police : towards 
the west tbey are §11 fla^ white they aacead tot 
wards the east, and at bust form a precipitant 
ridge* 'This conformation exposes them to the 
whole force of the western winds and waves from 
the Atlantic, and the encroachment of the tea est 
this side is very observable. The rooks ate pa* 
mary, and their structure different from that of 
the continental islands or main land, all of *whkfc 
dip. towards the east 

The climate of these islands is divided iitfo a 
wet and dry season, the former commencing in 
September and lasting till May j the summers are 
hot. The vegetables that the climate permits to 
be successfully cultivated are flax, hemp, pota* ; 
toes, and barley. The sheep and black cattlf am . 
small bat numerous. 

The channel between thi* chain and the mate 
land is called the Mimsh. 

The southern cluster is called Bishop's Islands ; 
the other principal one* in succession ar* Watb*« 
sat, three miles long. 

Barray, eight miles long and two broad, is in- 
tersected 



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tltfii MAfettlME GEOGRAPHY. 

tersacttd' By several sea lochs j it is barren and 
flWtiBtafaous. 

South Uist is thirty miles long and two to 
three broad; it has several sea lochs, affording 
good anchorage, and rears numbers of horses, 
cattle and sheep. 

Bknmcula, ten miles in circuit, is only deserv- 
ing notice for the ruins of a nunnery. 
. North Uist, five leagues long and three broad, 
is hilly on the east and fit for pasture only f on the 
west it is level, and produces corn ten to twenty fold. 
Loch Momoddy on the east is a great rendezvous 
of itshing boats, 400 vessels having loaded herein' a 
season. There are several other inlets for Vessels 
on the east side, but the west is inaccessible. 
"* > Berneexkay, a little island between North Uist 
and Harris, has a fresh lake, frequented by in* 
numerable sea birds j it is inhabited, as are those 
of Fabbay, Calligray, and Eusay. 

Harris is a peninsula joined to the island of 
Lewis by an isthmus a quarter of a mile broad ; 
it belongs to the family of Macleod, who reside 
on it, and have constructed a basin and quay for 
•hipping at Loch Lodwell on the east This is- 
land, including Lewis, is mountainous and rocky, 
except the west coast, which is bordered by a strip 
of level ground. 

Taransay, Scalpay, and Scarp are three small 
inhabited islands west of Harris. Oil the east point 
of Scalpay is a light-house, and near its west side 
t#o good harbours. 

The .Aire of Lewis, a peninsula on the east 

coast 



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SCOTTISH ISLANDS* 6&5 

'£oa0t* ajad on the same coast is Stornaway, at 
the head of a loch, the only town of the He- 
brides, wkh 2,000 inhabitants ; its houses are of 
stone slated, and it has a church and custom- 
house. ,- 

The Butt of Lewis, or Cape Orby, is the north 
point of the island. 

The detached islands belonging to the Hebrides 
are St. Kiloa or Hirta, a solitary rock fifteen 
leagues off Lewis. It is about three leagues in 
circuit, rising to a mountain named Congara, 
5,400 feet above the sea ; its shores are so rocky 
that there is but one landing place on the east, 
and this only practicable in fair weather ; it is in- 
habited by about twenty-seven families in a ham- 
let on the east, and who cultivate eighty acres of 
land, raise cattle, and take sea birds* % ■ _ 

Soa is a high steep rock, a mile in circuit, half 
a league from the west side of Kiid*. 

The Flannan Islands, or Seven Hunters; are 
five leagues west of Galleyhead, in Lewis. 

Barra and Rona are two high, rocky and bar- 
ren islets twenty leagues north of the Butt of 
Lewis* from which they are visible in clear wea- 
% the* Rona, the northern, is two miles in circuit, 
and surrounded by rocks* , 



* Orkney Islands. 

The Orkney Islands, Orcades of the Romans, 

are separated from the N/E* extremity of Scotfand 

vol. iv. 8s bv 



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Or*«*i Jb. 



&t6 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

by the Pentland Frith, about two leagues broad} 
they consist of sixty-seven islands, twenty-nine a£ 
which are inhabited, and the remainder are distin- 
guished into holms and skerries, the former afford- 
ing pasture for sheep and the latter barren rocks. 
The different islands are separated by narrow 
channels called friths, fiords, and sounds, and 
the whole occupy a space of seventy miles north 
and south, and fifty east and west. 

The islands are most elevated on the west, de- 
clining to the east, which is the effect of the mi- 
neral strata dipping in the east direction, similar 
to what is noticed in the islands that linq the 
coast of Norway, and therefore permitting the 
supposition of cotemporary formation. " The ap- 
pearance of these islands/' as described by an in* 
genuous writer, " is more imposing than engag- 
ing, rugged and precipitous, presenting in many 
places scenes truly grand and magnificent ; vast 
rocks, of various heights, dreadfully rugged and 
broken, opposing their rude fronts to all the fiiiy 
of a tempestuous ocean, which in some places 
has formed great detached pillars, in others has 
excavated vast natural arches and caverns, that 
mock all human magnificence." 

The minerals most deserving mention are lead 
and iron, the former containing particles of sil- 
ver, but too poor to tempt the working. Slate is 
also found on some of the islands. Though, like 
most of the northern countries, there are evident 
proofs of these islands liaving formerly possessed 
forests, they are now totally bare of wood, and 

the 



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SCOTTISH ISLANDS* 6^7 

ttte principal fuel of the inhabitants is peat, with or**, /#. 
which most of them abound. The climate is h& — 
mid, and the winters raw and tempestuous, but 
with littlfe frost of snow* The production of corn 
is in general sufficient for the population, which is 
from twenty to 25,000, and the pastures afford at 
sufficient nourishment to cattle and sheep* 

The Pentland Frith is celebrated for the veloci* 
ty of its tides and the whirlpools they create, the 
dangers of which imagination attd ignorance have 
magnified as they did the Charybdis of antiquity. 
The tide of fl6od setting from the south along the 
west coast of Scotland, naturally follows the direc- 
tion of the coast, and froitt the confinement of 
the channel sets through the frith at the rate of 
nine or ten miles an hour, and rushing over a 
rocky and uneven bottom, as well as from the 
counter currents near the shores, a violent com- 
motion of the water is produced, which may be 
dangerous to open boats, but can never be so to a 
ship, for though the velocity of the stream may 
render her sails or rudder useless, they are also 
unnecessary, for the stream will carry her through 
the strait clear of the land on either side. 

Nearly in the middle of the frith are the two 
locks called the Pentland Skerries, on one of 
which is a light-house, and their only inhabitant, 
besides rabbits, is the man who has the care of the 
light In the frith is also the little island Stro- 
ma, two miles from the coast of Caithness, to 
which county it belongs ; it is one mile long and 
half a mile broad, and affords some corn. Its 

2 s 2 shores 



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628 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

°jSL bB shores are composed of frightful precipices, beaten 
so furiously by the western waves in winter, that 
. the spray rises above them and forms little runs* 
which are collected into a reservoir, and made to 
turn a corn mill. The rise of tide in common 
springs is six fathoms, but in a gale from the N. W. 
two fathoms more. Swanay or Swinna, also in 
the frith, is inhabited by four or five families, 
whose men are pilots for the frith. 

Mainland or Pomona, the grand island of the 
archipelago, and occupying its centre, is eight 
leagues long and one to three broad, but so deep- 
ly indented by bays that these dimensions give no 
accurate idea of its surface. Though very hilly, 
it has a considerable portion of fertile land, and 
on it are the two towns of the islands, Kirkwall 
and Stromness : the former is the chief place, and 
is on a bay of the north coast, forming a good 
haven - y it consists of $00 neat houses, inhabited 
by the chief persons of the island, besides shop- 
keepers and tradesmen. Here is a vast cathedral 
dedicated to St. Magnus, and the ruins of the 
bishop's palace. Stromness, on the west side of 
the island, has recently risen from a poor hamlet 
to a thriving town, and almost vies with Kirkwall; 
its haven is entered by two to 300 vessels a year, 
caught in foul winds jn the Pentland Frith. 

"The following are the inhabited islands south 
of Mainland. 1. South Ronaldsay, two leagues 
long and one broad, 1,600 inhabitants, is one of 
the most fertile, and has. a good harbour on the 
north. & Burray, separated from the preceding 

island 



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SCOTTISH ISLANDS. 629 

island by a strait two miles broad, is only five or °£*j % *" 
six miles in circuit, but produces potatoes, car- " 
rots, and other garden vegetables in greater per* 
fection than the other islands. 3. Hoy, the high- 
est land of the islands, is three leagues long and 
two broad, but at high water is nearly divided into 
two islands. On the north is a hill 1,600 yards 
high called the Warth or Ward of Hoy, and at 
its foot in a dark glen is the greatest curiosity of 
the island, a hermitage cut out of a solid block of 
-freestone, thirty-eight feet long, eighteen broad, 
and nine thick, and which seems to have tumbled 
from the hill. This island chiefly pastures sheep j 
its population is 1,400 ; it has three good har- 
bours, of which that named Longhope is much 
frequented by vessels for shelter. West of Hoy 
is a stupendous rock called the Old Man of Hoy, 
1,500 feet high, and resembling the ruins of an 
immense building. 

4. Flotav, noted for its good, road for ships, 
named Panhope, and also for its abundance of 
moor game. It has 200 inhabitants. ^ 

The lesser islands south of Mainland are 
Graemsay, one mile and a half from Stromness, 
three miles in circuit, is in great part composed 
of schistus; it has 180 inhabitants. Teray pas- 
tures some sheep. Sinthay ; Cavay, has only three 
families. Lamau; Lamholm, one family. 

The islands north of Mainland are Shapin- 
8Hay, tolerably fertile, has 750 inhabitants ; Stron- 
say, two leagues long and one broad, has two good 
harbours, 900 inhabitants. Papa Stronsay is a 

2 s 3 little 



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§30 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY, 

^iSL.*" l^ e pl e *sa nt island off the north end of Stronsay, 
"~~ JSday, five miles long and two broad, abounds in 
peat which it supplies to the other islands ; great 
numbers of lobsters are taken round it ; population 
600. It has two good harbours. Sanday, four 
leagues long and one broad, is one of the most 
populous and richest of the archipelago, making 
500 tons of kelp a year ; it has two good harbours, 
Westbay, two leagues long and one broad, has 
abundance of pasture and peat ; 1,400 inhabitants. 
Papa Westray, N.E, of the preceding, is a plea* 
sant island with a little lake of fresh water ; on it 
are the ruins of two buildings, supposed to have 
{>een druidical temples. It has 200 inhabitants. 

Fakay is one of the most level of the islands and 
is clothed with grass, Eagleshay, two miles long, 
was accounted so much superior to the other 
islands, that it was the residence of the Bishops 
and Earls of Orkney; it is also noted for the 
murder of St. Magnus ; it has 200 inhabitants. 

Roussay, two leagues long and one broad, is 
one of the most rugged of the islands ; it has 70Q 
inhabitants. North Ronaldsay, three miles long 
and one broad, is one of the most level islands ; it 
has 420 inhabitants. Weir, 150 inhabitants; 
Enhallon ; Gairsay, a conical hill, fifty inhabi- 
tants ; Domsav, a fine little island a mile in cir- 
cuit, before the hay of Kirkwall, has but one fa- 
mily. 

Copinshay, east of Mainland, is a noted mark 
for seamen j it has hut two or three families. 

Fair 



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SCOTTISH ISLANDS. 681 

Fair Island lays between the Orkneys and Zet- °'j£j 
land, has a little haven. """" 

The commerce of the Orkney Islands consists 
in the export of some beef, pork, tallow, hides, 
linen, yarn, coarse linen, (60,000 yards,) feathers, 
and especially kelp, to the amount of 1,500 tons. 
The imports besides luxuries are coals. The fol- 
lowing is a statement of the trade in several 
years :— 

£. Vessels. Tom. Men. 

1770 /Exports.. 12,018 

1//u I Imports.. 10,406 I . 17 .. gg5.. 76 



Balance 1,612 
[Exports.. 23,247 



} 



1 W Ex P° rt8 - 2SW l 

' w \Imports.. 14,011 1 .20.. 940.. 90 



} 



Balance 9,276 
r Exports.. 26,596 
179 \ Imports ... 20,803 I . . 33 . 2,000. . 170 



1,803 L 
;,793j 



1800 1 



Balance 5, 1 
Exports.. 39,677" 
Imports . . 35,789 I. . 21 . 1,375. . 119 



),677"| 
5,789 I, 

1,888 J 



Balance 4, 

The fisheries of the Orkneys are totally neg- 
lected except that of lobsters. The territorial pro- 
perty of the islands is at present in Lord Dundas, 
by purchase from the Earl of Norton, to whose 
family they had been granted by the crown. 



2 s4 



i>. 



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652 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

ZETLAND ISLANDS. ^ 

The Zetland Islands, situated between the 
latitude 59° and 62°, are about 120 in number, 
of which thirty-four only are inhabited, the rest 
being holms and skerries. Their coasts are rugged, 
precipitous and cavernous, and their interior 
bleak, rocky and barren, with some scattered 
patches of cultivated ground, but without tree or 
even shrub. The highest elevation is named 
Rona's Hill in Mainland, and is 4,000 feet, serv- 
ing as a long landmark for seamen. 

The climate,1 though from the longevity of the 
inhabitants it cannot be ' unhealthy, is extremely 
disagreeable, the winter setting in in October and 
lasting till April ; and though there is little frost 
or snow, the weather is so tempestuous and fogs 
so constant, that all communication between the 
islands is suspended. The spring and summer 
are short, and the autumn long, gloomy, and 
wet. The extremes of the thermometer are 75° 
and 22°. The medium 65° in summer and 38° 
in winter* 

Oats and barley are the only grain that will 
arrive at maturity, and the chief riches of the 
islands is in their fishery,* and their cattle and 
horses. The cattle are larger than those of the 
Orkneys, but the horses are very diminutive. 
The feathers of the $ea?birds that frequent the 
pkerries in innumerable flights, also aflbfd a pro- 
fitable ' 

t Sec Home fisheries. 



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laatit. 



SCOTTISH ISLANDS. 633 

Stable object of export. The population has en- , «&«** in- 
creased within the last century, in 1775 being 
15,200; in 1792, 20,186, and in 1802, 22,379. 
In some of the northern islands, the Norse or 
Norwegian language is still spoken. 

Mainland, the principal island, is twenty 
leagues long north and south, but is so intersected 
by sea inlets called Voes, as to have no place 
two miles from the water ; the coasts arq alone 
inhabited, the interior being composed of barren 
hills, bogs and lakes, the latter abounding in eels 
of enormous size and fine trout. 

Lerwick, the only town of the islands, is on 
the east of Mainland, and contains 300 families, 
the houses of one or two stories form a long, 
narrow and crooked street, along the shore. The 
harbour, named Brassay Sound, from the island 
before it, is one of the best in the world, being 
capable of holding 2,000 sail ; it is the general 
rendezvous of the Dutch herring busses, and of 
the Greenland ships out and home. 

Scallaway, on the west side of Mainland, for* 
merly- a populous place, is now a poor village ; it 
has a castle of four stages. 
. The islands east of Mainland are : — 

Mpussa, Linga, Fetlar, 

Brassay, Three Skerries, Linga, 

Njos$> Hasenssay, Balta, 

"Whalsey, Uyea, Unst. 

* Of these the only ones worthy of particular notice 
&re Brassay, forming the sound of its name ; it is 
fbm miles and a half long and three broad, has 

some 



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654 



MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 



' *"«««# a. some fertile ground. Noss, adjoining Brassay on 

— " the east, is the most fertile of the islands* Fetiar, 

five miles long and four broad, is also fertile. 

Balta forms an excellent harbour between it and 

Unst, completely landlocked. 

Unst, nine miles long and four broad, is the 

northernmost island; in comparison with the 

other islands it is level, though it has several hills. 

It has no rivers but many small fresh water lakes. 

The islands west of Mainland are : — 



Venestry, 
Papa Ltttfe, 
Muckle Roe, 
Linga, 
Yell. 



Hebra, Papa, 

Burra, Linga. 

Trondrer, Hevra, 

Hildesay, Hoy, 

Chenies, Foula, 

Oxna, Papa Stour, 

Of these Yell is the only one of any conside- 
ration, being twenty miles long and six broad, 
and has no less than eight harbours. 

Foula, a solitary islandfour leagues from Main- 
land, is only two leagues in circuit, but rises 00 
the west in perpendicular cliffs that conceal their 
heads in the clouds ; it has but one landing place 
on the east side. 

The trade of the Zetland Islands in 1809 em- 
ployed ten vessels of 768 tons, and fifty-three 
men and boys. The exports were : — 

jftOO 

4,000 

ISO 

1,000 



J ,075 tons of tusk and 

cod *e?20,000 

45 coalfisb 450 

300 barrels of herrings 405 
f00~^ — offish oil.. 2,250 



200 barrels of beef .. 
500 tons of kelp, .... 

3 of tallow.... 

29 of butter. . . . 

Knit stockings and 
glorea, 



5,000 
409 



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SCOTTISH ISLANDS* 635 

400cowhides <£200 {feathers .*., *£50 *£&*' 

100 doz. calve skins . . 60 150 horses 450 

150 rabbit skiDS. . 52 1 00 cattle 309 

12 otter skins .. 57 50 sheep 25 

seal skins 12 

Imports from Leith by two sloops, 

making each seven tripsa y ear. . £24,500 

By other vessels . 4,000 

Flour, barley, rice, and meal.... 11,000 

500 ton$ of salt, duty free 625 

200 tons of coals 600 

Wood and boats from Norway .... 1,800 
The unfavourable balance is compensated by 
the money left in the islands by the Greenland 
ships exceeding ^7,000, by the monthly remit- 
tances of seamen of part of their pay «£3,500 f and 
by other items exceeding *£4,000. 



OF THE 

MARITIME COMMERCE 

OF 

GREAT BRITAIN. 



Though, as we have already had occasion t# 
notice, it seems certain that the Phenicians, in 
prosecuting their maritime speculations, occasion- 
ally visited the coasts of Britain j yet, in .the state 

of 



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63(> MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

of barbarity in which the Britons were found by 
Cesar; their commercial relations could only have 
been such as are formed in the very first state of civi- 
lization, t at is where tillage and agriculture have 
began to supersede the hunter and shepherd state. 
In the south parts of the island the Britons had 
arrived at this first step, while in the other parts 
Ihey still lived by pasture, clothed themselves 
with the skins of beasts killed in the chase, and 
dwelt in temporary huts reared in the forests and 
marshes, with which the country was covered; 
thus they \\ ithout difficulty shifted their habita- 
* tions, as actuated by the convenience of pasture, 
by the hope of plunder, or the fear of an enemy, 
and as they were ignorant of all the refinements 
of life, their wants were few and their desires 
».c«oo. limited. Their commerce with the Fhenicians 
and Carthaginians was therefore confiped to the 
barter of tin, lead and skins, for brass trinkets 
BC#Soo# and other trifles. According to Diodorus, the 
Greeks, after the voyage of Pytheas, also visited 
the coasts of Britain for the purposes of com- 
ix. >5. merce, and Cesar found some commerce existing 
between the Britons of Kent and the opposite 
Gauls. 

Under the Roman domination, though the Bri- 
tons lost their savage independence, they rose in 
the scale of civilization, by the adoption of useful 
arts, and their commerce increased in proportion 
to the new wants that this improvement created; 
The articles exported from Britain to Rome were 
tin, lead, hides, lime, chalk, pearls, horses, oxen, 

dogs, 



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A.D.m. 



COMMERCE OF GREAT BMTAIK. 637 

dogs, and slaves, for- at this early period of our 
history, the merchants of Bristol dealt in human 
flesh, purchasing men and women in all parts of 
the island, and selling them abroad as slaves ; and 
it is even recorded that they first rendered the 
women pregnant to increase their value ! 

The departure of the Romans and the inroads 
of the Scots and Picts, threw the Britons back 
into the state of barbarity from which they had 
began to emerge, nor was the confusion attendant 
on a divided empire during the Saxon Heptarchy, 
much more calculated to elicit improvement ; no aj>. «* 
sooner however were the kingdoms united under 
one sovereign in the person of Egbert, than com- 
merce and manufactures revived in spite of the 
descents and ravages of the Danes, and under the 
Saxon monarchs London, Exeter and Bristol are 
recorded as considerable trading cities. 

Towards the end of the ninth century, when 
the Great Alfred had purged the country of its 
Danish invaders, a regular system of barter took 
place with the neighbouring nations, and Athel- 
stan, the grandson of Alfred, passed a law re- av.*u 
markable for the age, by which a merchant who 
had made three foreign voyages on his own account, 
was admitted to the rank of a thane or gentleman. 
Ethelred in 979 granted a free trade to a so- 
ciety of German merchants, established in Eng- 
land under the name of Emperor's Men, on con- 
dition of paying certain tolls, and presenting the 
king at Christmas and Easter with txvo pieces of 
grey cloth and one of brown, ten pounds qf 

pepper, 



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63$ MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

pepper, two vessels of vinegar, and Jive pair bf 
gloves. 

The Norman Conquest again produced a con- 
siderable unfavourable revolution in commerce, 
by the introduction of the feudal system, which 
paralized enterprize by destroying the liberty of 
the subject, at the same time that it rendered 
trade ignoble in the privileged clasi. Hence the 
chief tradfe of England was engrossed by the 
Jews, who began to settle in the country about 
the time of the Conquest, and who, though op- 
pressed in every possible way, amassed vast for- 
tunes by usury. In the year 1100, a number of 
Flemings, driven from their own country by an 
irruption of the sea, settled in England and intro- 
duced manufactures of wool. At the same period 
the people of Bristol traded to Ireland, but the prin- 
cipal seats of commerce were London and the 
pinque ports from their proximity to the continent.* 

The 

• The cinque ports were originally five havens, to which were granted 
certain privileges, on condition of defending the coast from invasion. The 
origin of tliese establishments may be traced to the Romans, who, thougfc 
they possessed a superiority of naval force, found it necessary to adopt mea- 
sures of defence against the Norman pirates, who assumed the titles of 
" Sea Kings of the North," and for this purpose nine stations on the coast 
opposite Gaul were fortified. The same necessity continuing long after the 
departure of the Romans, gave rise to the foundation of the cinque ports, 
which took place in the reign of Edward the Confessor or Wi/fiam I. To 
each of the chief ports were attached several subordinate memfort, in the 
following series :— 1. Hastings, with { Seaford, Pevensey, Hidney, Rye, 
Winchelsea, Beakesbourne, Bulverheath and Grange, as members: — 2. 
Sandwich, with Fordwick, Iteculver, Sarre, Walmer, Ramsgafe aarf 
Deal. — 3 Dover, with Faversham, St. Margaret, Woodchurch, GoreswMf, 
Kingdown, Birchington, Margate, Ringwold,) and Folks tone. —-4. Rox~ 
kby, with Lydd, RomehiU and Ringwold.— 5. Hythe, with Westmeaili. 
Rva aud Winchelsea were afterwards raised to the rank of cinque ports, 

witk 



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COMMERCE OF GREAT BRITAIN. GSJF 

The exports were horses, wool, woolleir cloths, 
leather, corn, lead, and tin. The imports were, 
linens, fine woollens, silks, for the royal family 
only, steel, iron, spices and other productions of 
India. 

In the reign of Edward I. the coal mines first AD "** 
began to be worked in England, and so rapid wag, 
the progress, that in 1379 a duty of sixpence per 
ton was levied on the ships employed in the coal 
trade, to be applied to their protection. At this 
same period the English traded to Italy, Spain, 
and Portugal, as well as to all the countries of the 
north, and in 1381 the principle of the Act of 
Navigation was introduced into the legislation of 
the kingdom, by a law declaring that " none of 
the king's subjects shall carry forth or bring in 
merchandize, but only in ships of the king's alle- 
giance." This law however seemed to have little 
effect in turning the king's sulyects to the profes- 
sion of commerce, and the trade continued to be* 
principally carried on in the ships of foreigners and 
by foreign merchants, residing in England and 
licensed by the kings under different denomina- 
tions. 

with Tenterden and Excove as members of the former. The principal con* . 
dition on which the cinque ports held their privileges, was the furnishing a 
certain number of ships and mariners, for military service.* 

The freemen or batons of the cinque ports have by law many honorary 
privileges at the coronation of our kings, which are still allowed thcui. 
The sinecure offices of Lord Warden, and of Constable of Dover Castle, are 
united inone person. There is also a sinecure admiral, whose jurisdiction 
extends from Shore Beacon Essex to Rcdcliff, near Seaford in Sussex. _ 

* See hireafter " Navy." 



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A.D.I&M. 



A.D. H8$* 



640 MARITIME GEOGRAPHY. 

tions. Such were the German merchants char-* 
tered by Henry III 1 (1259). The Steelyard 
Company, a branch of the Hanse Association, 
whose privileges were confirmed by Edward IV. 
&c. Indeed, as we haye already had occasion t6 
notice, the carrying trade of England was almost 
entirely engrossed by the Hanse Association until 
the reign of Edward VI. when the English mer- 
chants first began to complain of the monopolies 
granted to foreigners, and particularly to the 
Steelyard Company, which in one year exported 
50,000 pieces of cloth, while the English mer- 
chants exported only 1,100. Edward feeling the 
justice of these complaints revoked the privileges 
of this Company; and though foreigners again 
received favours from the bigotted Mary, at the 
instigation of her Spanish husband, they again fell 
into discredit under Elizabeth, from whose reign 
may be dated the origin of English commerce, 
in the just sense of the term. 

The reformation, which was only firmly establish- 
ied by the accession of this princess, was attended 
with the most happy consequences on the popula- 
tion and energies of the nation, for by it 150,000 
persons, who had been restrained from marriage, 
were, if we may use the expression, put into cir- 
culation, and 50,000 others who had been main- 
tained in idleness by the convents, were obliged 
to seek a livelihood by industry. 

In this reign were chartered the African, East- 
India, Russia, Eastland and Turkey Companies, 
and though such institutions are generally allowed 

to 



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COMMERCE OF GREAT IRITAIK. ($41 

to be injurious in an advanced state of commerce, 
they must also be admitted to be the best nurses of 
its infancy. 

The threatened invasion by the Spanish Armada, 
gave the first grand impulse to the marine of Eng- 
land by the purchase of ships from foreigners, and 
by the formation of national seamen ; and so rapid 
was the progress, that after the destruction of the 
Armada, a census being taken of the merchant 
vessels in England, it was found that Norfolk, 
Suffolk, Essex, Kent, and Sussex, possessed 471 
ships, or more than half the number in the whole 
kingdom thirty years before. The peaceable James 
I. gave great encouragement to trade and ship- 
building, and in his reign British colonization began *•"• ""• 
in America, and opened a new theatre of indus- 
try and enterprize. At this period 400 vessels 
were employed in the coal trade of Newcastle. 

The merchant vessels of England were however 
still of small burden, and it continued customary 
to hire large ones from foreigners for distant voy- 
ages or extensive transactions. At length in 1616, a.d. mm. 
an order from the king and council was issued on 
the petition of the merchants of London, prohibit* 
ing the export of British commodities in any but 
British bottoms ; and the effect was such, that the 
whole nation applied itself to the creation of a 
merchant marine, at the same time that the ship* 
being built of a larger size were capable of long 
voyages, and the British merchant flag was now 
first seen in the Mediterrannean. So great was the 
impulse, that from a ship of 100 tons, being a 

vol. iv. 2 t kind 



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0*6 VAftlTtlB CTOSKftJBY. 

kind of prodigy at the commencement of tbe reg# 
of James I.» a number of ships of three, four, 
and even 500 tons, were now launched from the 
British docks* In 1615 there were not tea vessels 
above 100 tons out of London ; and in 162S; 
Newcastle had 100 sail, each exceeding that ton- 
nage. 

Cortmerce continued to flourish during the 
first part of the reign of Charles L, when the trade 
to the west coast of Africa and East- Indies re* 
oeived a great extension, and the whole commerce 
#f Spain was in the hands of the English, who 
also sent a great quantity of woolen cloths to 
Turkey. 
jli). lesi. in the protectorate of Cromwell, the English 
began to dispute with the Dutch the dominion 
of the seas, and hence arose the famous Naviga- 
tion Act, by which it was prohibited to all foreign 
dhips to trade to the English colonies, without 
Hcense ; and at the same time fthe merchandize of 
Asia, Africa, and America was forbidden to be 
imported into England, except in British bottom* 
or merchandize from any part of Europe except 
m vessels belonging to the country 4if which the 
merchandize was the product or manufacturei 
An additional article added alter the iUstomtitiv 
obliging the master and tbre6*4bnrtfcsro£ the craws 
of vessels sailing under the English flag to fae 
English subjects, completed >this great monument 
erf maritime legislation. -i' 

Sueh 

• Ctartesl. pfiotfed a boualy of five shifiinf* pertonwi thtWMiar^ 
aft tfiijjs afcore 200 ton*. 



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COMNB&OR « OREAT AftlYAIN. &Ust 

Such wece the effects of the navigation act, ad- 
ded to the increasing population of the American 
colonies, and consequent increase of their trade, 
tfrat between the Restoration and Revolution, the 
English merchant marine was doubled. While A *- l <»* 
Qt the *ame epoch, the revocation of the edict of 
Nantz, which ruined the manufactures of France, 
caused a great and rapid improvement in those of 
England, by the influx of the persecuted protes- 
tants, who introduced or perfected the manu- 
factures of silk, cotton, linen, hats, jewellery, 
cutlery, and clock-work, and thereby freed 
England from an onerous dependence on France 
for these objects. 

The Revolution, by securing liberty, gave a new 
impulse to every kind of industry ; and the union 
of Scotland, by identifying the interests of the 
two kingdoms, proved equally advantageous to 
each, and to the empire in general. 

From this epoch, commerce has continued in 
a coa^tant progression, unchecked by frequent 
wars, or even by the separation of those colonies, 
which were thought to be the grand basis of the 
commercial fabric, until it reached a height that 
drew down on us the envy and animosity of all 
Europe ; and in great measure caused those wars 
which Jiave desolated Europe for the last twenty 
yeargj a*d to which the energies of Great Britain 
have at length happily put an end, while the 
contest undertaken to humble her, has only served 

2t2 to 



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6#4 MAEITTME GEOOEAEHY- 

to establish her proud preeminence amongst (he 
Bations of the earth. 



Previous to Buonaparte's system of continental 
blockade, the one-third of the whole trade of the 
Baltic was in the hands of the English,* who 
imported from Sweden iron, copper, pitch, tar, 
fir planks, and herrings ; and exported to it tin, 
lead, coals, beer, butter, cheese, manufactured 
goods and colonial produce. The balance is 
against England about .£250,000. The first 
commercial treaty with Sweden is in 1766, by 
which the English were placed on the footing of 
the most favoured nations, except with respect to 
the port of Wismar, where the French enjoyed cer- 
tain privileges. 

From Denmark and the Duchies the English im- 
ported little or nothing, but from Norway a great 
quantity of pine spars and planks, and some salt fish. 
The balance in favour of Great Britain £100,000. 
The commercial treaties with Denmark bear date 
1639 and 1654 : by the latter, England is to be 
favoured as much as Holland, with respect to 
customs, tolls of the Sound, Giuckstadt, &c. 

By the ports of Prussia, England introduced her 
manufactures and colonial produce into the inte- 
rior of Poland and a part of Germany, and re- 
ceived timber, hemp, flax, flax-seed, pitch, tar, 
potash, hides, and tallow. 

In 

* Sec vol. I. page 41 €. 



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COMMERCE OF GREAT BRITAIN. 646 

Inl800 to 1802 the value of imports was 5,823,405 
And the exports 4,198,696 



Balance against England ... * 1,624,709 

Great Britain imports from Russia hemp, flax, 
flax-seed, tallow, iron, fir planks and balks, Rus- 
sia duck and linen, isinglass, furs, horse-hair, 
hogs'-bristles, pitch, tar and rosin, potash, fea- 
thers, to the annual amount of three millions ; and 
gives in return colonial produce and manufactured 
goods, for half a million, the balance being paid in 
cash and bills. 

In recent years the English Russia trade em- 
ployed about 600 ships of 200 to 300 tons each, 
of which 400 were employed in the trade to Pe- 
tersburg. 

The first commercial treaty between England and 
Russia was on the discovery of Archangel in 1553, 
and by it the English reqeived considerable com- 
mercial privileges, which they gradually extended 
to a perfect monopoly. These privileges were, 
however, at different times curtailed, and in 1648 
the English were entirely banished the empire ; 
but soon ^fter were again permitted to trade, on 
the same footing as other nations. On the build- 
ing of Petersburg, most of the English merchants 
established at Archangel removed thither, and 
were granted considerable privileges. The num- 
ber of firms thus established was of late years 
twenty-eight to thirty, who formed a kind of 
2 T 3 association, 



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646 »A*n*M6 *£dfciiAJ*lt*. 

association, residing in a magnificent factory, 
though thefr speculations wer6 individual.* 

In 1797 a commercial trieaty with Russia waS 
concluded, by which British and Russian subjects 
are mutually placed on the same footing in the 
ports and dominions of either. 

The trade between Great Britain and Holland 
was, before the American war, very considerable, 
600 to 1,000 vessels entering the Dutch ports an* 
nually. The principal objects of the trade were 
exports of woollen for ,£450,000, coals 20,000 
chaldrons, 25,000 hogsheads of tobacco, twelve to 
i5,000 barrels of rice, %600 to 3,000 tons of lead, 
two to 3,000 barrels of pickled salmon, herrings, 
and sprats, 26,000 casks of butter, and 10,000 
barrels of beef from Ireland, besides from this 
latter country tallow, hogslard, salted hides, ox 
boras, &c, as well as manufactures and colonial 
produce. The imports were madder for ,£60,000, 
flax ,£15,000, flax-seed .£50,000, and spice to a 
great but unascertained amount. The last treaty 
with IJolland was in 1788, which contained only 
one article respecting commerce, by which the 
produce or manufactures of the United States, 
linen excepted, were permitted to be imported 
on the sanje terms as those of the most favoured 
nations. 

From France, England imports wines, brandies, 
corn, cambricks, lawns, silk stockings, lace, gold 
find silver embroidery, books, jewellery, arid toys^ 



though 



*+ f$ee commerce of1tu9ftia» ?©1, 1, page 411. 



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COMVFtCB OF GREAT BRITAIN. $47 

thpggfe the duties on some of these objects amount 
almost to a virtual prohibition. The exports to 
France ajre cotton and woollens, hardware, and 
earthenware. The balance baa always been in 
favour of England. A treaty, of commerce wa» 
first concluded with France in 1786; by which a 
perfect reciprocity of commercial privileges were 
granted to the subjects of either nation in the 
European dominions of the other, with many re- 
ductions and modifications of duties ; this treaty, 
Ifcwrever, which was to last for twelve years, died 
an unnatural death by the Revolution. 

From Spain, Greait Britain imports brandy, 
wines* oil, dried and wet fruits, wool, indigo, co- 
chineal and other dyes, colours, cork, gold fuad 
silver coin; and exports tin, lend, woo^leps, 
cottons, linens, salt fish, iron and brass work, ba* 
herdaahery, &c. The balance is in favour of 
Eng